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  genel tarama testi (grammar test)
 
GENERAL GRAMMAR TESTS
 

Test 1
 
1) If the operation hadn’t been successful, her feet would have been _____ worse by now.

A) rather
B) more
C) very
D) such
E) quite

2) In the world of the ancient Greeks, ships were preferred instead of wagons for carrying the goods due to the fact that ships could go _____ faster and carry _____ more cargo than wagons bumping over rough terrain.

A) more / less
B) quite / less
C) much / much
D) least / no
E) very / many

3) The father was in _____ a shortage of money in order to run his family _____ he went mad since he couldn’t bear the terrible condition of his family.

A) so / that
B) so / as
C) such / as
D) as / that
E) such / that

4) The artist was _____ drunken when he left the pub _____ he had no sooner had an accident than he turned left from the first junction.

A) such / that
B) so / that
C) so many / that
D) as many / as
E) more / than

5) For _____ key learning areas _____ grammar, vocabulary and communication skills, one should review what he has learnt on a regular basis.

A) so / as
B) as many / as
C) such / as
D) as much / as
E) far more / that

6) In order not to fall into _____ similar mistakes _____ the one done before, he should look into the account of what he did in the past.

A) such / as
B) so / as
C) too / that
D) the most / than
E) as / much

7) Sometimes, as a father, I become hesitant to be always there when my children need me and protect them ________ I am able.
 
A) as many as
B) so much that
C) less carefully than
D) so far as
E) so far that

8) Since the film Mandy chose for her children to watch turned out to be _____ violent _____ she had expected, she had to send her children to bed instead of watching it till the end.

A) less / than
B) much / than
C) too / that
D) so / that
E) more / than

9) When the theatre wasn’t even ______ as crowded as the one where “Romeo and Juliet” was performed, the executives suspected that the audience didn’t like the performance of the actors in the new play presented.

A) half
B) far
C) rather
D) almost
E) four times

10) I _______ the flowers in the vase and then _______ the vase on the table.

A) had put/placing
B) put/had placed
C) put/placed
D) have been putting/place
E) would put/was placing

11) We _______ the house painted this summer or else it _______ till next year.

A) have to have/can’t have been done
B) must have/will not be done
C) will have/wasn’t done
D) are having/weren’t done
E) had/wouldn’t be done

12) _______ you _______ the mumps yet? My sister just _______ down with a case.

A) can/have/came
B) have/been/come
C) have/been having/coming
D) have/had/came
E) would/have/have come

13) I _______ for my sewing needle. It _______ out of my hand as I _______ it.

A) am looking/fell/was threading
B) was looking/fall/threaded
C) looked/fell/am threading
D) have looked/has fallen/have threaded
E) would look/have fallen/thread

14) No, I _______ with you because I _______ plans to go with the Smiths.

A) can go/can't made
B) couldn't go/make
C) can't go/have made
D) haven't gone/have made
E) had gone/will make

15) I _______ the tin of beans yet. Where _______ you _______ it?

A) haven't find/can/put
B) haven't found/did/put
C) have found/do/put
D) wasn't finding/have/put
E) have been finding/were/putting

16) Tomorrow, I _______ my first payment on the new car I _______ last month.

A) will make/buy
B) am making/was buying
C) will have made/buying
D) will be making/bought
E) had made/bought

17) We _______ buying a boat because we _______ anything about sailing.

A) aren't/know
B) are/haven't known
C) will be/had known
D) aren't/don't know
E) may be/didn't know

18) Which hotel _______ to stay in when you get to New York? I _______ one if you _______ reservations yet.

A) will you be/might suggest/have made
B) are you/suggest/didn't make
C) were you/suggested/haven't made
D) are you going/will be suggesting/made
E) are you going/can suggest/haven't made

19) Oh no! My favourite dish _______.

A) have been broken
B) will be breaking
C) has been broken
D) will have been broken
E) had been breaking

20) I _______to speak to her about this situation after I _______with her instructors about it.

A) was planning/am talking
B) plan/have talked
C) am planning/talk
D) had planned/talking
E) to plan/to talk

21) I am going to the bazaar, and I _______ back by the time you _______here.

A) will have been/come
B) might be/had come
C) have to be/were coming
D) will be/come
E) would be /will have come
22) The amount of time _______on cooking is not at all proportional to that of time we _______to eat what is prepared.

A) spending/taken
B) spends/took
C) are to spend/have taken
D) spent/have taken
E) spend/takes

23) The interesting ideas _______by my students could not _______.

A) to present/ignore
B) presented/be ignored
C) having to be presented/ignoring
D) was presented/have been ignore E) having to be presented/ignore

24) During the emergency, they _______to restore electricity with the help of an emergency back-up system that the engineers _______many years earlier.

A) were able/having installed
B) were able/had installed
C) been/install
D) are/were installed
E) were/installs

25) Many people _______ the extracts of various plants to help people who _______ ill.

A) were using/is
B) have to use/been
C) have used/were
D) are using/is
E) used/have to be

26) The librarians at our town library _______ the books and records in alphabetical order so that we _______ them more easily.

A) were to arrange/had to find
B) arranging/found
C) is to arrange/will find
D) are going to arrange/can find
E) could have arranged/have found

27) Photocopying services _______ available just about everywhere these days.

A) were
B) is
C) am
D) have
E) had been

28) Steven and Joseph _______ that they _______ more than they had originally _______.

A) notice/is studying/planned
B) noticed/were studying/planned
C) are noticing/were studying/plan
D) notices/are studying/plans
E) have noticed/study/have to plan

29) Many teenagers in this country _______to spend their summer holidays relaxing and enjoying themselves because they _______ work.
 
A) won’t afford/has
B) haven’t afforded/are
C) wouldn't afford/is
D) can't afford/have to
E) are affording/might be

30) Every year the alumni of our high school and university _______ to a gathering of old classmates.

A) are invited
B) have been invited
C) will have to be inviting
D) invite
E) were inviting
 
        Test 2
 
1) Of these paintings, the work of Marin ________ the most spectacular one.

A) might prove
B) are proving
C) had proved
D) would prove
E) has proved

2) On the condition that I ________ the information that you were able to solve this question, I __________ next to you, any way.

A) had / will come
B) had had / would
C) have / will come
D) had had / would have come
E) have / might come

3) What you are talking about may not be understood by her right now, but I am sure she ________ the words when you meet her again.

A) will be appreciating
B) will have appreciated
C) will have been appreciating
D) is appreciating
E) appreciated

4) Having known that the deadline of the homework expired, she thought she _________ do it so.

A) used to
B) wouldn’t
C) needn’t have
D) didn’t need to
E) got used to

5) It shouldn’t be discussed that the rates of money can be dwindled, in any way, ______?

A) should it
B) can’t it
C) can it
D) shouldn’t it
E) isn’t it

6) I have tried the first two clothes, but I haven’t put on __________ one.

A) another
B) other
C) same
D) similar
E) such

7) Abdulhamid I, Ottoman sultan of Turkey, who left his mark _____ Turkey as one of the strongest reformers _____ the 18th century.

A) for / in
B) at / of
C) on / of
D) in / of
E) of / on

8) Everything was _______ outstanding just _____ the middle of the night, but there was coming a silent disaster.

A) quite / in B) too / on C) rather / for D) so / into E) very / at

9) I have fallen in love with _______ woman, but they were not there, indeed.

A) a good deal of B) many a c) some D) a number of  E) a vast majority of

10) The men _____ do the painting are given a special training ______ includes rescue work.

A) where / what B) when / where C) what / that D) whose / which E) who / which

11) My brother chose to continue his life at university after graduating from high school, _________, I followed his step on occasion of my graduation.

A) likewise B) on the contrary C) what’s more D) while E) although

12) I want to tell the news I have heard from my elder sister, but I cannot remember ______ thoroughly.

A) it B) them C) theirs D) their E) this

13) Ever since Queen Elizabeth I ____ it in 1592, Trinity College ____ a major role in Dublin life.

A) was founded/has been playing
B) founded/has played
C) found/played
D) had founded/was playing
E) was founding/plays

14) There ______ still a lot of negotiations about the newspaper dated November 10th, 1998, when a column writer ________ political leaders in an unjust way.

A) were/has criticized
B) had been/are criticizing
C) are/has criticized
D) are/criticized
E) were/will be criticizing
 
15) _______ successful was an Egyptian marketplace during the first part of this millennium that many believe it was responsible for Columbus' search for an alternate route to India.

A) Such
B) So
C) Much
D) Even
E) As

16) At the time Titanic was launched from the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast, it was the largest moving object ____ built.

A) ever
B) always
C) so far
D) since
E) so

17) _______ plants, which manufacture nutrients from inorganic substances by means of photosynthesis, animals actively acquire their food and digest it internally.

A) Similarly
B) The same as
C) Whereas
D) Despite
E) Unlike

18) You _____ from this stomach-ache now if you ____ all you were offered.

A) aren’t suffering/didn’t eat
B) might not have suffered/weren’t eating
C) hadn’t suffered/hadn’t been eating
D) wouldn’t be suffering/ hadn’t eaten
E) don’t suffer/haven’t eaten

19) Soon after I informed my friend about the sharp decline in the monopoly sector, he desperately wished he _________ all his money into it.

A) hasn’t invested
B) wouldn’t invest
C) hadn’t invested
D) didn’t invest
E) wasn’t investing

20) The term “folklore” was coined in 1846 by an Englishman ____ wanted to use an Anglo-Saxon term for ____ was then called "popular antiquities".

A) who/which
B) that/what
C) which/that
D) whom/whom
E) when/whose

21) Any excavation, _____ how large or small and of whatever period and type of site, can be an exciting and essentially unpredictable event.

A) although
B) regardless
C) no matter
D) nevertheless
E) in contrast to

22) I hardly approve of the words you are uttering about him, and I believe that he himself _______ if he heard them.

A) cannot even
B) doesn’t so
C) wouldn’t either
D) did too
E) must as well

23) Due to the changing cultural habits and the negative effects of television, there has been ______ violence in high schools recently.

A) much of
B) many
C) any
D) each
E) lots of

24) Batteries provide us _____ a store of electric current that we can carry _____, for example in calculators, torches and cars.

A) for/along
B) at/into
C) into/on
D) with/around
E) by/about

25) It is unlikely that he ____ one of my books thoroughly; maybe he ____ of me from a person in his circle of friends.

A) read/heard
B) had read/has heard
C) will read/is hearing
D) was reading/had heard
E) is reading/hears

26) The discoveries ______ in the last several years _____to make possible the heart transplantation in a few years’ time.

A) making/will have been expected
B) are made/have been expected
C) have been made/will be expecting
D) made/are expected
E) were made/were expected

27) The company for ______ my friend has been working for many years is in danger of going bankrupt after the economic crisis ______ it deeply.

A) which / affects
B) which / affecting*
C) that / to affect
D) where / affecting
E) whose / having affected

28) He warned us that the crime rate ___ unless stricter punishment ____ into practice for those who have broken the law.

A) weren’t reduced/could be put
B) won’t reduce/has put
C) wouldn’t be reduced/were putting
D) might not have reduced/had put
E) couldn’t be reduced/were put

30) As regards air pollution, some scientists conclude that human production is primarily responsible, ____ others cite natural causes as well.

A) however
B) therefore
C) seeing that
D) while
E) whether
 
            Test 3
 
1) When my brother __________ that I __________ all the points about the subject, he __________ me to help him.

A) has realised/memorised/is asking
B) realised/had memorised/asked
C) had realised/memorised/asked
D) will realise/memorised/asks
E) is realising/memorise/is asking

2) They ________ very tired because they _________ a party the night before.

A) feel / had had
B) feel / had
C) felt / had had
D) will feel / will have had
E) feel / have

3) I remember very clearly that when we were at high school, we _________ break the truth and escape from school.

A) got used to
B) were used to
C) used to
D) could
E) might

4) They couldn’t believe that I managed to pass the difficult exam, _______?

A) didn’t they
B) didn’t I
C) did I
D) could they
E) couldn’t they

5) It is very difficult to perceive that a paragraph question requires inference, _______?

A) doesn’t it
B) does it
C) is it
D) isn’t it
E) aren’t they

6) Since this book is generally based ____ the character of the writer, I am very concerned _______ it.

A) for/about
B) upon/for
C) on/with
D) at/in
E) for/about

7) Her books are still on the table, but ______ cannot be found; in fact, they were next to ________.

A) mine/they
B) us/those
C) them/hers
D) those/these
E) mine/hers

8) The students insisted on not taking my word for the exam _________ I warned them by showing all the proofs.

A) nevertheless
B) moreover
C) however
D) although
E) whereas

9) Because all the girls think they are ______ beautiful ______ the top models on television, they want to join the competition.

A) too/to
B) as/as
C) so/than
D) just/as
E) much/than

10) The prime minister worked on the subject day and night; ________, it has fallen through.

A) owing to
B) due to
C) but
D) nevertheless
E) likewise

11) Because of being indifferent ____ the possible threats around such as fire, Wilson didn’t insure his family ______ them.

A) to/against
B) on/for
C) upon/with
D) at/against
E) for/against

12) We knew that we wouldn't reach the village that day but we walked ____ we could.

A) as long as
B) until
C) as tall as
D) so far
E) wherever

13) He was the only one who seemed to be enjoying the concert; all ______ did not like it.

