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  modals
 
*** M *** o *** d *** a *** l *** s ***  
will
 
must
 
can
 
can't
 
may
 
certainty - request
future - intention
prediction
willingness
logical necessity
refusal - offer
promise-insistence
habit - order
disposition
 
certainty
necessity
assumption
logical deduction
logical conclusion
self-compulsion
 
 
 
 
ability
availability
permission
request
be allowed to
possibility
know how to
suggestion
 
 
certainty
prohibition
impossibility
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
certainty
possibility
assumption
benediction
malediction
permission
request
future
 
 
 
might
 
would
 
should
 
shall
 
to be allowed to
 
certainty
necessity
possibility
assumption
request
indirect speech for
may
 
 
 
 
 
request
past custom
indirect speech
for will
refusal
unreal present
 
 
 
 
 
 
certainty
necessity
advisability
expectation
in conditional
clauses
obligation
indirect speech
for shall
logical conclusion
putative use
 
suggestion
future
insistence
religious text
an offer to help
intention
willingness
legal text
 
 
 
 
prohibition
permission
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
must not
 
used to
 
have to
 
have got to
 
had better
 
prohibition
 
 
 
 
past custom
 
 
 
 
certainty
necessity
lack of necessity
assumption
 
certainty
necessity
assumption
 
 
necessity
advisability
 
 
 
 
had rather
would rather
 
could
 
couldn't
 
be to
 
be supposed to
 
preference
 
 
 
 
certainty
necessity
assumption
permission
 
prohibition
lack of necessity
 
 
 
necessity
expectation
 
 
 
necessity
expectation
 
 
 
 
be able to
 
ought to
 
ability
availability
 
 
 
 
certainty
necessity
advisability
obligation
expectation
 
WILL / SHALL
British English’de shall , I ve we ile kullanılır . Bu durumda “will” ile aynı anlamdadır .
 

***   Shall I close the door ?                                                ( suggestion and offer )
***   You shall finish it by noon .                                         ( a strong order )
***   He shall be ready at the court at nine on Friday .        ( obligation )
 

***   I won’t allow you to do it .                                          ( refusal )
***   I will punish you if you are late again .                        ( threat )
***   I will support you during the election .                        ( promise )
***   The enemy will attack tonight .                                   ( possibility )
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CAN / BE ABLE TO
Hemen hemen aynı anlamdadırlar ama bazı durumlarda değişiklikler gösterebilirler :
 
1.        Her ikisi de şu anda geçerli olan (present) fiziksel yada ruhsal yeterlilik ve beceri anlatır ancak
“can” daha yaygındır .
***   Naim Süleymanoğlu can lift about 120 kilos .
***   Naim Süleymanoğlu is able to lift about 120 kilos .
2.        Sadece “can” giving and asking for permission için kullanılır .
***   Can I come with you ?                                                 ( asking for permission )
*** You can use my PC .                                                    ( giving permission )
3.        Sadece “can” offer to do something for someone için kullanılır .
***   Can I help you do your homework ?
4.        see, feel, hear gibi perceptive fiillerde “can” kullanılır. “Be able to” kullanılmaz .
***   I can hear somebody knocking at the door .
5.        “be able to” future ve present perfect tense’lerde kullanılabilir .
***   Ayşe and Zeki have been able to solve their family problems .
***   My father will be able to change his car next year .
6.        “can” bir şeyin nasıl yapılacağını biilmek anlamında kullanılır .
***   Can you make a cake ?
7.        “be able to” passive voice’da kullanılmaz .
***   The influation is able to be solved by the government . ( XX yanlış XX )
***   The influation can be solved by the government .
8.        “be able to” bazı modal’larla kullanılabilir ama “can” kullanılamaz .
                                                may (not)
                                                might (not)
                                                must
You                                         ought (not) to                                   be able to play football
                                                should (not)            
                                                will (not)
                                                used to
 
9.        Bir şeyin mantıksal olarak kesinlikle doğru olmadığını anlatırken “can” kullanırız .   
***   I have drunk only a cup of tea . My bill can’t be 5 dollars . It must be wrong .
10.      Sorularda genelde “can” kullanılır .
***   Can a dog swim ?
11.      can have + past participle
***   The witness can’t have told a lie . Because he is a honest man .
         ( It was impossible for the witness to tell a lie because he is an honest man ) 
 
COULD / COULDN’T
***   I could swim very well when I was eight years old .             ( past abilities )
***   You could leave the office whenever you want .                   ( permission )
***   El Nino could reach here by the weekend .                             ( possibility )
***   The weather is very nice. We could go for a picnic .               ( suggestion )
***   How could you tell such a lie about me ?                                ( annoyance / anger )
***   Could you post these letters for me ?                                      ( request )
***   He asked me if I could help him with his homework .            ( past of “can” in indirect speech )
 
Could & Was/were able to
1.        Her ikisi de geçmişe dair genel yetenekler anlatır .
***   Nancy was able to play the piano when she was 9 .
***   Nancy could play the piano when she was 9 .
 
