LEARN, SPEAK, STUDY ENGLISH
   
  englishjessica
  paragraph studies
 
There have been over 10,000 reported sightings of Scotland's Loch Ness Monster, yet it is widely believed to be nothing but a popular legend. Loch Ness is the largest freshwater mass in the British Isles. Although it averages less than a mile in width, for more than half of its 24-mile length, j its depth ranges from 400 to more than 900 feet. Like other lakes that breed monster legends, it is connected to the sea, allowing migratory fish to provide a dependable food supply for meat-eating lake dwellers. Many factors contribute to the Loch Ness mystery. Its shores are thickly wooded and, except in summer, sparsely inhabited; winter snows frequently bury the surrounding area and light and visibility are often poor.
 
1-       From the information given in the passage, we learn that Loch Ness ............... .
 
A) is not wide but is very long
B) is filled with salty sea water
C) is almost equal in depth in most parts
D) is entirely surrounded by land
E) is located in Northern England
 
2-       It is stated in the passage that ............... .
 
A) in fact, a great many monsters breed in the waters of Loch
      Ness
B)   people are taking the monster tales more seriously
nowadays
C) more than 10,000 people have taken photos of the monster
D) few people really believe in the existence of the Loch Ness
      monster
E) it is impossible to solve the mystery of the Loch Ness
     monster
 
3-       It is clear from the description of Loch Ness in the passage that …………. .
 
A)   although it is frequently cold, it hardly ever snows in the
region
B)   there are hardly any trees growing in the vicinity of Loch
Ness
C) it is often difficult to see things around the lake clearly because of the weather
D) the area surrounding Loch Ness is densely populated due
to the magnificent scenery
E)  in winter, it generally only snows lightly in the
surrounding area
 
 
 
Mandarin is spoken by more people than any other language in the world. One of the world's oldest tongues, it did not become China's official language until 1644, with the Manchu overthrow of the Ming dynasty. The new rulers, a non-Chinese race, spoke many dialects among themselves, so they selected Peking Mandarin to be the unifying political language. Although not intended to be the speech of the people as a whole, it spread, and after the start of the Chinese Republic in 1912, it was chosen as the national language. Mandarin is written with thousands of distinctive characters, which bear no relationship to the sound of a word. Traditionally written from top to bottom, right to left, the language is now more commonly written as English is written.
 
4-       We understand from the passage that Mandarin ................ .
 
A) was originally a non-Chinese language
B) existed in China before Manchu rule
C) has a large variety of different dialects
D) is an old language developed by the Manchu
E) first came into existence in about 1644
5-       From the passage it's clear that, when the Manchu came to power, they...................
 
A) adopted the language of the Ming dynasty
B) forced the Chinese to speak Mandarin
C) spread disunity among the Chinese
D) imposed their own language on China
E) lacked a common dialect themselves
 
6-       The author tells us that .................. .
 
A)   the way of writing Mandarin has changed over the years
B)   Mandarin is spoken by the officials, but not by ordinary
people
C)   the Manchu were one of the Chinese tribes
D) Chinese people were opposed to using Mandarin as the
national tongue
E)   Mandarin has roughly the same alphabet as English
 
 
The English Civil War was fought between Royalists, who supported Charles I, and Parliament. Hostilities started in 1642, and the first major engagement was at Edgehill. Royalist plans to capture London nearly succeeded until Oliver Cromwell, in alliance with the Scots, won an important Parliamentary victory at Marston Moor, then an even more decisive one at Naseby. The next year, Charles I fled to Scotland, but was handed over to Parliament. After efforts to come to terms with the king, Cromwell had him tried and executed. The result of the Civil War was that the absolute power of the monarchy was destroyed. The monarchy was subsequently restored, but since then it has been Parliament that increasingly controls the nation's affairs.
 
7-       The author seems to suggest that .............. .
 