A) the others
B) other
C) another
D) each other
E) every other

14) I don't remember ______ times I've warned you about your coming home late every night, but you have never taken any notice.

A) how often
B) what
C) how long
D) how many
E) how much

15) John Donne is one of _____ poets who used metaphysical imagery in his poems.

A) several
B) the few
C) many
D) each
E) the whole

16) The Portuguese ____ among the first Europeans ____ to Hawaii, many arriving in 1878 from the Azores and Madeira.

A) are/coming
B) were/to come
C) have been/to have come
D) had been/came
E) would be/having come

17) Today the train is ______ way of travelling across Denmark, but perhaps there will be even ______ ways in the future.

A) so quick / quicker
B) such a quick / quickest
C) the quickest / quicker
D) too quick / more quickly
E) quickly enough / most quickly

18) You had better stop blaming _____ for the accident Steve had. It was entirely because of ____ carelessness.

A) you/her
B) yourselves/his own
C) him/himself
D) mine/your
E) his/her
 
Test 4
 
1- My brother didn’t let me use………… that perfume because there was only ............. in the bottle.

A) some of/a few
B) many of/quite little
C) much of/a little
D) enough of/several
E) most of/ many more

2- We are in need of............ money since............. the machinery in our factory has been out of date.

A) some/several
B) enough / so much
C) a good deal of /a lot of
D) too much / each of
E) a number of / plenty of

3- Whenever it rains cats and dogs in this area, the houses on ........... sides of the river are........... flooded.

A) each/each
B) all / both
C) either / several
D) several / both
E) both/all

4- An old woman asked me for ..........bread but I couldn't give her ..........because my son had consumed all of it.

A) some/any
B) several / no
C) a little/a few
D) plenty of/so many
E) a bit of/so much

5- ........... of the cotton in Turkey is grown in Adana. In other words ............ cotton fields are found in Adana.

A) Every / every
B) Much / some
C) Some/either
D) Most/most
E) So many / too many

6- Our university held ........... conferences but I was able to take part in .......... of them.

A) plenty of/all
B) a lot of/ several
C) some / most
D) every / each
E) a great number of /whole

7- We are all unanimous that.......... racial discrimination is based on ignorance.

A) quite
B) enough
C) some
D) little
E) most

8- It's obvious that the fight between ............ countries will not come to an end............ is willing to negotiate a cease-fire.

A) both/Neither
B) every / Each
C) all/Every
D) whole/Little
E) several / Either

9- ........... countries had been fighting for six years until........... of them decided to negotiate a cease-fire.

A) All / many
B) Some / so much
C) Both / either
D) A lot of/neither
E) So many / too many

10- ............. of the teachers we have interviewed so far ........... that our educational system needs to be changed wholly.

A) All/thinks
B) Too much / think
C) Some/thinks
D) Each/thinks
E) Most / thinks

11- The estimated number of children born annually with major congenital malfor¬mations ............... to be 3 million.,

A) are reported
B) have been announced
C) will declare
D) are to report
E) has been reported

12- In the last six years,................. major studies have consistently associated high intakes of vitamin E with reduced risk of heart disease.

A) little more
B) a great deal of
C) so much
D) too much
E) a number of

13-1 learned ............. about teaching from my experiences in the English classroom.

A) every
B) too many
C) a number of
D) a great deal
E) plenty of

14- I think there is ........... that he does not deserve. He is .......... of the best-tempered man that ever existed.

A) something / each
B) anything / none
C) nothing/one
D) everything / some
E) a little/most

15- Nationalism, theology, the exquisite glories of war, business, racism have ................. at one time or another
functioned as the primary yardstick for human belief system.

A) every
B) enough
C) little
D) either
E) each

16- The new couple of compensation systems are starting to link the broker's pay to the client's success. ............ can be successful by jumping in and out of the stock market in panic or euphoria.

A) Each
B) All
C) Whole
D) Enough
E) Many

17- It's a curious fact that in .......... ages and all societies, ........... numbers of people are attracted to the gentle, not the strong, to the sufferers and not the successful.

A) every / great
B) several / some
C) ail / large
D) any / very much
E) enough / plenty

18- Did you hear the news that ........... today on BBC at 8 o'clock? It was really devastating for me.

A) have broadcast
B) were broadcast
C) will be broadcast
D) was broadcast
E) has broadcast

19- The number of payphones ............ from less than 500 to nearly 7000 covering virtually all urban, rural and market centres in the last two months.

A) have increased
B) will increase
C) was increasing
D) has increased
E) are increasing

20- The police ............ a noteworthy investigation into the causes of the last attempts to assassinate the P.M.

A) is conducting
B) have been conducted
C) are conducting
D) was conducting
E) has been conducting

21- Mumps ............ a disease with painful swelling in the neck.

A) are
B) have been
C) were
D) is
E) will be

22- For most of .......... past two and half ......... million years .......... human beings left their garbage where it felt.

A) -/a/ the
B) a /the /a
C) the /the /the
D)the/a/-

23- He says that at ........ end of ........ busy day sleep is ......... best tonic.

A) the / the / -
B) an / a / a
C) the / a / the
D) - / - / the
E) the / - / -

24- By 1948 it was clear the relationships of the two sides were deteriorating, and .......... of them was very happy.

A) neither
B) enough
C) each
D) both
E) all

25- Jessie arranges to have the kids tested. ........... of them undergoes an echo-cardiogram, which can reveal only symptoms, not the actual disease. The results calm her............ of the kids show symptoms.

A) All/Some
B) So many / Most
C) Most/No one
D) Each/None
E) Some / Many
 
            Test 5
 
1- Family rifts rarely involve the transgressions of just one person. In most disputes .......... the participants
share .......... degree of blame.

A) every of / a little
B) all / some
C) each / plenty of
D) whole / enough
E) some of / too many

2- In the office there was........... noise that I couldn't focus on my work.

A) very much
B) enough
C) so many
D) so much
E) too much

3- He made ............... noise about the poor food in the restaurant and decided not to eat anything there again.

A) too many
B) a little
C) enough
D) a lot of
E) so many

4- There is some meat in the refrigerator. Let's consume it because it has been for ............. a long time there.

A) very
B) too
C) much
D) quite
E) enough

5- The two dogs were fighting over a bone............... was able to eat it because a very fierce and strong dog came and took it.

A) Each
B)Either
C) Some
D)Neither
E) Enough
 
6- In the construction of the building ............. sand was mixed with cement to make concrete.

A) several
B) a number of
C) such many
D) so many
E) a large quantity of

7- Sand has been used in large quantities in the building, so I won't be surprised if it collapses after.............. earth
tremors.

A) every
B) too much
B) very much
D)some
E)each

8- When we run out of bread we use flour to make bread. But now we have ................ flour left.

A) very much
B) several
C) hardly any
D) too much
E) enough

9- After standing in a queue for more than two hours, I had ............. patience left.

A) enough
B) any
C) no
D) several
E) too much

10- As we were making innovations in our shop, we had to keep guard the ...........night.

A) all
B) half
C) each
D) very
E) whole

11- Instead of meeting friends for a meal, she arranges to walk or go bike riding with them. There's not enough time in her day for a social life and exercise. This is a nice way to have.............

A) neither
B) each
C) both
D) either
E) too

12- It is important to understand how the kidneys function. The two bean-shaped organs,................ about the size of a fist, house an elaborate filtering system that processes about 200 quarts of blood - the equivalent of 500 cans of soda - daily.

A) every
B) each
C) some
D) neither
E) none

13- Of their three daughters, I find Jane the .......... beautiful one of them.

A) very much
B) much more
C) enough
D) too much
E) most

14- My aunt gave birth to healthy twins last night........... is so sweet.

A) Both
B) Each
C) All
D) Whole
E) Either

15- We are really happy to hear that the acoustics of the hall we are going to hold our conference in ...............excellent.

A) has been
B) were
C) is
D) have been
E) is to be

16- Phonetics ........... the study of speech sounds and their production.

A) are
B) has been
C) is
D) was
E) have been

17- When the military .............. control in :country, democracy can not be mentioned any longer.

A) is taking
B) have taken
C) are taken
D) was taking
E) has taken

18- Do you see ......... boy playing over there? He is ......... one who broke my car's windscreen yesterday.

A) a/-
B) the/the
C) the/-
D) -/the
E) a/the

19- .......... Inca was .......... civilisation ......... people of which were more cultivated than any other civilisation of that time.
 
A) -/a/the
B) The/a/-
C) An/the/the
D) -/the/a
E) The/-/-

20- Mercedes Benz and Lexus have ......... developed systems that send out radar beams to detect the car in front and adjust your speed before you get.......... close.

A) so / so
B) more / much
C) each / little
D) both / too
E) none / enough

21- You can try .......... of these two dishes; they are.......... delicious.

A) one / either
B) neither / all
C) both / all
D) both / either
E) either / both

22- When I decide to take rest on a weekend day, my twins become a great hindrance. .............. of them insists on going to the zoo with me.

A) either
B) both
C) all
D) neither
E) every

23- ............. of the complaints were taken into account, but not............ of them.

A) Several/all
B) Plenty / the whole
C) Every / some
D) Most / a majority
E) Some / a number

24- Nowadays we have .........things to do than we used to.

A) so many
B) several
C) too many
D) a lot more
E) far many

25- I tried the two alternatives you told me. Unfortunately, ......... of them worked.

A) both
B) all
C) either
D) some
E) neither
 
            Test 6
 
1- Human nature being what it is, I suspect that bribery at a local level would cause ............ more effective disruption than any number of bombs.
 
A) too many
B) several
C) far
D) rather
E)enough

2- Every year about this time, for a tantalisingly short while a week or two at most - an amazing thing happens in New England............. area explodes in colour............. those trees that for months have formed sombre green backdrop suddenly burst into a million glowing tints.

A) Several / Every
B) Each/Several
C) The whole/All
D) Some / Some
E) Too many/ Both

3- According to a survey by the CDC, some 4.7 million people were bitten by dogs. About 800,000 required medical treatment. .......... bites are to children, and ........... are from family pets or familiar dogs, not strays.

A) Many / most
B) Several / either
C) So many / a little
D) Plenty of/much
E) Every / each

4- The return of Columbus from his first voyage intensified rivalry between Spain and Portugal,........... of which
sought to guard their own sea lanes and prohibit the incursion of the other.

A) the whole
B) all the
C) each
D) some
E) both

5- The author of the book claims that if one empties his purse into his head, no one can take it away from him. Moreover, he believes, investment in knowledge pays............ interest.

A) very much
B) too much
C) better
D) a lot of
E) so much

6- ............. of the twins wants to go to bed so early. Let them stay up, please.

A) Both
B) AII
C) Either
D) Neither
E) Each

7- ............ of the volunteers to do this kind of job............ wear suitable clothes.

A) All/has to
B) Most / have to
C) Each / has to
D) Whole / has to
E) Every / has to

8- Each of the .............. was checked with painstaking care before the match.

A) participant
B) spectators
C) competitor
D) attendant
E) journalist

9- I'll call you after I listen to the news. .......... ........... half an hour.

A) They/last
B) Some/lasts
C) It/lasts
D) Each / last
E) every / lasts

10- The number of road accidents ... in the last three months. On the contrary, it has been increasing steeply.

A) hasn't decreased
B) wasn't decreasing
C) haven't decreased
D) couldn't decrease
E) aren't decreasing

11- ........... of the applicants ........... bring his curriculum vitae before the interview.

A) All/has to
B) every / have to
C) Some / has to
D) Both/has to
E) Each / has to

12- Despite being buried more than for centuries ago,.......... mummies seem to be......... intact today.

A) -/an
B)the/-
C) the/the
D)-/-
E) the / an

13- .......... mummies found on ......... top of .......... Mount Llulliallaco were too frozen to touch.

A) The/the/the
B) -/the/the
C) A/-/the
D) The/a/-
E) - / - / the

14- In ........... western countries body-piercing is............ fashion fad. In Malaysia it is ............. serious expression of religious belief.

A) the/the/a
B) -/a/a
C) the/-/the
D) -/-/a
E) the/the/the

15- ........... basketball player's insults provoked ............ referee, who signalled .............. technical foul.

A) -/a/the
B) the/-/a
C) a/a/a
D) -/the/the
E) the/the/a

16- Electronic mail can be transmitted in .............. seconds over............ Internet.

A) the/an
B) -/the
C) a/-
D )the/-
E) -/an

17- Alaska's closeness to Asia is.......... most obvious at........... narrowest point of ......... Bering Strait.

A) -/the/the
B) the/-/the
C) -/-/the
D) the/-/-
E) -/-/-

18- The gold plate was one of............ sights in the entire exhibit.

A) too much breathtaking
B) such a breathtaking
C) the most breathtaking
D) enough breathtaking
E) so breathtaking

19- Shirley was .......... throughout the meeting, but........... when we discussed the issue of salary increases, she spoke eloquently in favour of them.

A) enough quiet/before
B) rather quiet / afterwards
C) far quiet / since
D) too much quiet / also
E) as quiet / as

20- As they haven't been able to find enough evidence of whether that group killed the businessman, the police chief declares that they have to conduct .............. investigation.

A) the farthest
B) far enough
C) the furthest
D) farther
E) further

21- As he wasn't efficient............ to carry out his duty, he was compelled to leave the factory.

A) for
B) enough
C) still
D) too
E) little

22- By the end of the day, Joseph wanted no............... to go to bed; he had been working incessantly the whole day.

