LEARN, SPEAK, STUDY ENGLISH
   
  englishjessica
  infinitives
 
 
I * N * F * I * N * I * T * I * V * E
1. The infinitive is the base form of the verb.
           a )        as a subject                                        ***   To swim is a good sport .
           b )       as an object                                       ***   Children like to play with kittens .
           c )        as an adjective                                  ***   He has a house to sell .
           d )       as an adverb to express purpose     ***   I came here to see you .
 
2. An infinitive is a verb with or without "to" before it.
***  
She can get up early .                           (without "to ")
***   She wants to buy a new car.               (with "to " - full infinitive)
 
3. We use the full infinitive ( with "to" )
           a )        to express purpose
***   I went there to learn English.
***   She came here to tell me the bad news.
           b )       after certain verbs  ( want , decide , refuse , expect , advice , agree , appear , wish,... )
***   There is no need to hurry to finish the job. We have plenty of time.
***   She promised to buy this book for me.
           c )        after the adjectives  ( angry, glad, happy, surprised,  lucky, sad, shocked, upset, willing,... )
***   I am glad to see you again.
***   She is ready to go to school.
           d )       after the object (noun or pronoun) of certain verbs
( ask, advise, allow, beg, expect, force, hire, invite, need, order, permit, remind, tell, want, warn,... )
***   My friend asked me to go out for five minutes.
***   I advised Bill to be here on time.
           e )        after    “too”   and   enough”
***   The tea is too hot to drink.
***   He is old enough to drive the car.
           f )        after question words ( where, how, who, what, which,... )                       
                       (NOTE :    Why is not used with “to” )
***   Do you know how to speak English ?
***   Can you remember what to buy ?
***   I didn 't decide where to go for next Sunday .
 
 
 
 
4. We use the bare infinitive (without "to")
           a )        after the modal verbs     ( can, could, will, shall, should, may, might, must,... )
***   He can play tennis.
           b )       after the verbs in the active voice ( see, hear, notice, watch, listen to, ...)
                       NOTE : These verbs are followed by a full infinitive in the Passive Voice )
***   The teacher saw him move. He was seen to move.
***   She heard him sing. He was heard to sing.
           c )        after let
***   The teacher let Ali go out .
 
5. The verbs “like , love , prefer , begin , continue” can take a full infinitive or an -ing form.
***   I like watching cowboy films                         (or)                  ***   I like to watch cowboy films.
***   She began learning English                (or)                  ***  She began to learn English.
 
6. The verbs “remember , forget , stop , try , regret” can take an -ing form or a full infinitive but the meaning is different.
***   I stopped swimming.               ( I didn 't swim anymore )
***   I stopped to look.                    ( I stopped what I was doing and started looking )
 
7. After the verbs see, hear, feel, smell, listen to, notice, find, watch, are used with an -ing form when            we witness part of an action which is taking place.
***   When I came in, I saw her washing the dishes.                                 ( part of the action )
***   She saw Melih climb up the tree and then come down again.          ( the whole action )
 
8. After “the first   /   the last   /   the only one )
***   Ali was the first to leave the house .
***   He was the only one to answer all the questions correctly .
 
9. Continuous infinitive   :   (to) be + V- ing
***   He seems to be sleeping .                                ( I think he is sleeping. )
***   He is supposed to be staying at a hotel.         ( I suppose he is staying at a hotel. )
 
10. Perfect infinitive   :      (to) have + past participle 
***   It is a great pleasure to have met you again after such a long time
***   I am sorry not to have come to your wedding.
***   I am extremely happy to have won a scholarship to study abroad.  
***   They expect to have bought a house by the sea within two years.
 