A) England has never really been a true monarchy
B) the monarchy can't possibly be completely destroyed
C) Cromwell won the war with the help of the Scots
D) the Royalists actually had been victorious in London
E) the Sec -s supported the ruling king, Charles I
 
8-       It can be inferred from the passage that the Royalists ................ .
 
A) secretly supported Oliver Cromwell
B) had a decisive victory in the battle at Marston Moor
C) had no major problems with the Parliament
D) were in favour of the ruling monarchy
E) caught and executed Charles I in Scotland
 
9-       The ultimate consequence of the English Civil War was ............... .
 
A) an all-powerful Parliament that really excluded the
     monarchy
B) a great increase in the power of Scotland over England
C) the complete destruction of the ancient English monarchy
D) the unification of Scotland and England into Great
Britain
E) a less powerful monarch and a more powerful Parliament
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The extent and duration of fashion cycles have been influenced by changes in technology. When articles of clothing had to be handmade, fashions often lasted for decades. The mass-production of dresses in the same design, however, has greatly reduced the amount of time it takes for a design to reach a large number of people. The mass media television, motion pictures, magazines and newspapers are also important in spreading fashions throughout the world. Thus, designs can go in and out of fashion much more quickly. In recent years, it has become almost
impossible to single out one style as the prevailing fashion. A woman might own an ankle-length skirt, a knee-length skirt, and jeans and be fashionable
wear in gany one of them.

10-    The rapid changes in fashion cycles have made it possible ………… .
 
A) for everybody to be fashionable all the time
B) for many styles to be fashionable at the same time
C) to make fashions that are capable of lasting for decades
D) for women to wear jeans and dresses together
E) to determine more quickly what is in fashion
 
11-    The great influence in the change of the length of fashion cycles comes from............... .
 
A) the quality of clothes and women's preferences for them
B) the mass-production of clothing and the mass media
C) the design of clothes and the great number of women
     owning them
D) the large number of people and the length of dresses
E) ankle-length skirts and mass-produced blue jeans
 
12-    Fashion cycles are different today than they were in the past, in that................. .
 
A) long dresses are no longer stylish
B) they affect people for longer periods
C) people don't care about them as much
D) nothing is ever fashionable any more
E) they change much more frequently
 
 
All plants and animals depend on oxygen to grow and live. This gas is taken in during the process known as breathing or external respiration. Simple organisms are able to absorb oxygen through the surface of their bodies, but most larger animals require a special area, which in mammals, for example, is situated in the lungs. Fish are equipped with gills, where oxygen is extracted from the water taken in and passed into the bloodstream. Some other animals which live in or near water, such as frogs, have moist skin through which the gas is able to permeate. Whichever way it is absorbed, the use made of oxygen taken in is known as internal of chemical respiration.
 
13-    It is understood from the passage that............... .
A) without oxygen, there would be neither plants nor animals
B) oxygen is more important to animals than it is to plants
C) if deprived of oxygen, plants can live, but they won't grow
D) gas is necessary for oxygen to be absorbed by animals
E)   there is very little difference between plants and animals
 
14-    It is implied in the passage that ............... .
A) it is more efficient to extract oxygen from water than air
B)   fish send the oxygen they take in through their skin into their bloodstream
C) a fish's gills serve a function similar to a mammal's lungs
D) simple animals are better at breathing than complex ones
E)   some types of fish both have lungs and gills
 
 
15-    Internal and external respiration differ in that.............. .
 
A) animals like frogs use external respiration, while more complex animals use internal
B) external respiration refers to getting oxygen, while internal respiration refers to using it
C) internal respiration only occurs in certain animals that live either in or near water
D) simple organisms are able to absorb oxygen directly through
the outside of their bodies
E)   only external respiration involves the use of complex
chemicals to be effective
 
It is traditional to portray dinosaur skin as grey, the reason being that big animals today, such as rhinos, hippos and elephants, are so coloured. But all of these mammals are colour-blind. Bright hues do not evolve among colour-Blind species. Bright colours do evolve in animals that can see colours and that evolve rapidly; among such animals, many different species live together, and each species needs a unique way to advertise for mates. Birds are the best example. In each tropical habitat today, dozens of closely related tropical bird species must attract desirable mates from the appropriate gene pool. Brilliant patterns on the male birds are the rule. Did dinosaurs see colours? The closest living dinosaur relatives are birds and crocodilians, both of which can distinguish colours. Dinosaurs almost certainly were very birdlike in being visually oriented, colour-sighted animals.
 