2.        Olumsuz yapıda her ikisini de kullanabiliriz .
***   I was ill yesterday, so I couldn’t finish the work .
***   I was ill yesterday, so I wasn’t able to finish the work .
 
3.        Özel durumlar için (o ana mahsus yetiler) “was able to” kullanılır .
***   Emin Çölaşan was able to make an appointment with the president for Friday .
 
could have + past participle
***   The wounded man could have been saved .                                                   ( unfinished possibility )
***   You couldn’t have seen him because he has been abroad for months .          ( past possibility )
***   I could have come to your party .                                                                   ( past unreal codition )
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
MAY
***   Mum, may I go out to play ?                            ( permission )
***   We may move to another city next year .        ( possibility )
 
may have + past participle
***   You may have forgotten your purse at home . ( past possibility or a little present possibility )
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
MIGHT
***   Galatasaray might be European Champion next year , but I’m not sure .      ( possibility )
***   He asked me if he might turn on the radio .                                                   ( past of “may” )
***   Whenever you have a problem, you might tell it to your father .                   ( suggestion )
 
might have + past participle
***   He didn’t come to my birthday party yesterday. He might have fogotten it .
            ( maybe he forgot it )
***   You might have hit the child .
            ( but fortunately you didn’t )
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
MUST / MUSTN’T
***    A driver mustn’t drive faster than 90 km/h .              ( obligation )
***   Everybody must do something for a living .               ( necessity )
***   Look at his Porche . He must be very rich .                 ( possibility / supposition )
***   You mustn’t light a fire in a forest .                            ( prohibition )
***   You must stop smoking to get rid of coughing .         ( strong advice )
 
must have + past participle
***   There is no answer at the door. They must have gone out .    ( past possibility / deduction –çıkarım )
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
HAVE TO     /     DON’T HAVE TO     /     DIDN’T HAVE TO
***   The bell is ringing for the class. We have to go in .                                        ( external obligation )
***   Ahmet is healthy and 20 years old.
He has to join the army to do his military service .                                                 ( external obligation )
***   I had to do my military service at once .                                                         ( external obligation )            
 
don’t  have to / haven’t  got to
***   There is enough bread. We don’t have to buy any more .       ( no necessity or obligation )
***   There is enough bread. We haven’t got to buy any more .      ( no necessity or obligation )
 
didn’t have to
***   She didn’t have to go shopping because there was enough fod at home . ( absence of necesity in past )
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
NOTE :          You mustn’t eat that sandwich .                   ( It is poisonous )
                        You don’t have to eat that sandwich .          ( You can eat a toat if you like )
 
 
 
 
SHOULD / SOULDN’T
***  Ali is too fat . He should go on a diet .            ( personal advice )
***   He shouldn’t eat a lot of fast food .                ( personal advice )
 
should have + past participle
***   You should have done your homework by yourself .
                        ( unfinished event / an expectation / obligation in the past )
***   They should have called fire station immediately, then the house wouldn’t have completely .
                        ( past chance in a condition )
***   You shouldn’t have scared the child .
                        ( undesired past action )
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
OUGHT TO     /     OUGHT NOT TO
“should” ile çok yakın anlamlıdır. Ancak “should”dan daha vurguludur .
 
***   If you have a health problem, you ought to go to doctor .      ( advice / suggestion / obligation )
 
ought to have + past participle
***   You ought to have paid your tax on time .                  ( past obligation which wasn’t fulfilled )
***   You oughtn’t to have been late for work .                  ( diaproval about something done )
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
NOTE :          ***   You ought to hand in the composition today , oughtn’t   you ?        ( British      English )
                        ***   You ought to hand in the composition today , shouldn’t you ?       ( American English )
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
HAD BETTER
***   You had better take some notes during the lesson .                ( advice )
***   You had better not smoke here .                                             ( warning )
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
WOULD LIKE
***   I would like a drink .                            ( wishes / wants – more polite than “I want …..” )
***   She would like to have a rest .             ( wishes / wants – more polite than “I want …..” )
 
1.        “Would you like ……..” , “ do you want………” dan daha kibardır .
***   Would you like some orange juice ?
***   Would you like to come to my party ?
***   Would you like me to carry your suicases ?
 
2.        “Would you like some orange juice ?”   olumlu cevap vermek için :
olumlu    cevap vermek için :             - Yes, I’d love to . / Yes, thanks .
olumsuz cevap vermek için :              - No, I don’t want to / No, thanks . ( “No, I wouldn’t like to” olamaz )
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
WOULD RATHER   /   WOULD PREFER
1.         “would rather” , “prefer” yada “would prefer” anlamı taşır .
***    I would rather live in İzmir .
 
