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  passive voice
 
THE PASSIVE VOICE
1.         We use passive when it is not necessary to mention the person who does the action.
 
2.         We use passive when the action is more important than the person who does it.
***   The furniture has been bought (by Mr. Brown).
 
We use passive when the subject of the action is not known.
***   The house has been burnt.
 
3.         A person who does the action in a passive sentence is called the agent, introduced by "by"
***   The house was cleaned by the housewife.
 
4.         We can use Subject or Object Personal Pronoun as subjects or agents of the passive sentence.
***   Bill gave Mary the letter. (The two objects are Mary and the letter.
***   Mary was given the letter by Bill.
***   The letter was given to Mary by Bill.
 
5.         Some verbs such as ask, tell, give, send, show, teach, pay, offer, can have two objects.
***   She told me a story.
                                        Obj.          Obj.
***   I was told a story by her.
***   A story was told me by her.
 
6.         When the agent is unknown, unimportant or obvious, it is omitted. Agents such as people
(in general), they, somebody, etc. are omitted.
***   The police arrested her.
***   She was arrested (by the police). (obvious agent is omitted)
 
***   Somebody stole my bag.
***   My bag was stolen (By somebody}. ( unknown)
 
7.         Only transitive verbs (verbs which take an object) can be used in the passive voice.
 
8.         The object of the active verb becomes the subject of the passive
***   She learns English every day.               ***   English is learnt by her ever - ...
                                             Obj.                                                          subj .
 
PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE
 

            am
Sub.     is               being          Past Participle (V3) ……...
            are
 

***   She is cleaning the house.
***   The house is being cleaned by her.
 
PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE
 

                was
Sub.                       being          Past Participle (V3) ……...
               were
 

***   He was playing football in the garden.
***   Football was being played by him in the garden.
 
SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE
 

            am
Sub.     is                       Past Participle (V3) ……...
            are
 

***   They make cars at this factory.
***   Cars are made at this factory.
 
SIMPLE PAST TENSE
 

                was
Sub.                                  Past Participle (V3) ……...
               were
 

***   His father bought him a new car last week.
***   A new car was bought for him by his father last week.
 
 
 
GOINGTO FUTURE TENSE
 

            am
 S        is         going to       be                     Past Participle (V3) ....
            Are
 

***   Students are going to prepare the assignment.
***   Assignment is going to be prepared by the students.
 
SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE
 

S        will      be         Past Participle (V3)............
 

***   The students will watch a good film on TV.
***   A good film will be watched on TV by the students.
 
PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
 

         have      
S                          been                     Past Participle (V3) .............
        has
 

***   The computer company has installed my computer.
***   My computer has been installed by the computer company.
 
PAST PERFECT TENSE
 

S        had         been               Past Participle (V3) ..............  
 

***   She had learnt English.
***   English had been learnt by her.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
MODALS
 

                        can (could)
                        may (might)
S                     must                                                    be                             Past Participle (V)
                        should
                        have to / has to
                        ought to
 
 
***   The teacher can solve the problem.
***   The problem can be solved by the teacher.
 
 
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