16-    Though nobody knows what colours dinosaurs were, ............... .
 
A)   people have long thought that they must have been
multi-coloured
B) we are certain that they were colour-blind like the big animals today
C) scientists assume that all the bright colours appeared
grey to them
D)      they have been traditionally thought to be grey, like today's large animals
E)   they are commonly believed to be very colourful, like
tropical birds of today
 
17-    An important reason some animals have bright colours and brilliant patterns is that ............... .
 
A) it is required for membership in particular gene pools
B) colourful animals are more likely to adapt to their
natural habitats
C) it allows them to attract mates of the same species
D) rules in the tropics require males to be very colourful
E) it makes males more desirable to the females of other
             species
 
18-    Dinosaurs, the author believes, .............. .
 
A) lived and acted much like today's birds and crocodiles
B)   could see different colours, and so, were probably
brightly coloured
C) lived in tropical climates and in large family groups
D) were incredibly intelligent and had a complex social
structure
E) consisted of many different species with distinct
differences between them
 
 
 
 
 
 
There has been remarkable improvement in the health and well-being of most of China's people since the civil war. Life expectancy at birth has more than doubled in a little over four decades, rising from an estimated 35 years in 1949 to more than 71 years in 1992. In the same period, the annual death rate declined from 23 per 1,000 people to about six per 1,000. Two major factors help to account for this progress. First, there has been a steady general improvement in the diet of the average citizen, resulting from larger and more reliable crop production. The old problem of famine has largely disappeared, though poor harvests may still result in serious malnutrition. The second factor is the great improvement in the nature and quality of health care.
 
19-    We learn from the passage that, since the civil war in the late 1940s, the Chinese .............. .
 
A) have relied on technology in their agricultural activities
B) have worked hard to improve annual crop yield
C) have seen their population almost double
D) have had longer life expectancy and a lower death rate
E) have been respected more as average citizens
 
20-    The great increase in the average life span in China ............. .
 
A)   has occurred as a result of the more peaceful life the Chinese are now leading
B)   results from the fact that there have been no poor
harvests
C) could possibly lead to another civil war if a great famine
results
D) is due mainly to more and better food and better medical
services
E) comes from the average citizen's increasing knowledge of
Agriculture
 
21-    The statistics in the passage tell us that............... .
A)   the number of people who die in China annually is six
B)   China no longer loses any of its population through famine or malnutrition
C) there haven't been any cases of famine in China since the
1940s
D) before 1949, there were hardly any Chinese people who
lived into their forties
E)   the Chinese of the 1990s live twice as long as their
ancestors before the civil war
 
A German family of musicians and composers, the Bachs achieved the height of their fame in the 17th and 18th centuries. Seven Bach generations achieved greater or lesser prominence in music from 1580 to about 1800. Of the group, Johann Sebastian Bach has been acclaimed as one of the giants of musical history. Although he was famous as a master of the organ and other instruments during his lifetime, Johann Sebastian Bach's music was neglected after his death until the early 1800s. His works brought to a climax the baroque period, during which many new forms and styles were developed. Bach wrote literally thousands of compositions, many for use in churches or in instruction.
 
22-    We understand from the passage that............... .
 
A)   though J. S. Bach is the most famous, many of his family wrote music
B)   the Bach family were very religious, writing music mostly for the church
C) each generation of the Bach family wrote better music than the previous one
D) the musicians of the Bach family were famous during
their lifetimes
E)   the Bachs' music appealed to the styles popular during
their lifetimes
23-    As mentioned in the passage, Johann Sebastian Bach ............... .
 
