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CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
( IF CLAUSES )
Bir conditional sentence’de iki clause (cümlecik) vardır :
 
          Subordinate Clause
                Main Clause                         
         İf you study a lot
        You will get high marks
 
If clauses 4 grupta incelenebilir
1 . Zero Type   :If a man eats a lot, he gets fat .                   (general truth or fact)
2. Type One   : If you go to the party, you can see her .       (real conditions / present or future meaning)
3. Type Two   : If I were you, I wouldn’t drive so fast .      (unreal conditions / present or future meaning)    
4. Type Three : If she had studied a lot, she could pass .     (unreal conditions / past meaning)
 
 
ZERO TYPE
Genel bir doğru yada gerçeklik ifade eder . Cümlenin her iki clause’ı da Simple Present Tense’dir .
If you heat water    it boils .
    S.Pres.T.            S.Pres.T.
If you commit a crime, you are punished .
If we freze water, it becomes ice .
If you cut your finger, it bleeds .
 
 
TYPE ONE
İçinde bulunduğumuz anda; mevcut, gerçek, tahmin edilebilen durumları anlatmak için kullanılır .
If my father gives me Money, I’ll buy that camera . ( Perhaps he’ll give me the money )
 
    Subordinate  Clause                             Main Clause                                 
if +    Simple Present Tense      S + will      + V 1 + O    If you see Ali, he will tell you something                                                                               S + can       + V 1 + O    If Ali earns enough money, he can buy a car .
                                                    S + may      + V 1+ O     If I have a new car, I may let you drive it .
     S + must     + V 1 + O     If Ayşe gets worse, she must see a doctor .
     S + have to + V 1 + O     If you lose your ID card, you have to get a new one
     S + should + V 1 + O     If you have a headache, you should get an asprin.
 if +    Present Perfect Tense     V 1 + O    (imperative)      If you see the red light, stop (don’t walk) . 
TYPE TWO
İçinde bulunduğumuz anda; mevcut, gerçek olmayan ancak gelecekte değişebilecek durumları anlatmak için kullanılır .
If she had a better dress, she wouldn’t wear that dress . ( She will wear that dress because she doesn’t have a better one . )
 
Subordinate  Clause                             Main Clause                                    
if +    Simple Past Tense     ,      S + would      + V 1 + O     If I had a lot of money, I would buy a new house .                                                      S + could       + V 1+ O                  If Jim weren’t so busy, he could help us . 
                                                    S + might      + V 1+ O       If it wasn’t rainy, we might go to the picnic .  
     S + had to      + V 1+ O      If she didn’t have a car, she had to walk to work .
 
TYPE THREE
Bir olay geçmişte gerçekleşmediği için ona bağlı bir olay da yapılmamıştır.
If I had worn my raincoat, I wouldn’t have caught a cold . ( I didn’t wear my raincoat and caught a cold )
 
Subordinate  Clause                             Main Clause                                    
if +    Past Perfect Tense     ,      S + would have     + V 3 + O
If you hadn’t gone to bed so late, you wouldn’t have overslept .
                                                    S + could have      + V 3 + O           
                                   If she had given importance to Money, she could have been much more richer .
                                                    S + might have      + V 3 + O    
                                   If we had asked her, she might have helped us with our homework .     
     S + should have    + V 3 + O     
                                    If she hadn’t passed her class, she should have attended to the summer school .
 
UNLESS
“If not” anlamına gelir. Yapı olarak olumlu cümlelerde kullanılır ama olumsuz bir anlam taşır. Tüm Type’larda kullanılır.
 
0 – Unless you commit a crime, you aren’t punished .                         ( If you don’t commit a crime, …………..)
1 – Unless  you buy a ticket, you can’t get on the bus .                       (If you don’t buy a ticket, ………………..)
2 – Unless I had a computer, I couldn’t surf on Internet .                   ( If I didn’t have a computer, ………….…)
3 – Unless she had seen the doctor, she would have been cancer.     ( If she hadn’t seen the doctor, ……….….)
 
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