G * E * R * U * N * D
1. We use gerund (the infinitive of the verb + ing) as a noun :
(It can be the subject or the object of a verb)
*** Smoking can cause lung disease . (subject)
*** Jogging keeps you fit. (subject)
*** Did you finish doing your homework ? (object)
*** The children enjoy having a party at home. (object)
2. We use a gerund after verbs which express preferences :
(love, hate, dislike, like, enjoy, adore, prefer,...)
*** She hates doing her homework at home.
*** I prefer learning English.
3. We use a gerund after verbs which express beginning or end :
(continue, start, stop, begin, finish,...)
*** I stopped watching TV at 10 o 'clock.
*** They start learning English at 8 o 'clock every morning.
4. We use a gerund after certain verbs :
(mind, spend, avoid, forgive, remember, practise, risk, keep, admit , deny, regret,...)
*** He practises driving a bus every day.
*** I don't mind helping my mother with the housework.
*** I can't remember saying the name of the city.
5. We use a gerund after certain expressions :
(feel like , look forward to , object to , can't stand , can't help , be/get used to , be/get accustomed to , It's no use , It's (not) worth . What's the use of , I'm busy . There's no point (in), What about... ? , How about... ? , What is the point of... ? )
*** It's not worth seeing this play.
*** I'm looking forward to getting a good mark.
*** She can't stand listening to loud music.
*** What about ringing him up now ?
*** How about leaving everything here ?
6. We use a gerund after prepositions :
*** I am good at learning Italian.
*** She is bad at swimming in the sea.
*** She left home after cleaning her bedroom.
*** I asked my teacher about learning English easily.
7. We use a gerund after “go” for physical activities :
(go camping, go hunting, go fishing, go swimming, go dancing,...)
*** We went skiing last weekend.
*** She decided to go fishing last week.
*** He went camping without saying a word.
7. We use a gerund after “hear, see, feel” to emphasise an action in progress:
*** I saw my teacher walking in the garden .
The verbs followed by a gerund
admit (-ted) She admitted telling a lie.
advise (-d) I advise being respectful.
anticipate (-d) They didn't anticipate having a lot of complaints about the new prices.
avoid (-ed) You should avoid crossing the road when the light is red.
bear (bore,borne) I can't bear working in the sun.
begin (began,begtin)He has begun working.
can't stand I can't stand walking for hours at a time.
can't help She can't help laughing.
cease (-d) They ceased firing.
consider (-ed) You should consider finding a new job.
continue (-d) He continued working till night.
defer (-red) He deferred paying his debt till next month.
delay (-ed) You should delay selling the car.
deny (-ied) He denied hitting his wife.
detest (-ed) I detest being scolded.
dislike (-d) A religious woman dislikes dressing up smartly.
endure (-d) I can't endure suffering.
enjoy (-ed) We enjoy reading adventure stories.
escape (-d) She escaped being punished.
evade (-d) No one can evade paying tax.
facilitate (-d) Modern vehicles facilitate travelling very much.
fear (-ed) I fear going near a dog.
finish (-ed) They finished building the bridge.
hate (-d) I hate smoking.
imagine (-d) I sometimes imagine going to the moon.
like (-d) She likes dancing.
love (-d) She loves having gold.
mind (-ed) Do you mind helping us?
miss (-ed) He missed being the champion.
need (-ed) Your shirt needs ironing.
neglect (-ed) The government mustn't neglect modernising the railways.
omit (-ted) She omitted telling me that she was to blame.
practise (-d) We must practise using the new words.
prefer (-red) I prefer living in Izmir to Istanbul.
propose (-ed) He proposed raising the workers' wages.
recommend (-ed) Do you recommend taking a course?
regret (-ted) He regretted scolding the child.
The verbs whose meaning change when followed by a
“to – infinitive” or a “gerund”
( dread, deserve, forget, go on, mean, need, regret, remember, stop and try. )
Forget / remember + - ing : the past things we did.
*** I forgot telephoning you. ( I forgot that I telephoned you )
*** I remember posting the letter. ( I remember that I posted the letter )
Forget / remember + to-infinitive : whether we have to / had to do an action or not
*** I forgot to telephone you. (Unfortunately I didn't phone you )
*** Remember to post the letter today . (Don't forget to post the letter today )
Regret + - ing :the past : to things we are sorry we did.
*** I regret having ever met him. ( I wish I had never met him )
Regret + to-infinitive : to announce bad news.
*** I regret to tell you this but I've lost your book. ( I'm sorry! I don't want to tell you but..... )
Stop + -ing : to give up
*** Linda stopped smoking. ( Linda, gave up smoking. )
Stop + to-infinitive : to stop to do sth
*** Please stop to think before answering the question. ( Don't hurry to answer the question )
go on + -ing : continue an action
*** Please go on working. ( Please continue to work )
go on + to-infinitive : do something after completing something else.
*** The teacher stopped the lesson and went on to explain how we should do our homework.
Verbs whose to -infinitive and gerund forms have the same meaning
(begin , bother , can't bear , cease , commence , continue , hate , intend , like , love, prefer, start, etc.)
*** Please begin to do your homework.
*** Please begin doing your homework.
*** I continued to do my homework after dinner.
*** Will you continue doing your homework after dinner?
*** I hate telling lies.
*** I hate to watch boxing matches.
*** I like students taking notes during the lesson.
*** I'd like you to be punctual.
*** Children love playing with cats.
*** Children love to play with cats.
*** Some people prefer to live in the country, but I prefer living in a city.