A)   started the baroque period with his works written for the
church
B)   could play more musical instruments than any of the other musicians of his time
C) wrote music which appealed to seven generations of classical music lovers
D) is considered to be one of the most significant composers
in the history of music
E) began to be recognised as a musical genius towards the
end of the 17th century
 
24-    We learn from the passage that during the baroque period, ………… .
 
A) the Bach family reached the highest point of their fame
B) the Bachs did not produce much other than music for the
church
C) new musical forms and styles were introduced
D) most of the musicians preferred to write religious music
E) only the Bachs wrote quality music both religious and
classic
 
Early civilisations in Asia achieved high levels of development within the traditional agricultural economies on which they depended. There were brilliant achievements in art, architecture, language and literature, as well as early science and technology. Many of the devices that Europeans later came to depend on originated in Asia, such as gunpowder, paper, the wheel and the compass. While European civilisation was slow developing during the Middle Ages, Asia's great civilisations flowered in unmatched brilliance and prosperity. When Marco Polo travelled to China in the 13th century, he marvelled at the magnificence of China's great civilisation, already 3,000 years old. Less famous Europeans were to echo him later.
 
25-    It may be understood from the passage that early civilisations in Asia.............. .
 
A) imported technology from the Western world
B) wrote the only books in the world at the time
C) were based on the raising of plants and animals
D) produced technology comparable to today's
E) had bigger and stronger armies than European civilisation
 
26-    From the information given in the passage, we understand that ……………. .
 
A) European civilisation was highly advanced in the Middle
Ages
B) Asian civilisations made great contributions to European
society
C) Chinese civilisation was the most advanced of all the Asian civilisations
D) Marco Polo introduced paper to Europe when he returned
from Asia
E)   Marco Polo brought gunpowder to the Chinese in the
1200s
 
27-    When Marco Polo visited China in the 1200s, he ............... .
 
A) was amazed to discover such an advanced society
B)   brought with him devices that were completely unknown to the Chinese
C) was repeating a trip made by a European 3000 years ago
D) wanted to discover how its civilisation managed to survive
three millennia
E)       was very surprised at how similar it was to Europe
In general, owls have very keen hearing, eyesight that is extremely sensitive to any movement in dim light, eyes situated in the front of the head, soft feathers that allow for "silent" flight, which is an aid in hunting, facial discs, and heads that can rotate 270°, that is three quarters of a circle. Owls eat small birds, rodents, and, rarely, dead animals, called carrion. They bolt their food down, ejecting the indigestible parts in the form of pellets. There seems to be no regularity in their breeding seasons. They typically lay two to seven eggs in hollow trees, in other birds' nests, or in human structures. As is true with most of the Falconiformes, the female owls are usually larger than the males.
 
28-    Of the following statements about owls, the one not mentioned in the passage is that............. .
 
A) they are capable of sensing anything moving in half-dark
B) their eyes are not on the sides of their heads
C) they cannot survive away from human settlements
D) they lay their eggs in groups of two to seven
E) the males tend to be smaller than their mates
 
29-    In general, owls lay their eggs ............... .
 
A) two to seven times annually
B) at no particular time of the year
C) in nests built by the females
D) in places with very little light
E) in soft and comfortable nests
 
30-    This passage is mainly about.............. .
 
A) the dietary and hunting habits of owls and similar birds
B) a class of birds known to scientists as Falconiformes
C) the development of the owl pellet as a form of food for owis
D) the mating habits of owls and how they build their nests E) the special features of owls' bodies and some of their
     habits
 
 
 
In the United States, the development of science fiction as a literary type was left mostly to pulp magazines so called because of the cheap quality of their paper. There were many such magazines, but one editor made significant contributions in promoting science fiction: Hugo Gernsback. Gernsback founded Amazing Stories magazine in 1926, devoted to what he called scientifiction. The stories were at the time not viewed as serious literature, but as sensationalism. One of the popular authors published by Gernsback was Edgar Rice Burroughs, who, in addition to his Tarzan stories, wrote numerous science-fiction pieces. By 1939 he was publishing stories by such newcomers as Isaac Asimov and Robert Heinlein, and with their appearance, the move to science fiction as a serious genre of literature began.
 