A) less than
B) enough
C) so much
D) too much
E) more than

23- Since most listeners rely __._ on context for comprehension, they are often themselves unaware of inaccurate sound perception during listening activity.

A) mostly
B) the least
C) much
D) less
E) the most

24- It was easy to choose between the two pairs of sunglasses since one was three dollars........... the other.

A) the most expensive
B) as cheap as
C) so expensive that
D) cheaper than
E) cheap

25- The damage from NATO bombs to factories and bridges will have ............ effect in the long run on Serbia than the rapid decline in the birth-rate.

A) much less
B) too little
C) the least
D) a little
E) little
 
            Test 7
 
1- French governments have long believed that the economy is .......... served by intervention ............ by relying on market forces.

A) good / than
B) well/as
C) best/like
D) good / such as
E) better/than

2- In the modern world, or course, a man's wallet and social skills probably mean.......... to a woman than the size of his chin.

A) more
B) too much
C) a lot
D) enough
E) so much

3- Mete held two jobs in addition to going to night school; consequently, he was .......... always tired.

A) nearer
B) nearest
C) as near as
D) nearly
E) so near

4- Two natural fibres are wool and cotton; silk, a third natural fibre, is .......... of the three.

A) as expensive as
B) more expensive than
C) expensive enough
D) the most expensive
E) too much

5- The wooden crate seemed large, but I found it was ............ for a dozen bowls.

A) so small that
B) too small
C) small enough
D) as small as
E) smaller than

6- Yesterday it was ........... that most of the trees flanking on both sides of the road were blown down.

A) windy enough
B) as windy as
C) so windy
D) very windy
E) too windy

7- Who told you to purchase these batteries? They are........... to fit the radio.

A) small enough
B) very small
C) so small that
D) smaller that
E) too small

8- This history book contains excellent illustrations; they are clear, occasionally, .......... humorous.

A) more
B) less
C) most
D) enough
E) quite

9- There was.............. noise at the conference that the Marketing Department held that we couldn't hear her speech.

A) very much
B) enough
C) too much
D) quite many
E) so much

10- We had become so accustomed to Joseph's long hair that when he had it cut last year, he looked ................. he had been scalped.

A) as though
B) even though
C) afterwards
D) while
E) as soon as

11- Strange ............. it may seem, the winter can be drier than the summer.

A) since
B) when
C) as
D) however
E) despite

12- ................. the runners headed for the finish line, Bob redoubled his effort and, to everyone's delight, won the race.

A) For
B) In spite of
C) So as to
D) As
E) Owing to

13- The winter had been so severe; .................. the newly planted apple-trees survived.

A) as a result
B) nevertheless
C) on account of
D) moreover
E) indeed

14- At one time many scientists were actively anti-religious .................. the open conflicts between religion and science.

A) instead of
B) regardless of
C) in order to
D) now that
E) because of

15- ............ booking the flight, always give your telephone number, ............... some airlines try to notify passengers of cancellations.

A) In addition to / because
B) While / however
C) After / therefore
D) Whether / or
E) Though / consequently

16- ................ the proper diet, a healthy regimen should include regular exercise, not smoking and visits to your doctor for regular medical check ups.

A) Near
B) Like
C) Because of
D) Thanks to
E) In addition to

17- Who ............. you would be willing to drive cross-country with only thirty dollars in his wallet?

A) near
B) in addition
C) in fact
D) besides
E) now that

18- The young newlyweds established a savings account at the bank,............. they wanted to buy some property on nearby lake.
 
A) thus
B) consequently
C) however
D) much as
E) for

19- Dr. Dossey became so convinced of the power of prayer that he began to pray privately for his own patients. .................. he and other experts tread cautiously in this area.

A) Besides
B) Moreover
C) Furthermore
D) Nevertheless
E) Though

20- The Hellcs Memorial is ........ the memorial to the Gallipoli campaign ........ to men who fell in that campaign
and whose graves are unknown or who were lost or at sea in Gallipoli waters.

A) neither / nor
B) both / and
C) enough / and
D) so/as
E) the same / as

21- A job seeker can greatly increase his chances of landing a job ................. he wears crisp business attire to the interview.

A) as soon as
B) just as
C) during
D) what
E) if

22- ................. national efforts to protect and restore wetlands, America continues to lose wetlands at an alarming rate.

A) Despite
B) Although
C) As though
D) What
E) Much as

23- Many candidates for Parliament were afraid to support abolition ..............they should lose votes.

A) provided
B) as
C) lest
D) seeing that
E) since

24- Most people treat an interview .............it were an interrogation. The employer asks questions, and the candidate gives answers.

A) as though
B) even
C) though
D) on account
E) much as

25- ............... most people see the end of the millennium as an excuse for a global party, a handful of doomsayers think differently.

A) Whenever
B) Since
C) While
D) Besides
E) However                       
 
                Test 8
 
1- On winter days the sun shines fewer hours - and less skin is exposed to its rays. But the winter sun can be ............ damaging to exposed skin ............... you were sunning at the beach.

A) as / as if
B) such / that
C) so / that
D) neither/nor
E) both/and

2- ................ Turkey does to win E.U. membership will rationally guarantee the security of Greece.

A) Whenever
B) Whichever
C) However
D) Whatever
E) Wherever

3- Mete held two jobs in addition to going to night school;.................. he was nearly always tired.

A) on account of
B) as a result
C) regardless of
D) inasmuch as
E) however

4- ................... what direction you follow after school, you will encounter tests of one kind or another that require you to use your language skills.

A) However
B) Lest
C) No matter
D) Whereas
E) But

5- She made an immediate appointment with another doctor for a second opinion, ................... her insurance company had not yet okayed the visit.

A) as though
B) owing to
C) or else
D) as a result
E) even though

6- In his opinion, civilisation is the art of living in towns of ............. everyone does not know everyone else.

A) so size that
B) such size that
C) more size that
D) both size and
E) as size as

7- Senator notes that the government has no ............. important responsibility............. to stand up for the rights of
American citizens, especially when they cannot stand up for themselves.

A) much / that
B) so/that
C) such / that
D) more / than
E) a great deal / as

8- ........... she had failed at love, it wouldn't have been the end of the world. "We are in control of our own lives. We are bettered by meeting other people" she says.

A) Even if
B) When
C) As though
D) However
E) Because

9- When they are just talking normally it sounds ............. they are having a fight

A) even if
B) if
C) whether
D) though
E) as if

10- Man replying to broker's sales call: "I'll keep you in mind ............ I'm ever crazy enough to entrust all my savings to a stranger on the phone."

A) much as
B) nevertheless
C) in case
D) consequently
E) though

11- Most of our aches and pains are treatable, but................... we're willing to talk about them candidly and accurately with our doctors.

A) in case
B) furthermore
C) no sooner
D) only if
E) though

12 .................. none of the six tennis players had never met before, they knew each other by reputation.

A) However
B) Although
C) Since
D) While
E) Seeing that

13- In Germany, termination of pregnancy is legally possible only ............ a woman has consulted one of the country's 1,690 counselling centres.

A) until
B) as
C) though
D) by the time
E) after

15- …….the doctor knows, .... he can help you.

A) So much / that
B) As/so
C) If/so much
D) The more / the more
E) Least/least

16- ____ the carping of critics, more and more people took note of her talent and charisma and word spread about her riveting performances.

A) Although
B) Lest
C) However
D) For
E) Despite

17- He is ............ a waif and a stray everywhere ............ he is liable to be drifted where any current may set.

A) so / that
B) as / as
C) more / than
D) so / as
E) such / that

18- ............ widespread calls for his resignation, International Olympic Committee President declined to step down.

A) although
B) much as
C) in spite of
D) because E) since

19- The economy has to grow at a faster rate than the population increases, ............... a prosperous future for the
whole of southern Africa will remain nothing more than a mirage.

A) so
B) yet
C) since
D) although
E) or else

20- Suriname is ............ a South American State; it is ............ a Caribbean country which plays an active role in regional organisations and initiatives.

A) just / and
B) not only / also
C) neither/nor
D) either/or
E) both/and

21- Those immigrants lived with the secret hope of ................. going home with money ................ getting better accommodation and bringing their families over.

A) neither / nor
B) not only / and
C) either/or
D) both/but also
E) such / as

22- ................ the children are on mother's milk,............. likely they are to become obese.

A) So much / that
B) The longer / the less
C) When / as a result
D) If/so that
E) Whenever / however

23- The rescue plan would ................ free the trapped girl ................ hasten her death.

A) either/or
B) both/and
C) not only / but also
D) neither/nor
E) so / as

24- ................ stay on top, our company highlights customer service as its priority.

A) As for
B) In spite of
C) Seeing that
D) In order to
E) Much as

25- Personal success can grow out of the ashes of business failure ................ you are willing to take experience in stride.

A) although
B) however
C) if
D) moreover
E) unless

 
CLOZE TEST
 
               

Test 1
 
Mustang is a small, semi-wild horse of Mexico and the western plains of the United States. Descendants of Arabian and barb horses brought ___(1)___ North America by Spanish explorers in the 16th century and ___(2)___ combined with other breeds; mustangs ____(3)____ themselves to the western habitat and multiplied in large numbers. Subsequently many of them were captured, domesticated, and bred by Native Americans. These domesticated horses became known ____(4)___ Indian ponies. They had remarkable endurance and intelligence and were valued as saddle ponies. Today the several thousand mustangs that remain in the wild are threatened ___(5)____ destruction by ranchers who claim they damage grazing lands; they are also rounded up and used for dog food.

1) A) to B) from C) at D) on E) out of

2) A) late B) lately C) latest D) latter E) later

3) A) adopted B) corrupted C) pacified D) adapted E) wrapped

4) A) as B) to C) for D) with E) in

5) A) by B) with C) from D) onto E) into

Cyprus is an island ____(6)___ in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, about 40 miles south of Turkey, 60 miles west of Syria, and 480 miles southeast of mainland Greece. Its maximum length, ____(7)___ Cape Arnauti in the west to Cape Apostolos Andreas at the end of the north-eastern peninsula, ___(8)___ 140 miles; the maximum north-south extent is 60 miles. With an area of 3,572 square miles, it is the third largest Mediterranean island. Cyprus ____(9)___ of two states, the Republic of Cyprus, which occupies the southern two-thirds of the country, and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, which ____(10)___ its declaration of independence in 1983 has been recognized only by Turkey.

6) A) saturated B) gathered C) located D) ranged E) named

7) A) from B) till C) by D) within E) since

8) A) are B) have C) has D) were E) is

9) A) deprives B) disposes C) consists D) wards E) smacks

10) A) before B) as soon as C) by the time D) until E) since

___(11)___ to a Cretan myth that was adopted by the Greeks, Cronus, king of the Titans, upon learning that one of his children was fated to dethrone him, swallowed his children __(12)___ they were born. But Rhea, his wife, saved the infant Zeus by substituting a stone wrapped in swaddling clothes for Cronus to swallow and hiding Zeus in a cave on Crete. There he was nursed by the nymph Amalthaea and guarded by the Curetes, who clashed their weapons to ___(13)___ the baby's cries. After Zeus grew to manhood he led a revolt ____(14)___ the Titans and succeeded in dethroning Cronus, perhaps with the assistance of his brothers Hades and Poseidon, with ____(15)___ he then divided dominion over the world.

11) A) Due B) Owing C) In order D) In addition E) According

12) A) before B) the minute C) until D) while E) now that

13) A) dangle B) debilitate C) dictate D) disguise E) dodge

14) A) against B) among C) across D) at E) after

15) A) who B) that C) whom D) whose E) which

The Normans were originally pagan barbarian pirates from Denmark, Norway, and Iceland who began to make destructive plundering raids _____(16)___ European coastal settlements in the 8th century. During the later 9th century ____(17)___ raids on the northern and western coastlands of France grew ____(18)___ scale and frequency, and the Vikings had secured a permanent foothold on Frankish soil in the valley of the lower Seine River by about 900. A Viking named Rollo, who had already won a ___(19)___ as a great leader of Viking raiders in Scotland and Ireland, soon ____(20)___ as the outstanding personality among the new settlers.

16) A) on B) in C) into D) at E) under

17) A) they B) them C) its D) their E) it

18) A) on B) in C) at D) above E) below

19) A) reputation B) repetition C) recognizance D) recognizor E) reduction

20) A) merged B) diverted C) distinguished D) emerged E) extinguished

Vikings are the member of the Scandinavian seafaring warriors who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe from the 9th to the 11th century and ___(21)___ disruptive influence profoundly affected European history. ___(22)___ pagan Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish warriors were probably prompted to undertake their raids by a combination of factors ___(23)___ from overpopulation at home to the relative helplessness of victims abroad. The exact ethnic composition of the Viking armies is unknown ___(24)___ particular cases, but the Vikings' expansion in the Baltic lands and in Russia can reasonably be ___(25)___ to the Swedes.

21) A) whose B) of which C) who D) that E) when

22) A) This B) That C) Their D) These E) Its

23) A) hailing B) ranging C) departing D) shrinking E) telling
24) A) in B) on C) at D) to E) from

25) A) contributed B) ascribed C) attributed D) demise E) confer

Charles Dickens enjoyed a wider popularity than had any ____(26)___ author during his lifetime. Much in his work could appeal to simple and sophisticated, to the poor and to the Queen, and technological developments as well as the qualities of his work enabled his fame to spread worldwide very ___(27)___. His long career saw ____(28)___ in the reception and sales of individual novels, but ____(29)___ of them was negligible or uncharacteristic or disregarded, and, ____(30)____ he is now admired for aspects and phases of his work that were given less weight by his contemporaries, his popularity has never ceased and his present critical standing is higher than ever before.

