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  gerund
 
G   *   E   *   R   *    U   *    N   *   D
 
1.         We use gerund (the infinitive of the verb + ing) as a noun :
            (It can be the subject or the object of a verb)
***   Smoking can cause lung disease .                    (subject)
***   Jogging keeps you fit.                                     (subject)
***   Did you finish doing your homework ?           (object)
***   The children enjoy having a party at home.     (object)
 
2.         We use a gerund  after verbs which express preferences :
            (love, hate, dislike, like, enjoy, adore, prefer,...)
***   She hates doing her homework at home.
***   I prefer learning English.
 
3.         We use a gerund after verbs which express beginning or end :
            (continue, start, stop, begin, finish,...)
***   I stopped watching TV at 10 o 'clock.
***   They start learning English at 8 o 'clock every morning.
 
4.         We use a gerund after certain verbs :
            (mind, spend, avoid, forgive, remember, practise, risk, keep, admit , deny, regret,...)
***   He practises driving a bus every day.
***   I don't mind helping my mother with the housework.
***   I can't remember saying the name of the city.
 
5.         We use a gerund after certain expressions :
            (feel like , look forward to , object to , can't stand , can't help , be/get used to , be/get     accustomed to , It's no use , It's (not) worth . What's the use of , I'm busy . There's no point (in),        What about... ? , How about... ? , What is the point of... ? )
***   It's not worth seeing this play.
***   I'm looking forward to getting a good mark.
***   She can't stand listening to loud music.
***   What about ringing him up now ?
***   How about leaving everything here ?
 
 
 
 
6.         We use a gerund  after prepositions :
***   I am good at learning Italian.
***   She is bad at swimming in the sea.
***   She left home after cleaning her bedroom.
***   I asked my teacher about learning English easily.
 
7.         We use a gerund after “go” for physical activities :
            (go camping, go hunting, go fishing, go swimming, go dancing,...)
***   We went skiing last weekend.
***   She decided to go fishing last week.
***   He went camping without saying a word.
 
7.         We use a gerund after “hear, see, feel” to emphasise an action in progress:
***   I saw my teacher walking in the garden .
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The verbs followed by a gerund
 
admit (-ted)               She admitted telling a lie.
advise (-d)                  I advise being respectful.
anticipate (-d)            They didn't anticipate having a lot of complaints about the new prices.
avoid (-ed)                 You should avoid crossing the road when the light is red.
bear (bore,borne)     I can't bear working in the sun.
begin (began,begtin)He has begun working.
can't stand                 I can't stand walking for hours at a time.
can't help                  She can't help laughing.
cease (-d)                    They ceased firing.
consider (-ed)           You should consider finding a new job.
continue (-d)              He continued working till night.
defer (-red)               He deferred paying his debt till next month.
delay (-ed)                  You should delay selling the car.
deny (-ied)                 He denied hitting his wife.
detest (-ed)                 I detest being scolded.
dislike (-d)                  A religious woman dislikes dressing up smartly.
endure (-d)                I can't endure suffering.
enjoy (-ed)                We enjoy reading adventure stories.
escape (-d)                She escaped being punished.
evade (-d)                  No one can evade paying tax.
facilitate (-d)             Modern vehicles facilitate travelling very much.
fear (-ed)                    I fear going near a dog.
finish (-ed)                 They finished building the bridge.
hate (-d)                    I hate smoking.
imagine (-d)               I sometimes imagine going to the moon.
like (-d)                      She likes dancing.
love (-d)                      She loves having gold.
mind (-ed)                  Do you mind helping us?
miss (-ed)                  He missed being the champion.
need (-ed)                  Your shirt needs ironing.
neglect (-ed)               The government mustn't neglect modernising the railways.
omit (-ted)                  She omitted telling me that she was to blame.
practise (-d)               We must practise using the new words.
prefer (-red)              I prefer living in Izmir to Istanbul.
propose (-ed)                         He proposed raising the workers' wages.
 recommend (-ed)      Do you recommend taking a course?
regret (-ted)              He regretted scolding the child.
The verbs whose meaning change when followed by a
“to – infinitive” or a “gerund”
( dread, deserve, forget, go on, mean, need, regret, remember, stop and try. )
 
Forget / remember + - ing  : the past things we did.
***   I forgot telephoning you.                                             ( I forgot that I telephoned you )
***   I remember posting the letter.                                      ( I remember that I posted the letter )
 
Forget / remember  + to-infinitive  : whether we have to / had to do an action or not
***   I forgot to telephone you.                                            (Unfortunately I didn't phone you )
***   Remember to post the letter today .                             (Don't forget to post the letter today )
 
Regret + - ing   :the past    :     to things we are sorry we did.
***   I regret having ever met him.                                       ( I wish I had never met him )
 
Regret + to-infinitive    :      to announce bad news.
***   I regret to tell you this but I've lost your book.           ( I'm sorry!  I don't want to tell you but..... )
 
Stop + -ing   :    to give up
***   Linda stopped smoking.                                              ( Linda, gave up smoking. )
 
Stop + to-infinitive   :   to stop to do sth
***   Please stop to think before answering the question.    ( Don't hurry to answer the question )
 
go on + -ing    :      continue an action
***   Please go on working.                                                  ( Please continue to work )
 
go on + to-infinitive  :    do something after completing something else.
***   The teacher stopped the lesson and went on to explain how we should do our homework.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Verbs whose to -infinitive and gerund forms have the same meaning
(begin , bother , can't bear , cease , commence , continue , hate , intend , like , love, prefer, start, etc.)
 
***   Please begin to do your homework.
***   Please begin doing your homework.
***   I continued to do my homework after dinner.
***   Will you continue doing your homework after dinner?
***   I hate telling lies.
***   I hate to watch boxing matches.
***   I like students taking notes during the lesson.
***   I'd like you to be punctual.
***   Children love playing with cats.
***   Children love to play with cats.
***   Some people prefer to live in the country, but I prefer living in a city.
 
 
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