31-    It is obvious from the passage that science fiction ............... .
 
A) has been a major literary genre since the late 1920s
B) was first published in expensive weekly newspapers
C) was initially seen as a comic literary form, not a serious one
D) was popular from the start, although not highly regarded
E) was only published in Amazing Stories magazine at first
 
32-    We are told that Hugo Gernsback ................ .
 
A) was a close friend of Edgar Rice Burroughs
B) contributed stories to various magazines
C) only published science fiction stories in his magazine
D) edited the only science fiction magazine
E) wrote sensational science fiction stories
 
33-    Isaac Asimov and Robert Heinlein .............. .
A) were well-known before Gernsback published their work
B) started writing science fiction stories after 1939
C) used their looks to promote science fiction as a genre
D) initiated their own science fiction magazine
E) helped to enhance the reputation of science fiction
 
 
The average consumer would probably define marketing as a combination of advertising and selling. There was a time when marketing was an incidental concern for businesses. The main emphasis was on production. Goods were produced and made available for customers to buy, with a minimum concern for what customers might want. What was on the market at any one time was determined by production managers. Most successful businesses now are dominated by an orientation toward marketing, not toward production. This means that firms begin by anticipating what consumers want. They then plan their products accordingly. It is estimated that at least half of the cost a consumer pays for a product is accounted for by marketing expenditures.
 
34-    The author points out that in the past, marketing ............. .
A) was the most important factor for a business
B) was a mixture of promotion and advertising
C) was the concern of only the big businesses
D) focused mainly on the consumer, not on the goods
E) put a lot of emphasis on the product itself
 
35-    We can understand from the passage that in modern times ………… .
A) most goods are sold in supermarkets rather than in small
shops
B) businesses are not very worried about customers' needs
C)   production managers usually decide what a firm will
produce
D) there has been a major shift in the way businesses operate E) the quality of products on sale is not as high as it was
      before
 
36-    We can deduce from the passage that............... .
A)   companies make consumers buy things they don't
actually want
B) in order to succeed, a firm needs to understand what the public wants
C) advertising persuades consumers to make useless
purchases
D) increasing marketing expenses mean that firms make
Sower profits
E) more than 50% of companies' income is spent on
advertising
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
When hypnosis first claimed the attention of scientists, it was called animal magnetism or mesmerism, after Franz Mesmer of Vienna. In the late 18th century, Mesmer claimed to use it to heal certain nervous ailments. For many years, mesmerism was denounced by medical practitioners and generally associated with stage performances, fraud and superstition. In the 19th century, before the discovery of anesthetics, physicians began to use mesmerism in surgery. They found that a deeply hypnotized patient would lie perfectly still and appear unaffected by pain. Around 1840, a doctor named James Braid coined the term hypnosis, which means a "nervous sleep." The new name was more acceptable than mesmerism, with its implications of fraud, and it soon supplanted the older term.
 
37-    The author informs us that Franz Mesmer ............... .
A)   was criticised by other medical practitioners because he
used animals in his experiments
B)   cheated people by claiming that he would cure their
ailments
C) used to perform his method on the stage regularly
D) said he could cure some conditions through the method now
called hypnosis
E) was a famous 18th-century scientist, who made great
contributions to medicine
 
38-    The passage implies that mesmerism ............... .
A) was widely employed by the medical profession in the late
1700s
B) led to the discovery of anesthetics by the medical world
C) was only used on animals until around the 19th century
D) was illegal until the 19th century, when it became respectable
E) was initially thought by most doctors to have no medical w
value
39-    Dr James Braid ............. .
 