26) A) initial B) primary C) prior D) previous E) early

27) A) quicker B) quickest C) quick D) quickness E)quickly

28) A) enumerations B) fluctuations C) elevations D) blasphemies E) shepherds

29) A) any B) none C) every D) each E) some

30) A) therefore B) moreover C) despite D) in order that E) though

Whales have exploited ____(31)___ the available aquatic habitats—the ocean sand the seas connected with them, as well as estuaries and rivers. They are especially numerous in the Antarctic Ocean, which is rich ___(32)___ plankton and other marine life. Some whales are social, travelling in groups called schools, herds, pods, or gams. Whales produce two basic types of underwater sounds. The low-pitched signals, ___(33)___ the barks, whistles, screams, and moans audible to humans, are used in social communication, ____(34)___ the brief clicks of high-intensity sound, usually inaudible to the unaided human ear, are used to ____(35)___ or to identify food sources.

31) A) each B) all C) many D) much E) plenty

32) A) in B) on C) at D) from E) over

33) A) the same as B) similar to C) different from D) such as E) like

34) A) as B) while C) contrary to D) by contrast E) even so

35) A) navigate B) separate C) estimate D) devastate E) escalate

___(36)___ of the great figures of the 20th century, Atatürk rescued the surviving Turkish remnant of the defeated Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I. He galvanized his people _____(37)___ invading Greek forces who sought to impose the Allied will upon the war-weary Turks and repulsed aggression by British, French, and Italian troops. ____(38)___ these struggles, he founded the modern Republic of Turkey, ____(39)____ he is still revered by the Turks. He succeeded in restoring to his people pride in their Turkishness, coupled with a new sense of accomplishment ___(40)___ their backward nation was brought into the modern world.

36) A) Many B) Much C) Plenty D) One E) Some

37) A) against B) among C) across D) onto E) into

38) A) In terms of B) In case of C) With regard to D) Under E) Through

39) A) on which B) in which C) at which D) with which E) for which

40) A) because of B) on account of C) inasmuch as D) due to E) notwithstanding
 
                Test 2
 
Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803- 1882 ) was a sage, not a scientist, but he was more keenly interested in the scientific advances of his day than is commonly realized . One of his early aspirations was to be "a naturalist", and he started his career (21)….. a lecturer- essayist by giving talks on natural science, (22)…… one focused on the chemical composition of water. (23)…….. Emerson went on to make his mark primarily in the areas of literature, religion, philosophy and social reform,* he remained an eager lifelong student of both traditional and contemporary natural and social science. To date, however, this side of Emerson's thought and life (24) …….only a handful of significant scholarly discussions. Emerson's life in science is the best of books (25)…….. this aspect of Emerson that have marked the bicentennial of his birth, and it is one that will endure. (2004 kpds cloze test)

Tipik bir biografi paragrafı. Bu tip parçalarda sorulan kelime ve yapılar bellidir. Birbirlerine çok benzeyen parçalar olduğu için sorulan sorularda aşağı yukarı aynıdır.

21. a) more
b) so
c) such
d) as [kariyerine konferansçı olarak başladı]
e) only

22. a) describing
b) including [içeren ifadesi arada “on natural science” olmasına rağmen “talks” ifadesini nitelemektedir]
c) considering
d) intending
e) defining

23. a) although [Seçeneklerde verilen tek iki ayrı cümleyi birbirine bağlayan yapı “-e rağmen] *buradaki virgül iki cümleyi birbirinden ayırmaktadır ve bu bağlaç sadece bağlayabilir.
b) therefore
c) so that
d) but
e) since

24. a) should attract
b) is attracting
c) will attract
d) has attracted [“to date” şu ana kadar anlamı verir ve present perfect kullanımı gerektirmektedir. Normalde gramer kitaplarında bu yapıyı göremezsiniz ancak parçalarda görebilirsiniz.]
e)had attracted

25. a) to
b) for
c) on [hakkında anlamı veren bir preposition]
d) with
e) at

Virtual Reality (VR) is the term used __(1)__ computer simulations of reality which are very __(2)__ to real-life experience. To enter VR, you __(3)__ a special headset, or head-mounted display (HMD) which allows you to see three-dimensional, computer-generated images. You also hear sound effects and wear a special glove, __(4)__, like the HMD, is connected to the computer. This glove allots you to __(5)__ the objects that you see and to have some sense of touch.

1)
A) to describing
B) to describe
C) describes
D) describing
E) described

2)
A) different
B) same
C) distinct
D) like
E) similar

3)
A) put on
B) wear out
C) call off
D) do up
E) add up

4)
A) that
B) where
C) which
D) who
E) when

5)
A) render
B) manipulate
C) hinder
D) emaciate
E) deprive

The Romans built hundreds of miles of aqueducts that __(6)__ the population with a generous supply of fresh water, __(7)__ more than 200 million gallons a day for the city of Rome. The city provided public baths, toilets, and more than a thousand public fountains for the poor __(8)__ today direct pipelines __(9)__ the villas of the wealthy. Sewers and organized garbage collections made imperial Rome __(10)__ healthier than other cities of antiquity.

6)
A) enabled
B) provided
C) allowed
D) allotted
E) let

7)
A) including
B) included
C) having been included
D) having included
E) includes

8)
A) before
B) soon after
C) until
D) while
E) when
 
9)
A) had served
B) serve
C) served
D) were serving
E) serves

10)
A) more
B) quite
C) much
D) fairly
E) pretty

In the early 19th century Sir Henry Morton made his fortune __(11)__ tea and coffee. He used his money to build up a magnificent private art collection. __(12)__ he died, in 1842, he __(13)__ all his paintings and sculptures in a small museum which was open to the public. In his last will and testament, he left money for the maintenance of the museum. __(14)__ the terms of the will, nothing in the museum must __(15)__ be sold and entrance to the museum must be free.

11)
A) to import
B) by importing
C) imports
D) having been imported
E) imported

12)
A) Just before
B) When
C) After
D) Until
E) Whereas

13)
A) puts
B) had put
C) is putting
D) put
E) has put

14)
A) Despite
B) Thus
C) Accordingly
D) According to
E) Therefore

15)
A) never
B) by far
C) ever
D) as ever
E) whatsoever

Aristotle was born in Macedonia in 384 B.C., the son of a physician. __(16)__ a boy he was educated in that country as his father __(17)__ to the royal Court of the Macedonian king. At 17 he went to Athens __(18)__ he spent the next 20 years. He was Plato's pupil for the first few years. He was a member of the Academy but not __(19)__ in residence. In 342 he undertook the tutorship of Alexander, then 13 years of age, son of Philip, King of Macedonia. He continued this responsibility for three years __(20)__ time Alexander became regent of the Kingdom as his father was absent on military duties. When Alexander succeeded his father (335 B.C.), Aristotle continued as his counselor and friend. Aristotle returned shortly to Athens and created a new school and center of learning called the Lyceum.

16)
A) As
B) Like
C) Though
D) Since
E) In spite of

17)
A) is attached
B) was attached
C) attached
D) has been attached
E) will be attached

18)
A) when
B) which
C) whose
D) at which
E) where

19)
A) continuous
B) continuity
C) continuously
D) continued
E) continuing

20)
A) for which
B) when
C) where
D) at which
E) that

The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences was established in May 1927 as a non-profit corporation to __(21)__ the art of movie making. In the first year, the Academy had 36 members, __(22)__ Douglas Fairbanks Sr as president. The first Academy Awards, now better known as the Oscars, __(23)__ at a private dinner in the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel, with less than 250 persons attending. Today, the Academy has over 6 000 honorary members - the Oscar Awards __(24)__ by more than a billion people on television. The first television broadcast of the Oscars took place in 1953 - on black and white TV, telecast throughout the US and Canada. Telecasting in colour begun in 1966, and __(25)__ 1969, the Oscars have been telecast throughout the world. By the mid-1990s it was telecast in over 100 countries.

21)
A) diminish
B) swear
C) verdict
D) relinquish
E) promote

22)
A) for
B) with
C) by
D) on
E) from

23)
A) presented
B) presenting
C) was presented
D) were presented
E) are presented

24)
A) were viewed
B) had been viewed
C) viewed
D) view
E) are viewed

25)
A) since
B) for
C) after
D) before
E) within

Cupid has always played a role in the celebrations of love. Those __(26)__ hearts are pierced by his arrows fall deeply in love. In Greek mythology he was known as Eros, the young son of Aphrodite, the goddess of love and beauty. To the Romans, he was Cupid, son of Venus. But where there’s love, there often is jealousy. Venus was __(27)__ of the beauty of Psyche, a mere mortal, and ordered Cupid to punish her for being so beautiful. __(28)__, Cupid fell deeply in love and took her as his wife. As a mortal Psyche, she was forbidden to look at him. Eventually, her sisters convinced her to look at the handsome Cupid. As punishment, Venus demanded that she __(29)__ three difficult tasks, the last of which caused Psyche's death. Cupid found her lifeless on the ground and removed the eternal sleep from her body. The gods, __(30)__ by their love, then granted Psyche immortality.

26)
A) who
B) whose
C) which
D) where
E) that

27)
A) remarkable
B) famous
C) noteworthy
D) humble
E) jealous

28)
A) Therefore
B) Instead
C) As a result of
D) Although
E) Nevertheless

29)
A) performs
B) performed
C) perform
D) performing
E) has performed

30)
A) moving
B) to move
C) having moved
D) to be moved
E) moved

In the not-so-distant future, the hand tightening bolts during space structure assembly __(31)__ not be human. Tomorrow's astronauts will find themselves working __(32)__ in space with human-like robots called "Robonauts." And while the faceless machines might look a little strange, these Robonauts are really quite sensitive. Don't expect to see them making the rounds on the talk-show circuit discussing their feelings, __(33)__. Their kind of sensitivity is strictly high-tech. Now the technology bringing these Space-Age helpers to life __(34)__ also at work in some surprising places. One common element drives these innovations, __(35)__ on Earth and in space: sensors.

31)
A) must
B) might
C) had to
D) should have
E) would

32)
A) at all costs
B) over and above
C) on and on
D) side by side
E) from all accounts

33)
A) though
B) although
C) thus
D) hence
E) but

34)
A) are
B) was
C) is
D) were
E) had been

35)
A) either
B) neither
C) not only
D) not
E) both

Experts believe that, with SAD, depression is __(36)__ triggered by the brain's response to decreased daylight exposure. No one really understands how and why this happens. Current theories __(37)__ what causes SAD focus on the role that sunlight might play in the brain's production of key hormones. Experts think that two specific chemicals in the brain, melatonin and serotonin, may __(38)__ in SAD. These two hormones __(39)__ regulate a person's sleep-wake cycles, energy, and mood. Shorter days and longer hours of darkness in fall and winter may cause increased levels of melatonin and decreased levels of serotonin, __(40)__ the biological conditions for depression.

36)
A) somewhat
B) somehow
C) somewhere
D) nohow
E) nowhere

37)
A) onto
B) from
C) on
D) about
E) within

38)
A) involve
B) have involved
C) to be involved
D) be involving
E) be involved

39)
A) assist
B) aid
C) help
D) allow
E) allocate

40)
A) creating
B) having created
C) created
D) to
create
E) creates

 
PARAGRAPH TEST
 
           

Test 1
 
The vegetarian diet is becoming increasingly popular all the time. Is the vegetarian or meat diet better? A decade ago and earlier, the impression was that a vegetarian diet was lacking in the nutrients found in meat products. Today though, through research and nutritional science, it has been proven that all the nutrients found in meat may at the same time be found in the correct vegetarian diet. Some may argue that by only consuming meat that is low in fat, meat and vegetarian diets have identical benefits. This is true only if one eats only very low fat meat. The lack of meat is not necessarily the main benefit of to the vegetarian. Vegetarians tend to eat more fruits, vegetables and grains than the meat eater. They also tend not to use tobacco and excessive alcohol. Moreover, vegetarians tend to get more exercise.

1) It is clear from the passage that meat and vegetarian diets have similar benefits .......

A) if the term vegetarian cannot be misleading
B) only if very low fat meat is eaten
C) as long as diet can take on many different variations
D) if a vegetarian consumes the same dairy products
E) because the term vegetarian is used to cover all facets and variations

2) It has been alleged that vegetarians do not only benefit from not eating meat in fact, ........

A) but other factors probably include exercise and resistance to smoking and alcohol intake
B) but the partial vegetarian eats anything except red meat
C) this is most likely due to the low fat and high carbohydrate content of their diet as well
D) they usually have lower blood pressure than meat eaters as well
E) they also benefit from not using tobacco and excessive alcohol while getting more exercise

3) In the past it was claimed that the nutrients found in meat products weren't found in a vegetarian diet.......

A) but it is proved to be wrong through research today
B) the last major benefit of the vegetarian diet is its relationship to cancer rate reduction
C) however the vegetarian diets advantages greatly outweigh its shortcomings
D) whether a meat eater or vegetarian, both diets may contribute to good health with proper planning
E) there are advantages and drawbacks to both diets

A social anxiety disorder or social phobia is the constant fear of being criticized or evaluated by other people. People with a social phobia are nervous, anxious, and afraid about many social situations. Simply attending a business meeting or going to a company party can be highly nerve wracking and intimidating. Despite the fact that people with social anxiety want very much to be social with everybody else, their anxiety about not doing well in public is strong and hinders their best efforts. They freeze up when they meet new people, particularly authority figures. They are particularly afraid that other people will notice that they are anxious, so this fear enables the anxiety to grow and turn into a vicious cycle.