2.         Olumsuz yapıda “would rather not” kullanılır .
***   It’s very cold. I would rather not go outside .
 
3.         Tercihi kıyas yapılırken “would rather… than….” kullanılır .
***   Children would rather eat hamburger than eat fish .
***   My mother would rather have bird than a dog .
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
WOULD
***   Would you like some more lemonade ?                                   ( a polite offer )
***   Would you be quiet, please ?                                                   ( a polite request )
***   I would like white coffee .                                                      ( preference )
***   She would be famous with her first movie .                            ( an imagined event )
***   I would play with toys when I was a child .                           ( past habit )
***   I wish you would be my mother .                                            ( unreal wish )
***   I would imagine you will achieve it.                                      ( opinions )
***   He said he would go to İstanbul the following week .           ( past of “will” )
 
 
would have + past participle
He would have arrived by now if he had travelled in his car.          ( expectation / possibility – in the past )
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
USED TO    /     DIDN’T USE TO

 

past habits
 
***   We used to fly kites when we were children .

 

***   I didn’t use to get up early when I was a child .
***   Did you use to play “saklambaç” when you were a child ?
***   There used to be a palace in the place of this shopping center .
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
NOTE:           ***   I used to make noise when I was a student .
                        ***   I got used to noise .
                        ***   I got used to staying in my apartment .
                        ***   I am used to noise .
                        ***   I am used to living in small apartments .
 
 
 
DARE    /    DAREN’T
***   Dare you go out alone in a big city at night ?
***   My sister daren’t go into the dark room alone .
 
NOTE:   Modern İngilizce’de “dare” bir modal değil, fiil gibi kullanılır .
                ***   I have never dared to do a parachute jump .
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
NEED / NEEDN’T
***   Need he go there with us ?                   ( Is it necessary for him to go there with us ? )
***   No, he needn’t .                                    ( No, he doesn’t have to go there with us . )
***   Yes, he must .                                      
 
*** There is enough bread, we needn’t buy any .
*** There is enough bread, we don’t need to buy any .
 
Needn’t have + past participle
***   You needn’t have called a taxi, but you did .             ( an action which was done unnecessarily )
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

PRESENT or FUTURE
 
Request
Can I ask you a question? (informal)
Could I ask you a question? (polite)
May I ask you a question? (formal)
Might I ask you a question? (very formal)
Will you help me^ (very friendly)
Would you mind helping me? (polite)
 
Advice
 You should stop smoking.
You ought to stop smoking.
You had better stop smoking.
You had better not smoke.
You shouldn't smoke
 
Habits
He will speak slowly.
He gets up early.
 
Preference
I would rather go by train.
I would rather you went by train.
 
Possibility
She may be innocent.
Slie might be innocent.
She can be innocent.
She could be innocent.
He will be innocent.
 
Probability
They will be here by now.
They should be liere by now.
They ought to be here by now.
 
Deduction / Expectation
He must be sleeping.
He should get there by noon.
He ought to get there by noon.
He will get there by noon.
 
 
 
 
PAST
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
You should have stopped smoking.
You ought to have stopped smoking
It would have been better if you had stopped smoking.
You had better not smoke.
You shouldn't smoke.
 
 
He used to speak slowly.
He used to get up early when he was a student.
He would get up early when he was a student.
 
 I would rather have gone by train.
I would rather have died than surrender to the enemy.
I would rather you had gone by train.
 
She may have been innocent.
She might have been innocent.
She could have been innocent.
 
 
 
 
They should have been here by now.
They ought to have been here by now.
 
 
 
He must have been sleeping.
He should have got there by noon.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Determination and willingness
 
I will do my best to learn English.
I would like to do my best to learn English.
I will never drive my car over the speed limit, (strong determination)
I won't / shall not drive my car over the speed limit, (strong determination)
You shall stay at home.
Will you go to the cinema tonight?
 
Ability
 I can do it by myself.
I am able to do it by myself.
 
Orders
You are to do it again.
You shall do it again.
You mustn't do it again.
You must do it as you have been told.
Do it again, will you?
 
Obligation / Necessity
I must do it immediately.
I have to do it immediately.
I have got to do it immediately.
I don't have to do it immediately.
I need do it immediately.
I needn't do it immediately.
I ought to do it.
I oughtn't to do it today.
 
Arrangement
She will be getting married today.
She is going to get married today.
She is to get married today.
Will you be studying medicine?
 
Promise
I will help you.
 
Refusal
I won't help you.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
I could do it by myself.
I was able to do it by myself.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
I had to do it immediately.
I had to do it immediately.
I had to do it immediately
I didn't have to do it then.
I needn't have done it immediately.
I ought to have done it immediately.
I had to do it immediately.
 
 
 
She would be getting married today.
She was going to get married today.
She was to get married today.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Offers / Invitation
Shall I open the door?
Would you like me to open the door?
Will you have a seat?
Won't you have a seat?
Can I help you, madam / sir?
 
Suggestions
Shall we go for a picnic?
We can go for a picnic.
We could go for a picnic.
 
Prohibition
They can't park their car there
They mustn't park their car there.
They may not park their car there, (formal)
 
Criticism
You could invite me by telephone. 
You should invite me by telephone. 
 You ought to invite me by telephone.  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
They couldn't park their car there.
 
 
 
 
You could have invited me by telephone.
You should have invited me by telephone.
You ought to have invited me by telephone.
 
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