A) renamed mesmerism, giving it its current name
B) was the first doctor to use hypnosis on himself
C) changed the process of hypnosis, making it more useful
D) reinvented hypnosis in a form which was medically
acceptable
E) bought the rights to the art of hypnosis for medical use
 
 
The worst condition of Antarctic flying is called the "white out." Pilots have said it is like "flying in a bowl of milk." Atmospheric conditions make the snow and sky appear to blend together. There is no horizon, which leaves them without any visible check point above or below the airplane. Despite these handicaps, aviation is vital to polar exploration. Airplane flights, however, cannot be used for getting many kinds of information. Plant and animal life cannot be studied from the air. An air observer cannot make detailed examinations of mineral deposits, and he cannot obtain records of weather conditions in stormy times when airplanes cannot be flown. For all such studies, men must still work on the ground.
 
40-    One may assume from the passage that one of the most dangerous features of a 'white out' is that.............. .
 
A) the pilots cannot see their base, and therefore, lose their
     way
B) the pilot cannot use the horizon in order to check his
     position
C) the atmosphere in the plane is bad, causing mental
     confusion
D) the snow blinds the pilots temporarily, so they lose
      control
E) the pilot cannot see above or below the plane during the
      flight
 
41-    It is clear from the passage that Antarctic flying .............. .
A) is not very useful, for a number of reasons
B) is essential, but does not replace all ground staff
C) can be useful for all purposes, except in a 'white out'
D) is much too dangerous to be of any real use
E) proves most useful to exploration during 'white outs'
 
42-    The men working on the ground in the Antarctic ............ .
A) only work when the planes cannot fly
B) are much more useful than the aviators
C) concentrate particularly on plant and animal life
D) gather data which can't be obtained from the air
E) have a more difficult task than the pilots
 
Tourists whose plane careered off a runway after brake failure are suing their holiday company over post-traumatic stress in, what they claim is, the first case of its kind. More than 20 passengers on the Manchester-to-Ibiza flight have so far signed up with a lawyer to claim damages from First Choice holidays. They allege that their experience has left them psychologically scarred, with many passengers suffering from flashbacks, nightmares and difficulty in sleeping and concentrating. But the company says it offered adequate counselling and support for those involved both at the time and after their return to the United Kirigdom. Their airbus jet apparently overshot the runway on landing due to brake failure, leaving some passengers with minor injuries.
 
43-    The tourists .............. .
A) think that the travel company has been very unkind to
them
B) are becoming stressed because of their legal situation
C) were involved in an accident that took place at Ibiza Airport
D) are suing the company because they had a terrible
      holiday
E) have suffered a lot because of the badly-organised
    holiday
44-    The incident............... .
 
A) happened because the plane had difficulty stopping
B) was a minor accident at Manchester Airport
C) was not a major one because only twenty passengers were
     injured
D) has not yet been proved to have occurred
E) occurred when the airplane couldn't stop and hit a service
      bus
 
45-    The travel company ................ .
A) has hired a lawyer to obtain the passengers' signatures
B) has already paid compensation to the passengers
C) claims that the passengers didn't need help after this
incident
D) left some of the injured passengers in Spain after the
accident
E) feels that it did enough to help passengers after the
incident
 
 
Temporarily losing your voice is common enough, especially in winter, when throats suffer from coughs and colds and dry, heated atmospheres. Teachers, lecturers, lawyers and other professionals whose work involves talking are especially vulnerable to vocal strain, while dropping the vocal pitch to be softer, hardening it to give authority or raising it to be heard can all cause damage. Emotional stress, smoking and drinking alcohol and throat infections are all possible causes of vocal loss, while some drugs, such as anti-histamines, can alter voice quality. For those whose voice is their tool, the best advice when acute throat illness strikes is to stay off work, drink plenty of water, suck glycerin sweets and take steam inhalations at least twice a day.
 