4) Even though people with social anxiety want very much to be social with everybody else ..........

A) who is conscious of the fact that people might be staring at them
B) everyone is scared of something
C) everyone experiences nervousness, anxiety and even in superior feelings around certain people
D) they cannot overcome a social phobia without the patient first grasping exactly what triggers their fears
E) they cannot achieve it because of lack of self confidence

5) For someone with a social phobia, attending a business meeting or going to a company party may be highly nerve wracking and intimidating ......

A) as some people possess these feelings so deeply that their fear is considered irrational
B) Even they realize that it is illogical and that they have a phobia
C) because of being the centre of attraction
D) since a social phobia is the fear of social situations and the interactions with other people
E) for millions of people suffer from phobias every day of their lives.

6) People with a social phobia are nervous, anxious, and afraid about many social situations

A) and then learning how to get proper help
B) since many symptoms go hand in hand with this terrible phobia
C) because they are sure they are making a fool of themselves
D) since they are afraid of being criticized or evaluated by other people
E) for self-consciousness and anxiety rise to extremes

Although just a few years ago, most people regarded talk shows as ridiculous, now this chant is recognized and adored by many people in society. The most careful explanation for this is that the shows now have more interesting and captivating topics. The basis of most episodes of these shows has changed greatly over the past few years; The topics have moved away from large scale social issues, like homosexuality and cancer, to relationship and familial issues, like adultery and mothers that are too teasing with their daughter's boyfriends. Most people would argue that the issues being presented now are not as interesting or captivating as the older issues.

7) In spite of the fact that many people in society find today's talk show issues interesting ......

A) the general emotional content of the episodes has changed from sadness to anger
B) there are many people who find the older issues much more interesting and charming
C) there are many influences that cause extreme anger to be displayed by the guests on "talk shows"
D) the anxiety which you experienced is gone and replaced by anger, intense anger
E) not knowing what to expect, when you are nervous and anxious

8) Talk shows that were considered to be ridiculous beforehand ...........

A) are taken into consideration today
B) the emotions displayed by the guests in the newer shows are more visible
C) usually framed some questions in a certain way
D) but there are many psychological explanations for the increasing anger experienced by the guests on a talk show
E) they frequently use this framing effect to try to get the response which is more favourable for the interviewer or surveyor

9) The most significant reason which talk shows are recognized and adored by many people in society is that......

A) nothing seems awkward in these shows
B) questions can be phrased in different ways eliciting different responses
C) there is a strong correlation between the anger of his guests and the ratings
D) talk shows have interesting and charming topics
E) the question is framed in such a way that any answer given to it would evoke or intensify anger

The belief that one's own nation is superior or at least the strongest helped to create a feeling of patriotism and pride among the lower classes. I believe that the spread of nationalism throughout European society was a positive development. Nationalism helped to unite people with a common history and culture. It instilled pride and confidence among nations and gave people a sense of being. Contrary to the other ideologies of the time, nationalism proposed self- sacrifice for the good of others. However, I believe that at the beginning of the 20th century the idea of Social Darwinism corrupted it and permitted nationalism to be twisted by those who would exploit it.

10) In the beginning of the 20th century, when the idea of Social Darwinism came into scene

A) but, overall it had a positive effect on European society.
B) nationalism declined
C) it offered something to believe in when there wasn't much to believe in
D) there seems to be quite a bit more substantial proof on earth to support the theory of evolution
E) because of the fact actual samples of fossils have been collected and scientifically tested

11) It can be concluded from the paragraph that..........

A) the time periods show differences in bone structure showing the human evolving
B) the more a creature can adapt to it's environment the greater chance it has of living
C) there was no self-sacrifice for the good of others in other ideologies
D) Charles Darwin had conducted extensive research into the environmental adoptions of animals
E) this theory helps to prove the theory that humans evolved from apes

12) It is obvious from the passage that nationalism which helped to unite people with a common history and culture .......

A) the evidence of holding up much more
B) which can then be examined and placed along a timeline.
C) which is called environmental adaptation
D) to show an increase in population called survival of the fittest
E) gave people a sense of being

In today's materialistic driven society, people are judged in every probable aspect. From their appearance, background, social status, way of thinking to their friends, families. The necessity to be accepted and admired by others captivates the minds of many men and women of today. This conquest for social acceptance becomes so real that the idea then becomes an obsession. The way we look plays a big role in our lives. It determines the way others see us and from that, it will then determine how we feel about ourselves. One main supporter of appearance is our weight.

13) The way that we look plays such a big role in our lives that......

A) it determines the way others see us
B) they can look good for other people
C) they don't even admire them for their inner being
D) we ourselves abuse our health and bodies
E) there have been ways and tactics created by man

14) It has been claimed by the author that ......

A) but this applies to men as well
B) men and women are obsessed with their weights
C) your body needs to maintain itself
D) the struggle for social acceptance becomes a passion for people
E) what makes a person beautiful is the person as a whole

15) According to the paragraph the way which we look determines ......

A) exercising and eating right is a better healthier way to do
B) to see you are beautiful people
C) their mind, personality, attitude...being in his or herself
D) an empty-headed person who would harm themselves
E) how we feel about ourselves

The nineteenth century was a period of great change and accompanying social unrest in the British Isles. Most outstanding among the changes was the industrial revolution. As everything in life, it brought good, but it brought evil as well. The industrial revolution combined with the expansion of the British Empire made the United Kingdom, the richest and most powerful country in the world. Some of the islanders became unbelievably wealthy, but others, unfortunately, became unbelievably poor. Authors from this historical period aware of the human suffering, became social critics of what was taking place in England, of how the rich and powerful became more oppressive than before and how the very poor, were evenly more oppressed. Among these authors were Charles Dickens and George Eliot.

16) Even though the British Empire became the richest and most powerful country in the world

A) it describes the conflict and battle between these two groups
B) the gap between the rich and the poor increased after the industrial revolution
C) the factory workers and miners lacked basic human rights and their idea and beliefs were discarded
D) political candidates gave false hopes and promises so as to sway the opinion of people
E) a change for the good of the workers was provided

17) The most significant change of the nineteenth century was the industrial revolution ..........

A) claiming that their support of the radical movement would improve their lives
B) which would be used to rebuild estate and support political actions
C) being a radical, improvement, alter and modernization
D) which had modern opinions and ideas to alter the outcome of society
E) which brought both good and evil in life

18) It is easy to comprehend from the paragraph that improvement of industry in the British Isles………

A) wanted change and reform
B) caused social unrest as well
C) which forced society to choose what side would represent them
D) caused conflict in which people would only associate with individuals
E) despite the vast obstacle there was

Witnesses report many, many different shapes and sizes of UFO's, even shape changing ones. The famous "Two bowls joined at the rim" shape is reported frequently, but reports of objects shaped like cigars, squares, balls, triangles, rings, and GUITARS are also common. Many of these reports are of objects from far away, but reports of close encounters also exist. Some of the most interesting sightings, are reported on or near the ground. Often the person claims that the ship left a mark or something on the ground, this is called a "Trace Case".

19) In accordance with the paragraph,.....

A) these reports, however, have to be separated from others
B) a study of these reports are random and show no pattern
C) these reports have come from people living in rural areas
D) claims of witnessing a UFO have come from considerate, reliable people
E) most of the unknown flying objects are reported to have been on or near the ground

20) According to the paragraph, even although most of reported UFO's quite imaginative .......

A) there were real definitions as well
B) they claim they have been a part of the Alien Brotherhood
C) the U.S. Air Force attempted to study UFO's
D) the UFOs did not represent a threat to the United States
E) they never considered any of this to be a unique phenomenon

21) Although there were many reports about different shapes and sizes of UFO's .......

A) men learned a great amount of things from doing this project
B) there are many people out there studying these sightings, and reports
C) the most widespread was "Two bowls joined at the rim"
D) all of the UFO stuff is just abnormal weather conditions
E) are just waiting to be found out.

In the 1600's, when tobacco was founded by John Rolfe, tobacco suddenly became the major source of income for most of the colonists. The economic prosperity of the colonies was primarily dependent on the amount of tobacco produced. The growing of tobacco required a large amount of land, with a large stable work force. The increased demand for a large, stable work force combined with the availability of African slaves, led to the use of slavery in the colonies.

22) It can be concluded that the economic prosperity of the colonies was primarily dependent on the amount of tobacco produced .......

A) and then the availability of African slaves as a work force
B) but planters of tobacco had an abundance of land and a shortage of labour
C) however the servants were running away from their masters' farms
D) which was a major factor in the consideration of slaves on plantation
E) because tobacco was a plant that exhausts nutrients from the soil

23) The growing of tobacco in the colonies ..........

A) would be easier for slaves owing to the colour of their skin
B) was the ideal form of labour that would be most beneficial to productivity of any crop
C) required both a large amount of land and a large stable work
D) had a tradition of farming, and main agricultural skills.
E) needed to be educated on certain agricultural techniques

24) It can be inferred from the paragraph that..........

A) modern farming methods led to the rotation of crops
B) planters had to know how to make the land most productive
C) the slaves would only require to be educated once
D) the African slaves also had other characteristics
E) slavery started when tobacco was founded by John Rolfe in the sixteenth century
 
            Test 2
 
Before the paper machine was invented, paper was made by hand one at a time. In 1798, a Frenchman named Nicolas-Louis Robert invented a moving screen belt that would receive a continuous flow of stock and give an unbroken sheet of paper to a pair of squeeze rolls. The invention was not really used much, but two Englishmen, the Fourdrinier brothers, improved on Robert's idea and built a better version in 1807. From these crude beginnings modern papermaking machines were developed. In spite of the fact that modern creations and engineering have formed and ancient craft into a technical industry, the basic procedures remain the same.

1) Even though there are modern paper making machines,......

A) mechanical pulp was first made in Germany
B) there are practical methods for manufacturing paper from wood and vegetable pulps
C) many publishing processes were developed
D) there were mechanical or ground wood pulping and chemical pulping
E) the basic system is still the same

2) During the primitive stage of production ........

A) paper was made manually one by one
B) diverse substances required wetting and penetration
C) a sheet of paper composed of cellulose fibers
D) paper sheets were impregnated with animal glue
E) some methods were not widely used till 1840

3) According to the author, the paper machine that Fourdrinier brothers developed ........

A) depended on rags and linen and this made mass production possible
B) there were two major kinds of pulping processes used in the 18th century
C) which was not suitable for paper in which high whiteness and permanence were required
D) was based on Robert's invention
E) however high whiteness, strength and permanence were required

The kind of education that is offered in the high school system is not needed by all people. After primary school, students have learned the basic skills required to work in an untrained profession, and do not need the more advanced education that high school offers. Sons or daughters frequently carry on the family business, and after completing their primary education, any further, more advanced education is unnecessary, because they can learn all they need to know about their future profession from their father/mother.

4) According to the writer advanced education is not essential for some students ..........

A) but it doesn't mean that all students do the same
B) since they'll prefer a profession not requiring a special training
C) and these skills make students become successful individuals
D) as schools aren't the safest place in children's education
E) since violence in our schools prevents them from learning necessary skills

5) The primary school education is enough for some students ......

A) that this would tell anybody that there is no dignity in schools today
B) so long as it would benefit the students that want to learn
C) and this is said to be on account of all the school regulations
D) because every child hasn't been educated in a safe and secure environment
E) since they will carry on the family business and it doesn't require further education

6) Sons or daughters that learn whatever they need to know about their future profession from their parents ..........

A) don't need advanced education ,.
B) but we aren't so sure that this is true anymore
C) and student failure seems to be growing swiftly these days
D) when they realize there is far too much virtue in education
E) but parents begin to worry about their children at school

In high school there are more trouble makers that only disrupt the classes as they do not want to be there. These people disrupt the class and make it more difficult for those who are interested in the subject and want to learn. If school were optional, these students would not be in classes disrupting the class and ruining the chances of other students. Instead, they could be out in the workforce making money and beginning their careers earlier, giving them more experience in the workforce and making it easier for them to rise up to a position of responsibility.

7) The author seems to be for optional school .......

A) for there have been several school shootings in the last few years
B) because some students want to complete their secondary education
C) since there is definitely a problem with school violence today
D) because it would be useful for the students who want to learn
E) for the problem seems to be getting worse every year

8) Another advantage of optional school for trouble making students is that..........

A) it is unfair to force all young people to attend school
B) they could be out in the workforce making money
C) secondary education ought to be the individual's choice
D) it can be the student's choice to enter the workforce
E) this is one indication that school violence is out of hand

9) The most significant result of unwilling students to disrupt the class is that..........

A) it is difficult to learn for the students who are really interested in learning
B) the past three years have revealed us that violence in our schools is more common today than ever before
C) every time there is an occurrence of violence more children are afraid to go to school
D) school violence has been growing quickly for the past three years
E) school violence is an issue which everyone may recognize but not everyone is doing something to help prevent it

Nearly all of the people who commit suicide are unhappy with their lives. This statement holds true with me, because whenever I am happy I look forward to the next day and having fun in life. People, who are selfish and greedy, generally are not happy in their lives. They don't really have a purpose in life but the desire for money. But people who give and lead a virtuous life tend to. Be happy and strive toward helping others. The wise statement, give and you shall receive, is very true. I think in my life if I didn't give and help other people I would be very bitter and unpleasant.

