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  conditional sentences
 
CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
( IF CLAUSES )
Bir conditional sentence’de iki clause (cümlecik) vardır :
 
          Subordinate Clause
                Main Clause                         
         İf you study a lot
        You will get high marks
 
If clauses 4 grupta incelenebilir
1 . Zero Type   :If a man eats a lot, he gets fat .                   (general truth or fact)
2. Type One   : If you go to the party, you can see her .       (real conditions / present or future meaning)
3. Type Two   : If I were you, I wouldn’t drive so fast .      (unreal conditions / present or future meaning)    
4. Type Three : If she had studied a lot, she could pass .     (unreal conditions / past meaning)
 
 
ZERO TYPE
Genel bir doğru yada gerçeklik ifade eder . Cümlenin her iki clause’ı da Simple Present Tense’dir .
If you heat water    it boils .
    S.Pres.T.            S.Pres.T.
If you commit a crime, you are punished .
If we freze water, it becomes ice .
If you cut your finger, it bleeds .
 
 
TYPE ONE
İçinde bulunduğumuz anda; mevcut, gerçek, tahmin edilebilen durumları anlatmak için kullanılır .
If my father gives me Money, I’ll buy that camera . ( Perhaps he’ll give me the money )
 
    Subordinate  Clause                             Main Clause                                 
if +    Simple Present Tense      S + will      + V 1 + O    If you see Ali, he will tell you something                                                                               S + can       + V 1 + O    If Ali earns enough money, he can buy a car .
                                                    S + may      + V 1+ O     If I have a new car, I may let you drive it .
     S + must     + V 1 + O     If Ayşe gets worse, she must see a doctor .
     S + have to + V 1 + O     If you lose your ID card, you have to get a new one
     S + should + V 1 + O     If you have a headache, you should get an asprin.
 if +    Present Perfect Tense     V 1 + O    (imperative)      If you see the red light, stop (don’t walk) . 
TYPE TWO
İçinde bulunduğumuz anda; mevcut, gerçek olmayan ancak gelecekte değişebilecek durumları anlatmak için kullanılır .
If she had a better dress, she wouldn’t wear that dress . ( She will wear that dress because she doesn’t have a better one . )
 
Subordinate  Clause                             Main Clause                                    
if +    Simple Past Tense     ,      S + would      + V 1 + O     If I had a lot of money, I would buy a new house .                                                      S + could       + V 1+ O                  If Jim weren’t so busy, he could help us . 
                                                    S + might      + V 1+ O       If it wasn’t rainy, we might go to the picnic .  
     S + had to      + V 1+ O      If she didn’t have a car, she had to walk to work .
 
TYPE THREE
Bir olay geçmişte gerçekleşmediği için ona bağlı bir olay da yapılmamıştır.
If I had worn my raincoat, I wouldn’t have caught a cold . ( I didn’t wear my raincoat and caught a cold )
 
Subordinate  Clause                             Main Clause                                    
if +    Past Perfect Tense     ,      S + would have     + V 3 + O
If you hadn’t gone to bed so late, you wouldn’t have overslept .
                                                    S + could have      + V 3 + O           
                                   If she had given importance to Money, she could have been much more richer .
                                                    S + might have      + V 3 + O    
                                   If we had asked her, she might have helped us with our homework .     
     S + should have    + V 3 + O     
                                    If she hadn’t passed her class, she should have attended to the summer school .
 
UNLESS
“If not” anlamına gelir. Yapı olarak olumlu cümlelerde kullanılır ama olumsuz bir anlam taşır. Tüm Type’larda kullanılır.
 
0 – Unless you commit a crime, you aren’t punished .                         ( If you don’t commit a crime, …………..)
1 – Unless  you buy a ticket, you can’t get on the bus .                       (If you don’t buy a ticket, ………………..)
2 – Unless I had a computer, I couldn’t surf on Internet .                   ( If I didn’t have a computer, ………….…)
3 – Unless she had seen the doctor, she would have been cancer.     ( If she hadn’t seen the doctor, ……….….)
 
 

Test on condıtıonals
 
1 If you had told me about your problem, I .............................. to help you.
 
a. would try                        c. could have tried
b. could have try               d. had tried
 
2 If he .............................. on like this, he will get into serious trouble.
 
a. keeps                  c. has been keeping
b. is keeping          d. has kept
 
3   What .............................. you .............................. if she'd said 'yes'?
 
a. would / do            c. wouldn't / have done
b. wouldn't / do        d. would / have done
 
4    Unless he gets a job, she .............................. him.
 
a. won't leave          c. leaves
b. would leave         d. will leave
 
5   If you heat ice, it .............................. .
 
a. is going to melt      c. will melts
b. melts                     d. melt
 
6 If I .............................. when you were coming, I would have met you at the station.
 
a. knew                  c. had known
b. could know        d. know
 
7   If you had the opportunity, .............................. you .............................. it again?
 
a. would / do          c. would / have done
b. will / do              d. wouldn't / have done
 
8 If the police .............................. the kidnapper in time, he might have killed the
hostage.
 
a. had caught          c. hadn't caught
b. catch                  d. would catch
 
9 What will you do if you .............................. the university entrance exam?
 
a. aren't passing        c. will pass
b. don't pass              d. passed
 
10 Unless something .............................. to improve the drainage system in Izmir, we will
have floods after every heavy rainfall.
 
a. is done               c. is doing
b. does                   d. will be done

 
 
 
 
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