46-    The writer claims that............. .
A) almost all people lose their voices during winter
B) coughs and colds are caused by dry, heated atmospheres
C) it is not unusual for people to lose their voices for a time
D) people only lose their voices during the winter months
E) only people with certain jobs are likely to lose their voices
 
47-    The author warns that your voice may be harmed if................ .
A) you work in any professional occupation
B) your voice is naturally rather soft and deep
C) you work for an authoritarian boss
D) your personality is particularly hard
E) you have to struggle to be audible
 
48-    The passage states that while you are taking certain drugs like anti-histamlnes, .............. .
 
A) you must take care not to strain your throat too much
B) you may find the sound of your voice changes a bit
C) you should drink lots of water and suck glycerin sweets
D) it is important not to smoke or to drink alcohol
E) you will inevitably suffer from vocal loss or vocal strain
 
 
Food preservation systems in general slow down or stop the growth of microorganisms, but not all microorganisms are harmful. Some, in fact, are commonly used in preservation. In the process known as fermentation, microorganisms convert carbohydrates to acid. Salt, or a brine solution made with salt, is also used. The amount of salt used determines whether or not any organism can grow and what types will grow. Fermented products are left in containers with salt solutions for several weeks in rooms with carefully controlled temperatures. Each group of microorganisms has an optimum temperature for growth which the processor must maintain so that correct fermentation action will take place. Fermented foods include pickles made of fruits and vegetables-, wine and beer, cheeses, vinegar, and pickled meats.
 
49-    We learn from the passage that microorganisms .............. .
 
A)   are prevented totally from developing in the process of food preservatiori
B)   are employed in all the methods of food preservation
C) are often preserved and used to make certain types of foods
D) may be either useful or dangerous to human beings
E) can only develop and grow in a heated environment
 
50-    In the process of fermentation described in the passage, ……… .
 
A) a combination of salt, water and microorganisms is heated
B) acid must be added to the existing carbohydrates in the
     food
C) microorganisms are allowed to grow up to a desired level
D)carbohydrates slow down or stop the growth of
    microorganisms
E) microorganisms must be added to the product over several
             weeks
 
51-    The author tells us that in order to create products fermented using salt, ...................
 
A) the food should be contained in salt water at set
temperatures
B) it is important that no water is added during the process
C) the room containing the products should be kept very
warm
D) the growth of microorganisms must be completely stopped
E) only a small quantity of salt should be used for the best
results
 
In the history of public opinion research, no poll has ever gained so much notoriety as that conducted in 1936 fay Literary Digest magazine. More than 10 million ballots were sent to readers to get their preferences in the upcoming presidential election between Franklin Roosevelt and Alfred Landon. The returns indicated that Landon would win easily. This poll was contradicted by separate statistical samplings taken by Gallup and Roper, which pointed to a Roosevelt victory. Roosevelt won in the first great landslide, that is, overwhelming victory, election of the 20th century. The problem was in the method of polling. The Digest poll was a kind of survey called a straw poll, which was completely nonscientific. The Gallup and Roper polls, by contrast, were more recently devised and were carefully calculated statistical samplings.
52-    The Literary Digest poll in 1936 became notorious because ………….. .
 
A)   its result was different from the result of Gallup and
Roper's polls
B) Its results were completely wrong, due to an inaccurate
     system
C) the ballots were sent to the readers through the postal
      service
D) it was asking people who would win the presidential
election
E) it asked its readers who they would vote for, before the
     election
 
53-    In the author's opinion, in 1936, Gallup and Roper ................. .
A) pointed out the faults in the straw poll system
B) ran a rival magazine to Literary Digest
C) wanted Franklin Roosevelt to win the election
D) had an up-to-date and superior polling system
E) didn't have a very scientific system for polling
 
54-    Roosevelt won the election ................. .
 