10) It can be inferred from the paragraph that......

A) the writer is not helping anyone else
B) people tend to commit suicide if they are dissatisfied with their lives
C) the writer is giving himself something in return
D) we do not listen to what others say
E) we must try to keep ourselves happy and focused

11) According to the author people who have the desire only for money .......

A) are said to be unhappy in their lives
B) help out someone worse than others
C) know that helping someone less fortunate is very gratifying
D) try to achieve this place in their after life
E) which also helps them lead a devoted life with God

12) The author expresses that..........

A) from any perspective people have two choices in life
B) his goal in life is getting to heaven
C) God put us on this planet so that we could serve him and help out others
D) he'd be pleased to share something with others
E) he has to try and lead a virtuous life

There is something about our body that we all would like to change because we feel that our bodies are not good enough, like our height, our weight, our eye color, etc. We want to change ourselves because of the pressure that advertisements places on us to be one of the beautiful people. They make us feel worthless because we do not look like a super model. If the advertisers and the media stopped focusing so much attention on physical beauty and perfection and focused a little more on inner beauty and strengths, then maybe when we look in the mirror, we would not just see what we look like on the outside, we would be able to see the person we really are.

13) Advertisements influence us so much that.......

A) we feel that our bodies are clumsy when we look into the mirror
B) women will want to please their men and keep them happy
C) we will love our women in return
D) there is something about our body
E) advertisers and the media have a great effect on us

14) According to the author we want to change our appearance ..........

A) due to the fact that advertisements are not so beneficial
B) since advertisements make us feel worthless as we do not look like a super model
C) though it illustrate us that all women love them
D) when examined from a viewpoint of a social, cultural, historical and political context
E) but there were the same symptoms to frequent this casual spot

15) The author claims that we would be able to see our own character when we look into the mirror..........

A) and this puts an added pressure on women to have the perfect body
B) but we do not look like a super model anyhow
C) if the advertisers stopped focusing so much attention on physical beauty
D) and we are to say that we should become a top model
E) if we have a model's body
 
There's always the chance of the innocent being in the wrong place at the wrong time. A handful of evidence from a strong lawyer could sentence someone to life in prison, and even the death penalty. One could be spending and ending his life in captivity for just walking down the wrong street on the wrong day. It's a small fault in the justice system that is difficult to overcome, but that's someone's life, and not knowing the truth could be destroying.

16) Even if you are innocent you could either be sentenced to life imprisonment or death penalty ..........

A) since more and more people are becoming murderers
B) and some people believe that there is no compensation for death penalty
C) by an efficient lawyer by means of even a little evidence
D) however, we know that physical punishment is not always the correct answer
E) in a judging system that can become completely dull

17) An innocent one may be found guilty of any crime and sentenced to death ...........

A) because of being in a wrong place at a wrong time
B) as it is a rare occasion to go throughout a day in this world
C) and solving corruption with immorality is the only remedy
D) and if capital punishment is solely based on punishing the wrongdoers
E) but the major reason behind this massive disruption is not living in pleasure

18) According to the author keeping an innocent one in captivity .......

A) is a mistake you have to make no matter how hard you struggle
B) is a small fault in the justice system which is not easy to overcome
C) may be more destructive than so many other cases
D) is now a modern performance of contemporary law system
E) is like committing a crime while blaming others for what you've done

Plants are the basis of the food pyramid for all living things, even for other plants. They have always been very significant to people, not only for food, but also for clothing, weapons, tools, dyes, medicines, shelter and a great many other purposes. Both human beings and animals benefit from plants. We eat many various types of plants such as fruits and vegetables. We also use plants for our herbs. Plants are also used to manufacture many different products such as shampoos, rubber, paper, and camera film. In some countries, fermented sugar cane is used instead of gasoline. Animals use plants in many different ways also. They eat many fruits and other plants. Many animals use plants for shelter. Plants also provide animals with protection from predators. The destruction of different plants sometimes leads to animals becoming endangered or extinct.

19) Plants are significant for animals for feeding ........

A) and they are made from cells
B) to produce seeds which will form new plants the next year
C) when the plant is grown from cuttings, a fibrous root system will form
D) but they are also an important source of protection for animals
E) for they can still function to transport water

20) It is very clear from the paragraph that......

A) plants are used in different branches of industry as well
B) the basic structure of plants consists of roots, stem and leaves
C) different plants have different numbers=and shapes
D) woody plants are tree-like
E) the roots also help hold the plant in the ground

21) Plants are not only used as a source of food .......

A) they take in water from the soil through their roots
B) the water also passes through the vascular rays till it reaches the center of the root
C) but also as a medicine
D) they transport vitamins, minerals and water up and down inside the plant
E) but it also develops vigorous roots that anchor it to the soil.

About 10 percent of people with schizophrenia commit suicide, and many others attempt suicide. Once people develop schizophrenia, they generally suffer from the illness for the rest of their lives. Even though there is no cure, treatment can help many people with schizophrenia lead productive lives. Schizophrenia also carries an enormous cost to society. People with schizophrenia occupy about one-third of all beds in psychiatric hospitals in the United States.

Furthermore, people with schizophrenia account for at least 10 percent of the homeless population in the United States. The National Institute of Mental Health has estimated that schizophrenia costs the United States tens of billions of dollars per year in direct treatment, social services, and lost productivity.

22) There are so many schizophrenic people that..........

A) They develop schizophrenia at some time during their lives
B) women tend to experience the illness less severely
C) much less commonly, schizophrenia develops later in life
D) it usually develops slowly over months or years
E) they occupy about one-third of all beds in psychiatric hospitals in the United States

23) According to the author schizophrenia is incurable ......

A) but people with schizophrenia can become productive when they are kept under treatment
B) although women are just as likely as men to develop schizophrenia
C) it usually develops in late adolescence or early adulthood
D) because symptoms and functioning in people with schizophrenia tend to vary over time
E) and for many patients the symptoms gradually become less severe as they grow older

24) Schizophrenia is said to be incurable, that is, ......

A) a variety of symptoms characterize schizophrenia
B) the illness may begin abruptly
C) people with schizophrenia generally suffer from the illness for the rest of their lives
D) most people with schizophrenia do not recognize that their mental functioning is disturbed
E) the most prominent include symptoms of psychosis-such as delusions and hallucinations
 
            Test 3
 
Thomas More was a humanist with a true love for learning. Known as a leader, he recognized that leadership is a gift from God for the common good of humankind and the duty of that gift was a life of service to all. A dedicated family man, he was also a brilliant intellectual, patron of the arts, statesman, scholar, philosopher, and author whose writings have enriched our culture and literature. Educated at Oxford, he practiced law and entered the service of King Henry VIII as royal counsellor, ambassador, and Lord Chancellor. He was a man of conscience with a strong faith in God and an intense concern for the problems of his day. He was executed
as he rejected to compromise his deeply held principles and values. As a person of wide and varied interests that exhibited high standards of honour, Thomas More is an inspiration to students that seek to develop through their education the knowledge and values upon which they will base their lives, their careers, and service to others.

1) Thomas More thought that.......

A) a person should be adorable by others
B) a leader is always observed by his rivals
C) the only power all over the world was held by god
D) people must always be faithful to god
E) someone endowed with leadership who has a duty to serve mankind

2) Thomas More was a religious man ........

A) he was totally interested in theology
B) but he was aware of the problems of his day as well
C) he never neglected helping others
D) he used to have unusual interests
E) he was the luckiest one to have benefited from education

3) Despite the fact that Thomas More was executed as he refused to compromise his deeply held principles and values .....

A) he is an inspiration to students who seek to develop through their education the
knowledge and values upon which they will base their lives .
B) his views have been proved to be right now
C) he was the one to have been honoured during his time
D) he sacrificed his successful career for the sake of his ideals
E) his accomplishments can never be denied

Many theorists agree that social contact early in a child's life is crucial for healthy personality development. This is the most significant relationship of the child development period as it is from this that the child drives its confidence in the world. A break from this relationship is experienced as highly distressing and constitutes a considerable trauma. Through frequent social and emotional exchanges with parents the infant not only defines itself, but also acquires a particular style and orientation which some researchers believe is carried over into later life. Thus, the relationship between an infant and its care giver and its development is one that has generated much interest to developmental psychologists.

4) In accordance with the paragraph, an infant defines itself......

A) to examine the role and significance of attachment behaviours in development
B) there is an emotional regulation between the infant and the mother or caregiver
C) through frequent social and emotional exchanges with parents
D) through smiling and eye-to-eye contacts
E) the infant directs his attachment to human figures on an instinctual bias

5) In the paragraph, a lack of social contact is considered as ......

A) an attachment of restricted relationship between particular social figures
B) child psychology, and a particular phenomenon to reflect unique characteristics of the relationship
C) a care and protection during the most vulnerable period of development
D) highly distressing constituent of a sizeable trauma
E) explaining the importance of the mother-infant interaction within the overall framework of attachment behaviour

6) It can be understood from the paragraph that........

A) the infant's behaviour is directed by the primary goal of maintaining the mother's closeness
B) the child drives his or her confidence by means of social contact
C) the infant's attachment focuses on one figure, typically the primary caregiver
D) the infant now readily seeks the closeness to the caregiver
E) the infant and the caregiver takes the form of non-verbal communication

Obesity, smoking and other obsessions are said to be the most deadly of all diseases, but the deadliest of diseases are poverty and ignorance. They result in war, survivalist protectionism and far too many deaths, and under their umbrella are included those deaths caused by unhealthy obsessions. Because of these reasons, education is the most effective tool to combat all diseases around the globe.

7) The author points out that education is .......

A) feeding the soul, and ignorance so that they can address their physical existence
B) the most effective way of defying all diseases around the globe
C) gaining a sense of not only the wretchedness of life, but the beauty of it
D) a point which can also be observed in the fine arts
E) an issue which they have dragged themselves out of it

8) In this paragraph, the author defines education ..........

A) as a server of peace and health in the world
B) which ought to be applied physically
C) for people to have a chance to raise themselves out of poverty
D) by becoming personally involved with such works
E) an individual can see how others have experienced ignorance

9) According to the author the deadliest of diseases are poverty and ignorance .......

A) which cause homelessness instead of strong ideals
B) serve not only the body, but the soul
C) through a soul search on these different observations of life
D) that seek pleasure and those who suffers from love
E) because they cause too many deaths

The divorce rate in the United States almost doubles all rivalling countries. For every 1.000 carriages there are twenty-one divorces. Divorce will alter an individual's life. However, it is up to the individual to decide whether the change will be for the better or the worse. Despite the fact that divorce is a life-shattering event, it doesn't have to spoil the individuals involved. There are many things that people can do to lessen the chances of having to go through a divorce. If the individual has to go through a divorce there are many steps in the healing process.

10) The author claims that divorcing people determine ...........

A) if their life will get better or worse
B) to wait until they are sure they want to get married
C) jumping into marriage without knowing what they are getting into
D) if it is a full time job with no vacations
E) to find the right one and settle down

11) According to the author although divorce is a spoiling incident..........

A) too many marriages fail to survive
B) children of divorced couples are more likely to drop out of school
C) lives of those who involved don't need to change because of divorce
D) not all children of divorced parents suffer as extensively
E) there are people that are splitting up

12) According to the author although divorce is a life destroying event.......

A) it may be avoided wisely
B) even if there is a good chance to heal
C) one must choose the right one to marry
D) more than it has been anticipated
E) there are a lot of things ,to do in the healing process

I am very open to diverse religions, cultures, and practices as I know many people with different backgrounds and beliefs. Since I've been influenced by various people, I've learned at
a very young age to never judge people by how they look, dress, feel, or act. I am very fortunate to have learned that lesson at a young age since many people still do not understand the significance of accepting differences.

13) According to the author people who do not understand the importance of accepting differences ..........

A) tend to judge others by their appearance
B) do not prefer to listen to what others have said
C) would sooner not contribute to different religions, cultures, and practices
D) generally compare their own opinions with others'
E) do not mind whatever the other groups have said
 
14) What makes the author to be very open to different religions, cultures and practices ..........

A) has made him better at individual work
B) has been the thoughts the writer has already owned
C) has been knowing many people with different backgrounds and beliefs
D) usually influences why the writer has been totally impartial
E) has been contributing a large amount of information to himself

15) The author regards himself to be fortunate enough .......

A) as to like listening to others' opinions
B) to show his unusual emotions in different religions, cultures and practices
C) because his self confidence doesn't need any motivation
D) to see his life seems to be motionless, and not going anywhere
E) to have understood the importance of accepting differences earlier

The zipper is a very widespread fastener used to secure all kinds of things, particularly clothing. But the zipper wasn't always around. Before the zipper was invented, buttons were used in fastening clothes, and so were hooks and eyes that had to be fastened manually. When the zipper first came out, it was somewhat of an oddity; it wasn't widely accepted. But slowly, more and more people began noticing its convenient applications, and soon it could be seen everywhere. The zipper started off as a novelty, and because of its convenience, it is now a necessity.

16) The zipper that has been a necessity of our daily life..........