The verbs followed by a   to-infinitive
afford (-ed)               (usually with can't) I can't afford to buy it.
agree (-d)                   I agree to help him.
attempt (•ed)             I attempted to answer, but I wasn't allowed.
bear (bore, born)     I can't bear to see you smoking.
begin (began, begun) When will you begin to work?
claim (-ed)                 He claimed to have got a scholarship.
consent (-ed)                         Do you consent to follow the terms of the contract?
continue (-d)                         They continued to work.
contract (-ed)             The Turkish government will contract a firm to build a nuclear reactor.
contrive (-d)              Whatever he wants, he can contrive to do.
dare
(-d)                    He didn't dare to tell a lie again.
decide (-d)                 He can't decide to do anything by himself.
decline (-d)                The Foreign Minister declined to comment on foreign affairs.
demand (-ed)            I demand to see the manager.
deserve (-d)               You deserved to have the prize.
desire (-d)                  Everybody desires to be happy.
determine (-d)           I am determined to take a course.
endeavour (-ed)        Mr Irwin will endeavour to find Noah's ark.
expect (-ed)               She expected to pass the exam.
fail (-ed)                    He failed to cross the river.
forget (forgot, forgotten)    Don't forget to write your address.
hasten (-ed)               I hasten to let him know.
hate (-d)                    He hates to be interrupted.
hesitate (-d)               Don't hesitate to tell the truth.
hope (,-d)                  I hope to solve it today.
intend (-ed)               I intend to do it at once.
learn (learnt)            He has learnt to read.
like
(-d)                      She likes to dress up.
long (-ed)
                  I long to see you.
love ("d)                    Parents love to see their children.
manage (-d)              He managed to cure the king.
mean (meant)           We mean to learn English.
need (-ed)                  Everybody needs to earn money.
offer (-ed)                 He offered to be my partner.
plan (-ned)                We planned to visit him next week.
prefer (-red)             I prefer to work rather than sit in the coffee house.
pretend (-ed)             He may pretend to be ill.
promise (-d)              He promised to pay his debt in time.
propose (-d)              I don't propose to speak about this matter to anyone.
refuse (-d)                 He refused to help.
remember
(-ed)        I remembered to meet her.
seek (sought)             They will seek to find Noah's ark.
seem (-ed)                  He seems to have a problem.
start (-ed)                  It has started to work.
swear (swore, swum) He swore not to smoke again.
tend (-ed)                  Germans tend to be very hard-workers.
try (tried)                   Try to finish it today.
undertake (undertook, undertaken)            I can undertake to organise it.
venture (-d)               The fireman ventured to enter the burning building.
want (ed)                   I want to study harder.
wish (-ed)                  Do you wish to live alone?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The verbs followed by   object +   to - infinitive
advise(-ed)                I advise you to eat less.
allow (-ed)                 Please allow me to do it.
appoint (-ed)                         They appointed Tim to organise the meeting.
ask (-ed)                   He asked me to open the door.
authorise (-d)            I'll authorise you to do it.
assist (-ed)                 A walking stick assists a man to walk.
beg (-ged)                  He begged me to help him.
beseech (besought) I beseech you to help me
cause (-d)                 You caused him to have an accident.
challenge (-d)           The policeman challenged him to say who he was.
charge (-d)                The policeman charged the criminal not to forget his warning.
command (-ed)        The officer commanded the soldiers to fire.
compel (-led)            Please don't compel me to fight.
condemn (-ed)          The judge may condemn you to serve 5 years in jail.
dare (-d)                   You dared us to jump out of the window.
defy (defied)                         I defy you to disobey me.
desire (-d)                  We all desire our children to be happy and healthy.
direct (-ed)               The officer directed his army to advance.
empower (-ed)          Laws empower the police to fire when it is necessary.
enable (-d)                Our laws enable us to study as much as we want.
encourage (-d)          My parents encouraged me to study.
entitle (-d)                 Her age doesn't entitle her to marry.
expect (-ed)                           I expected him to retire.
forbid (forbade, forbidden)           Nobody can forbid you to study.
force (-d)                   Nobody forces you to tell a lie.
get (got, gotten)       Get the students to repeat after you.
help (-ed)                   Please help me (to) do these exercises.
impel (-led)               He impelled the worker to finish the work that day.
implore (-d)               He implored the policeman not to fine him.
incite (-d)                   You mustn't incite them to disobey the laws.
induce (-d)                Who induced you to go against the rules?
intend (-ed)                           I intend you to solve it today.
invite (-d)                  She invited me to dance.
lead (led)                  You can't lead me to believe she is a bad girl.
like (-d)                      I would like him to be respectful.
mean (meant)           I mean you to do what I say.
need (-ed)                 I need you to help me.
oblige (-d)                 The law obliges the citizens to pay tax.
order (-ed)                The policeman ordered the people to keep away from the burning house.
permit (-ted)             Please permit me to go out.
persuade (-d)           I persuaded him to send his child to school.
prefer (-red)                         I would prefer you to put your money in a bank.
press (-ed)                 The salesman pressed the customer to pay his debt immediately.'
provoke (-d)              Hitting children may provoke them to leave home.
remind (-ed)              Remind him to take his medicine '-it five.
require (-d)              He required me to take off my hat.
sentence (-d)             The judge may sentence him to pay a fine.
summon (-ed)           The police summoned him to surrender.
teach (taught)           Can you teach me (how) to swim?
tell (told)                   He told us to be careful.
tempt (-ed)               The cold weather tempted us to buy coal.
train (-ed)                 Who trains a horse to jump over fences?
trouble (-d)              May I trouble you to turn down the radio? (Please turn down the radio.)
trust (-ed)                  We can't trust him to pay his debt on time.
Urge (-d)                   A jockey urges a horse to run fast.
Want (-ed)               I want you to wake me up at six.
warn (-ed)                The teacher warned Ayse not to be late again.
wish (-ed)                  I wish your dream to come true.
 
 
  Bugün 51116 ziyaretçi (115587 klik) kişi burdaydı!  
 
=> Sen de ücretsiz bir internet sitesi kurmak ister misin? O zaman burayı tıkla! <=
EFFECTIVE WAY OF LEARNING ENGLISH