A) despite the result of the Gallup and Roper samplings
B) and became President with a large majority of the vote
C) in the twentieth century's first presidential election
D) due to the support of Gallup and Roper's polling system E) as indicated by the Literary Digest magazine's poll
 
 
 
 
Andrew Wyeth is an American realist artist. His picture of a Pennsylvania boy riding his new bicycle, entitled Young America', is painted with a high degree of precision and attention to detail. Its first impression is one of freedom, for the boy cycles with ease over the flat landscape. However, the land and the sky are both without event, and while this means that there is nothing to detract from the rider, it also suggests that he is passing through an empty world. The boy is looking out of the picture and away from the viewer; whatever he is gazing at can be guessed but not seen. The colours of the picture are soft, and the largest area is a neutral grey. The chief impression is one of melancholy.
 
55-    Prom the description of the painting, we understand that
 
A) the artist paints in a bold, Impressionistic style
B) the painting is an abstract work, resembling nothing real
C) the artist paints in a detailed, true-to-life style
D) Wyeth paints what he feels, regardless of detail
E) the picture is painted in a very old fashioned style
 
56-    We may gather from the description that................. .
 
A) all the colours used in this painting have faded in time
B) the only colour used in this painting is grey
C) the artist has used bright, contrasting colours
D) the precision of details in the picture may disturb the
viewer
E) the colours in this painting are not bright
 
57-    According to the author, when you look at this painting keenly, …………. .
 
A) the eyes of the boy look straight into yours
B) the main thing you'll feel is a sense of freedom
C) your attention will be held by the background
D) the major image you'll receive is one of sadness
E) you'll see the boy looking at another person
 
Every year from late summer to early spring, 1.5 million armed men take to the fields and forests of France to do battle with deer, wild boar and small birds, but most of all, it now appears, with each other. According to the National Hunting Office, a record 269 people were hit by stray bullets in the six-month 1997-98 shooting season — 45 fatally. Ninety-one per cent of the dead and injured were huntsmen. Most of the accidents were cases of mistaken identity, combined with the pressures of the chase. In 1975 a system was introduced requiring would-be hunters to take a half-day hunting course. But the teaching is run by fellow gun-club members, and the rules are only elementary, like teaching how to take care in heavy fog and not to fire across busy roads.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
58-    According to the passage, we can conclude that hunting ………….. .
 
A) has been outlawed in France
B) is .the most popular sport in France
C) has more accidents than any other sport
D) is mainly an autumn and winter sport
E) is an excuse for shooting other people
 
59-    The statistics for the 1997-98 hunting season show that ………… .
 
A) most of the casualties occurred among huntsmen
     themselves
B) 91% of huntsmen were killed or hurt in shooting accidents
C) a total of 269 people were killed in hunting accidents
D) 45 people were murdered rather than accidentally killed
E) a total of 314 people were killed or hurt during the hunting
     season
 
60-    It is implied in the passage that the hunting course ............... .
 
A) has done a great deal to prevent possible accidents
B) is too easy to inform the beginners satisfactorily
C) may deter would-be hunters from participating in the sport
D) is taught by people with little practical experience of
     hunting
E) teaches easy-to-understand but satisfactory lessons
 
1
1. A     2. D      3. C       4. B       5. E      6. A     7. C   8. D   9. E   10.B
11.B         12.E          13.A           14.C            15.B          16.D        17.C     18.B      19.D     20.D
21.E     22.A     23.D      24.C      25.C     26.B    27.A 28.C 29.B 30.E
31.D     32.C     33.E      34.E      35.D     36.B    37.D 38.E 39.A 40.B
41.B     42.D     43.C      44.A      45.E     46.C    47.E 48.B 49.D 50.C
51.A    52.B     53.D      54.B      55.C     56.E    57.D 58.D 59.A 60.B
 
 
  Bugün 63374 ziyaretçi (132002 klik) kişi burdaydı!  
 
=> Sen de ücretsiz bir internet sitesi kurmak ister misin? O zaman burayı tıkla! <=
EFFECTIVE WAY OF LEARNING ENGLISH