A) is the most important invention of humanity
B) was much tougher than the zipper we know today
C) was a strange thing when it was first introduced
D) because it has to be improved as a fastener to secure our clothing
E) but there are more useful applications to be found

17) The zipper that we use practically today ..........

A) has hardly been adopted by the people who use buttons and hooks to fasten their
clothes
B) was invented rather late because people used to use buttons and hooks to fasten their clothes
C) didn't work as well as the inventor had expected
D) replaced buttons and hooks which were used in fastening clothes in the past
E) was recorded among the most necessary inventions of our time

18) When people saw the zipper was very appropriate for application ..........

A) it became widespread in a short time
B) it was first used by certain rich people
C) it was different from hooks and eyes that could be fastened
D) there was no other device that could be used to fasten clothing
E) it was assumed that the zipper was not a faulty fastener

From the minute you are born the family effect starts to impact your thought process. A child is like a sponge that absorbs ideas and beliefs. Beliefs are taught to a child in minor ways such as just listening to the parents and their ideas from everything containing politics, social problems, moral issues and even opinions about how others behave. It is within the family unit that a person learns their moral values. It is from their parents that a child is taught right and
wrong. Often this is through religious training.

19) A person's political or religious beliefs are usually formed during childhood ..........

A) without neglecting the family influence on these issues
B) by communicating with their parents on various subjects
C) after being given an opinion in a debate
D) and they ought to find reasons to defend a certain viewpoint
E) after listening to their parents' opinions and comments about these subjects

20) One's course of thought develops in the family ..........

A) as parents are dominant and always talk in the family
B) but school is often the first preference of children for education
C) when parents explain their children something completely true
D) whenever he or she is born
E) as soon as parents teach children to use a process of thought

21) The author resembles a child to a sponge ..........

A) when it becomes a main influence on a young person's thinking
B) because a child absorbs ideas and beliefs like a sponge that absorbs water
C) no matter how much a child can learn from his or her family
D) which they see the world through outside influences
E) when they experiment with ideas and values of their own

Not to trust is abnormal and is the natural result of bitter or even traumatic life experiences. Mistrust or distrust is stimulated not by our own thoughts, nor by some device or machination of ours - but by life's sad situations. To continue not to trust is to reward the people that wronged us and made us distrustful in the first place. These people have already abandoned us and still they have a great, hateful influence on our lives.

22) According to the author, not to trust, which he considers to be abnormal, ..........

A) is like some bad device or machination of ours
B) is the humour which the writer wants to show us
C) is not so disappointing as other bitter and traumatic life experiences
D) should not be expressed in all discussions outrageously
E) is the natural result of bad life experiences

23) It is understood from the paragraph that you reward people that have a great hateful influence on your life .......

A) then you will frequently be disappointed all through your life
B) they are likely to become much happier
C) you must know whom to trust in which field
D) so long as you continue not to trust them
E) it releases an enormous amount of your mental power

24) It can be concluded from the paragraph that..........

A) mistrust or distrust is stimulated by life's sad circumstances
B) this kind of trust is very common in business
C) some of us prefer not to experience this sinking feeling
D) excessive mistrust can be dangerous to your health
E) the trust must be put to the test and observed
 
                Test 4
 
Physical fitness is having ample energy and the ability to fulfil daily activities without being exhausted. My energy generally depends on the amount of sleep and food I get. If I have too much or too little sleep, I don't look forward to the day and am not enthusiastic about doing things. Unless I have a complete breakfast, it affects my energy level. When I have a good breakfast, and enough sleep, I can go through a whole day with enough energy and alertness to do many things.

1) If the author has good breakfast, and enough sleep .......

A) the writer can move with speed and can change his direction quickly
B) it makes him flexible through his daily activities
C) the day provides him a better endurance
D) he does not find an easy way of making a living
E) he can spend his day actively to do many things

2) The author says that he can not carry out his daily activities properly ..........

A) if he has slept excessively or insufficiently
B) when he cannot keep his balance properly
C) if his intellectual self doesn't deal with learning, and creativity
D) which means he cannot learn the best way of getting adequate information
E) before judging himself after a busy day

3) According to the author, people performing their daily activities without being exhausted

A) express themselves by using their creativity
B) can see and organize the problems more clearly
C) help others make their decisions in a similar way
D) can be considered physically fit
E) should notice the consequences of each choice

Another common argument in divorce is that the two individuals involved may have unlike ideas of what they want from their marriage. Most couples face the problems of one wants children and the other doesn't. One divorced woman feels that the biggest problem in marriages is that in the beginning both people ignore the small problems and they end up turning into even larger problems as they are ignored. Communication is the key to making any marriage work.

4) One of the common arguments in divorce which the two individuals involved is

A) because of the feeling that every situation is unique
B) having children or not
C) trying to adjust their new way of life
D) believing that they are not to be blamed for the divorce
E) that many parents don't realize this need yet

5) According to a divorced woman the most significant problem is ignoring small problems

A) children need to be told that it has nothing to do with them
B) neither seems to know the true answer
C) divorce makes everything difficult for children
D) that become larger in the end
E) a large amount of time iş wasted to help themselves get over the pain

6) According to the author, couples that want to continue their marriage .......

A) should understand each other by communicating
B) is hard for children to see their parents always arguing
C) ought to stay together for children's sake
D) have been ranged according to divorce rate
E) are likely to have adjustment problems

Up until the last decade, serious scientists assumed that love was all in the head. Now the research has become more intense. This may be owing to the spreading of AIDS and that casual sex carries mortal risks. Others point to the growing number of female scientists and suggest that they may be more willing than their male colleagues to take love seriously. Whatever the reason, science has come around to a view that romance is real. That it is bred into our biology.

7) Some people indicate that female scientists whose number is growing ..........

A) have just been conducted by several research scientists
B) may provide scientists a better way of conducting reliable experiments
C) have still not been searched by all means
D) have been researching love more seriously than male scientists
E) have found out that dealing with problems is almost impossible

8) One of the reasons which the research about love has become deeper ..........

A) because of AIDS which has been spreading
B) for love can neither be felt or measured
C) so long as love is still in the air
D) as the idea of love is an invention of the mind rather than a biological fact
E) that exactly shows how to place this mysterious emotion

9) In spite of the past belief that love was all in the head .......

A) has been abolished again by the society
B) it is probable for humans to communicate without love
C) we have always been influenced by love in our culture
D) it doesn't imply that love is just a false emotion
E) it has almost become reality now

There are many advantages to a Capitalist economic system that could make it very appealing to society. The system allows the powers, of market forces to operate which in turn gives the consumer a wider range of goods and services. Also because producers are always seeking the highest profit they must try to please the consumer and win their custom. This leads to innovation and greater quality and variety. The firms that produce the correct goods and services will win custom and make profit, those which don't will go out of business and therefore release their resources to the successful firms. This will result in the expansion of the economy and greater prosperity.

10) It is clearly understood from the paragraph that in a Capitalist economic system ..........

A) individuals' purchasing power is becoming more unequal
B) only the consumer has the power to dictate the goods in the economy
C) there is competition among the powers of market
D) consumers are more innovative and be more talented
E) they promote consumers to a higher range economically

11) According to the paragraph, producers that are always seeking the highest profit..........

A) will lead to homelessness, slums, disease, etc.
B) will lead to great unrest and low morale in the society in the end
C) is due to the fact that some people will always be able to work harder
D) can be more profitable and wealthy
E) lead to innovation and greater quality and variety beneficial to consumers

12) The expansion of the economy and greater prosperity is probable ..........

A) since the consumer has all the power in the economy
B) by introducing the suitable goods and services for the
benefit of consumers by the firms
C) contrary to the inequality of wealth within the economy
D) so as to make the rich get richer and the poor stay poor
E) so long as to the ever growing population is kept under control

Pollution is the introduction of harmful substances or products into the environment. It is a major problem in America and as well as the world. Pollution not only damages the environment, but damages us also. It has caused many problems ranging from lung cancer to the greenhouse effect. It is all among us but we continue to live in our own filth.

13) According to the author human beings ...........

A) human death has all occurred as a direct result of pollution
B) pollution lays in the centre of natural environment
C) are not really related with vital environmental problems
D) have been living in the environment they've themselves contaminated
E) contaminate their drinking water and soil as well


14) We cause environmental pollution ...........

A) by keeping the plant life from growing
B) as hot water kills most life it comes into contact with
C) that means the small bacteria and other micro organisms can't grow
D) because fish can't feed and so the ecosystem dies
E) by releasing harmful substances or products into the environment

15) Polluting the environment has too many effects on our lives ..........

A) including our health
B) by dumping waste materials around us
C) causing entire destruction of an ecosystem
D) in addition to the pollutants dumped by industry
E) because some companies dump chemicals around us

There are millions of homeless in America today. Most of these people had no choice but to become homeless. Economic problems such as being laid off work, or the rise in the cost of housing had lead people to live on the streets. Many of the homeless are women that have become divorced or have left home because of physical abuse. These women have no education as they have not been given the chance to go and get the education that it takes nowadays to get the job, so they are forced to live on the streets. They have no family to help them and they are left with no other choice.

16) Since the available jobs which women can get usually require education ..........

A) their families can provide any help for them
B) women are also forced to live on the streets
C) uneducated ones are exactly unfortunate
D) but some fathers are there to force them to live on the streets
E) their young ones need to stay alive

17) Many of the homeless women that got divorced or left home .......

A) even don't have families to support them either
B) generally have mental defects
C) are seen on the streets struggling to stay warm
D) are obliged to be among the homeless people
E) are the illegal immigrants that come here from other countries

18) Many people have become homeless ...........

A) and there are many other people that become homeless for many different reasons
B) are incapable of handling the stress of living on their own
C) because they get kicked out of their homes and are ashamed to go to their families
D) so they have to resort to prostitution to pay for the food
E) either because of being unemployed or the rise in the cost of housing

Aristotle is thought to be one of the greatest historians. Aristotle based his ethics on human nature. Aristotle got most of his work from one of the greatest Catholic philosophers, Thomas Aquinas. Aristotle claims that everyone's goal is happiness. He declared that there is only one way to achieve true happiness and that is by living a virtuous life. He said that if one is not living a virtuous life, then they are not truly happy. Being happy is one of the biggest goals in life. Some people have tons of money and live very extravagantly, but they may hate what they do. That is because many people choose not to become businessmen or lawyers, some become policemen or priests. If people did what makes them happy, they wouldn't be so stressed out and there wouldn't be as many suicides.

19) It can be inferred from the paragraph that......

A) Aristotle seems to put much emphasis throughout his writings on the similarity of the
animal and humans
B) the major difference of man is his mind
C) the reason of stress and suicides for people is not doing what makes them happy
D) nutrition is shared by all natural living organisms
E) animals and plants are very different in fact

20) Aristotle thinks that living a virtuous life .......

A) is the key to achieve true happiness
B) is also putting much emphasis on some facts
C) is exclusively a human property
D) which means animals are very close to humans
E) that means any creature with reason will also have perception

21) It is clear from the paragraph that.......

A) perception is the capacity of the soul which is identical to man
B) Aristotle has many other examples of human behaviour
C) Aristotle explains the qualities of plants, animals, and humans
D) Aristotle was mostly inspired by Thomas Aquinas
E) Aristotle does focus much of his attention on the similarities that one must recognize

All the migrating seabirds like guillemots, puffins, and razorbills are at risk from oil pollution. During migration, they look for calm water where they rest and fish. Oil covered seas look calm to birds, and they land on the water by thousands, only to be trapped in the oil and die of starvation. The birds which don't become trapped usually die as well from trying to remove the oil from their feathers, the birds ingest the oil and that usually kills them in a few days. The oil which washes to shore on the beaches where seals and sea lion breed harm these animals as well, any animals that get caught in the oil usually die.

22) In accordance with the paragraph it may be said that.......

A) there are areas really rich in wildlife
B) the oil coats animals' fur and they can't swim or maintain their body temperature
C) some animals freeze to death
D) oil spills usually kill all animals that get caught in them
E) when a marine animal dies it is usually eaten by other species

23) Oil spills not only kill sea birds .......

A) which than get broken down by bacteria
B) it is freezing and the process of evaporation is slow due to the low temperature
C) these chemicals break down the oil into tiny particles
D) which feed on some of the hydrocarbons in the oil
E) but also seals and sea lions


24) When birds land on oil covered seas ......

A) they die of either starvation or oil poisoning
B) some of those species get poisoned too
C) in these conditions the oil must be burned
D) in calm waters, floating booms can contain the oil
E) that can be pumped off the surface of the sea into holding tanks
 
            Test 5
 
Scientists who think that children learn aggressive behaviour from TV also emphasize that parents have the power over what their children watch. Because of this, many scientists recommend a number of things that parents can do. Reduce the amount of hours of TV that your children watch, watch at least one episode of the shows your children watch, and when they see a violent act on the show that their children are watching, discuss it with your child and tell them that this kind of behaviour is not good and not the way to solve problems.

1) According to the author, parents are proficient enough .......

A) to instruct what their children can watch on TV
B) to ban any shows that you think are worthless for your children
C) to let them watch shows that demonstrate various qualities
D) to stop the violence on television and stop it
E) to keep your kids away from the violence

2) According to one of the recommendations of scientists .......

A) your children , like caring and sharing
B) it is pretty clear that the children are being exposed to violence on television
C) parents ought to limit their children's W watching hours
D) this should be a wake up call to everyone
E) this exposure is having a negative effect on them

3) In case of their children's watching violent acts on TV, scientists advise ..........

A) we need know that the children of our country will be affected
B) children that witnessed violence may think that violence is acceptable
C) children will continue receiving negative effect without regulations
D) parents to discuss it with their children by explaining this kind of behaviour is not favourable
E) violence on television leads to aggression in children

Qualified teachers instruct students during their education. Sometimes, there are teachers that do not meet the teaching standards. In this case, the parents should voice the problem to the school authorities as there is a better chance of finding a solution. Parents' spending quality time makes a difference in a child's attitude. Children learn from their parents' morals, values, and boundaries that they will use throughout their life. A parent must be able to communicate and be an active listener with the child. This kind of support will help the child and the parents feel secure in their relationship. As a result, they will be able to work out any problem together such as the child having a difficult school project or a conflict with another student.

4) If a parent is able to communicate and an active listener with the child .......

A) conventional schooling is not as miserable as some think
B) so this kind of education is not affordable to everyone
C) the expense is only one element to home schooling
D) they should know that home schooling is a twenty four hour responsibility
E) they will be able to overcome difficulties together

5) According to the author the support which should be provided to the child is essentially

A) observing
B) moral
C) communicative
D) religious
E) educational

6) If parents find out that there are ineffective teachers not meeting the teaching standards

A) the school authorities find a solution when the parents tell them about it
B) the average home schooling income is higher than estimated this a year
C) it also takes discipline from both parents
D) mothers do most of the teaching while the fathers do a little of it
E) the fathers seem to be the major financial providers for the family

The media does not go around reporting all of the good things athletes do, just the bad things and their mistakes. They are only human just like the rest of us. Are these people safe for our children to idolize to look up to? I think that the answer is yes! If you were watching the news, would you really want to hear about all of the charities which an athlete has donated money to? It would be interesting at first, but you would get tired of it afterwards. That is why the media never covers anything like this. We all know that they really don't care about anything else apart from a hot topic.

7) According to the author it is usual for an athlete to do mistakes ........

A) like those famous American Athletes
B) so long as ambition has been the stamina of every athlete
C) because they are human-beings just like us
D) even the weakest, most injured athlete is preserved raw ambition
E) but each athlete is blessed by pure and passionate personality

8) Why has the media been interested in the bad things and mistakes which athletes do?

A) As every great conflict has existed among all athletes.
B) As the truth really does not mean anything to them.
C) Because it is liable to cause as much suffering and damage as possible.
D) Because such news are rare and the public have always been interested in them.
E) Since an annoyed athlete is supported not by his schemes, but by the ambition to win.

9) Why don't the public find the news about all of the charities which an athlete has donated money to interesting ?

A) Because such occasions are so common that they consider such matters very ordinary
B) Since only the collective force of competition is found in a race
C) Because attraction is the source of all that is good and all that is evil
D) Because the truth he successfully conveys that athletes are always adorable.
E) As every marathon runner, Olympic walker smells of passion which keep them alert.

The air does get a bit warmer after the middle of March. But it is always covered in dampness that no furnace in the world can hope to dry. Of course the season fools us by granting one or two nice days so we can get out and proclaim that winter finally left. The following day brings the beginning of at least two or three weeks of sub-freezing weather. Even after the temperature reaches the freezing mark, that sluggish low pressure over the Bay of Maine arrives to give us perpetually depressing grey days.

10) Even though it has been March, the spring season,..........

A) you can just see several nice days
B) and then the mud goes into hibernation
C) so it may gain strength to once again drive us mad
D) it is still so damp around as to be dried by any furnace in the world
E) there will always be drizzle

11) The author tries to point out ..........

A) when another New England mud season arrives
B) how people are betrayed by seasons
C) there is little we can do to survive this season
D) that would create another famous New England condition
E) there would always be perpetually depressing gray days

12) The way the season fools us is that.......

A) it stays till early summer
B) the spring mud season never ends
C) several weeks of cold weather arrives after two nice days
D) however, we could stay home anyway
E) two to three months wouldn't be so bad

Not nearly as many teens would have guns if they didn't get the money from selling drugs. So if we can stop the selling of drugs, less people will have money to buy guns and there will be less violence. We can at the same time blame our parents for violence. When parents buy a gun and put it away, their kids could get hold of it and bring it to school. This is why parents ought to lock away their weapons not just stick it in a drawer or on the top shelf of a closet.

13) According to the author many teenagers would scarcely have guns ..........

A) unless they provided money by selling drugs
B) by keeping it where it can't be found easily
C) where they can get hold of it in danger
D) if parents don't keep a weapon around the house unless it's necessary
E) but carrying guns around schools is becoming more and more popular

14) Our parents are blamed to have a share for causing violence ....

A) for many people have been killed or seriously injured
B) because they do not keep their weapons away from children's attention
C) that has caused many problems
D) is teaching our children young about this stuff
E) since you don't need to keep a weapon in your house

15) It is obvious from the paragraph that..........

A) parents are already responsible for the safety of their children
B) we must do our best to prevent violence in schools from increasing
C) it is possible to decline violence by stopping drug sale
D) people think that carrying guns around schools with them will make them cool
E) security experts have reported that there is no evidence

Alcoholism is a disease which affects many people in the US today. It not only affects the alcoholic, but also their family, friends. The symptoms are many, as are the causes and the effects. Alcoholism is defined as a pattern of drinking in which harmful consequences result for the drinker, yet, they continue to drink. There are two types of drinkers. The first type, the casual or social drinker, drinks because they want to. They drink with a friend or with a group for pleasure and only on occasion. The other type, the compulsive drinker, drinks because they have to, in spite of the adverse effects that drinking has on their lives.

16) If you feel obliged to drink despite the negative effects..........

A) there are fatalities, injuries, diseases caused by the use and abuse of alcohol
B) alcoholism is a serious problem in today's society
C) you can help control the number of alcoholics in the United States
D) it contains the large groups of users and abusers of alcohol
E) you are a compulsive drinker

17) It has been revealed in the paragraph that..........

A) an alcoholic influences both himself and his family
B) alcoholism can also be related to emotional instabilities
C) drinkers gain as much knowledge as possible about the symptoms and effects of alcoholism
D) alcoholism is often associated with a family history of manic-depressive illness
E) society tends to aid in the development of alcoholism
 
18) Those who drink just for joy are ..........

A) casual or social drinkers
B) extremely significant for the public
C) education and realization of the effects alcoholism can have
D) social and cultural factors that play roles in to establishing drinking patterns
E) becoming more popular, more glamorous and more worthy of respects from others

Generally speaking, people hate war, and want to avoid it at all costs. It is believed that a large part of why America went to Vietnam was for monetary reasons. Companies have to make all of the ships, helicopters, airplanes, and supplies. As a result, jobs are created and the economy is stimulated, but the U.S. government never tells that to the public. It is very probable that these were hidden reasons for the Vietnam war, but the government simply turned it into an issue of freedom.

19) The American knew that their government..........

A) went to North Vietnam to sign a peace treaty
B) because the US Navy knew that there was no option but to go to war
C) wanted to profit from the Vietnam war
D) it was not a technical war
E) there was an argument if the US must be the stimulator

20) America's going to Vietnam war was for monetary reasons, that is .......

A) jobs would be available and the economy would become active during the war
B) and they had the alternative to believe that they were involved for noble and acceptable reasons
C) it is not necessarily the freedom of all those involved
D) there had been many characteristics waiting for fighting
E) there may be some truth in that :

21) The U.S. government turned the Vietnam issue to an issue of freedom ..........

A) since the war would never have occurred
B) but freedom of some type is directly concerned with all major conflicts
C) the cynics will tell you that Americans go to war for joy
D) that it was possibly true
E) but it was because of economical reasons

Part of what makes New England mud so unique is the sand and salt thrown on the roads by the brave men of our highway departments all winter. Those tons of mixed sand and salt don't just disappear. They simply evolve into the mud of spring. The type of mud which can dissolve the doors and fenders off our cars. The mud which sucks the shoes right off your feet dissolving the stitching that once held them together.

22) According to the author there becomes mud on highways ...........

A) because of sand and salt thrown on the roads during winter
B) and this mud creates a surface 10 times slicker than ice
C) and it is worse than ice as it plays a trick on you
D) where everyone lives on the coast
E) but winter never resembles what the rest of the country calls spring

23) Despite the fact that the mixture of salt and sand is expected to disappear..........

A) it is, on the other hand, the beginning of the mud season
B) this same mud dries in the middle of our roads
C) it becomes more hazardous than a thick layer of ice
D) that makes you think that the roads are safe
E) it turns into a spring mud by the time

24) The salt and sand mixture of mud becomes so harmful that...........

A) since it is always in the middle of the roads
B) it damages our cars and our shoes
C) they are worse than ice because it deceives you
D) the spring mud season sets in by mid-March
E) it doesn't go away until early June

            Test 6
 
It is not unusual to withdraw from dating and social activities for short periods of time after hurt or disappointment. During this period we often re-evaluate what has gone on. It can be a time for discovering new aspects of ourselves, who we are, what we truly want and need. When used in this manner, a time like this is beneficial. The hazard, of course, is that this withdrawal can last too long, and we become unwilling or afraid to try again.

1) It is probable that withdrawing from dating and social activities .........

A) will receive a great deal in return
B) is to learn how to see disappointment or difficulty
C) may last long enough to make us become unwilling or afraid to try again
D) finds out what it has to say to us
E) to take a moment to become silent, relax as much as you are able

2) Withdrawing from dating and social activities for short periods of time after hurt or disappointment........

A) without receiving anything at the moment
B) is trying to analyze or fight against what you are feeling .
C) is imposing ready made solutions on this
D) enables us to evaluate the previous improvements
E) may be realizing a little more than you did before

3) According to the author it is usual to leave ........

A) a friend without telling anything
B) dating and social activities for a short while after getting hurt or disappointed
C) this realization and patience
D) by giving the situation time to reply
E) walking down suddenly to tell something

The fiscal policy is composed of two main tools. The changing of tax rates, and changing government spending. The major point of fiscal policy is to keep the deficit swings in the economy to a minimum by reducing inflation and recession. A change in tax rates is usually implemented when inflation is unusually high, and there is a recession with high unemployment. With high inflation, taxes are increased so people have less to spend, thus reducing demand and inflation. During a recession with high unemployment, taxes are lowered to give more people money to spend and thus increasing demand for goods and
services, and the economy starts to revive.

4) According to the paragraph so long as there is a recession with high unemployment ........

A) open market operations affects money and credit operations
B) taxes are lowered to encourage people in order to increase demand for goods and services
C) this is used to control overall money supply
D) then they will buy the securities from member banks
E) it is easier to make gradual changes in the supply of money

5) When inflation is very high, and there is a recession with high unemployment.......

A) open market operations are used more regularly than monetary policy
B) member banks want to raise money
C) there is an interest rate, or a discount rate
D) a change in tax rates is generally applied
E) then fewer banks will be inclined to borrow

6) The fiscal policy is based on ........

A) purchasing and selling of government securities
B) sufficient money in circulation
C) changing tax rates and government spending
D) the high discount rate
E) enlarging the money supply

Self-help groups are composed of individuals who share the same problem or concern. Members provide emotional support to one another, learn ways to cope, discover strategies for improving their condition, and help others while helping themselves There are some goals to self-help groups. When interviewed, sixty-one percent of self-help groups said that their most important goal was providing emotional and social support to members. Thirty-two percent said that providing information and education to member was the most significant goal. A few other goals were support, special events, and fund raising.

7) It can be understood from the paragraph that ..........

A) most people don't know of any self-help groups
B) there are hundreds of groups that should be familiar with
C) people must learn what self-help groups there are in their area
D) a self-help group individual helps himself when he helps others
E) people do not always involve in self-help groups

8) It is concluded from the interview that majority of help groups ..........

A) don't know of any self-help groups
B) aim to provide emotional and social support to members
C) united with either a national group or a local group
D) neglect keeping a record of all the self-help groups that they can find in their area
E) ought to thoroughly cheer* out all groups to make sure that they are still functioning

9) It can be said that a self help groups' major feature is ..........

A) that self-help groups are not meant to replace professional help
B) learning about groups in the area they've been living
C) choosing which program they think will fit them best
D) the setting of self-help groups is usually pretty relaxed
E) being formed from members who share the same problem or concern

In the society of Mill's time period a woman's destiny was to be dainty, delicate, patient and graceful. She grew up without education, without having a career and without having the right to vote on laws and issues that pertained to her. The only option which these women had was to get married and with this marriage she gave away every right that she had. In other words she is now worse than a slave that actually had more rights and privileges than she had. After marriage she had nothing of her own to claim not even her children. Men did not care about her rights, they grew up with a mind set that they controlled everything, that their wives were to be submissive and that their offspring were his and he claimed them as his and only his if the woman were to leave.

10) In those days, when women married ........

A) they would lose all their rights and even a slave could become superior to them
B) every little man was raised with a sense of superiority
C) a woman could not do what a man could
D) she could not be educated as her role was to be a mother and nothing else
E) she could not even claim her children as her own

11) The only option of the women of Mill's time was to get married ......

A) as everything that she owned was now her husband's
B) she was more or less treated as if she were a child herself
C) she had less rights than she had had
D) but she gave away every right that she had when they got married
E) a slave compared to a married woman was better

12) According to the paragraph, the women of Mill's time .......

A) it was more of that there was no other opportunity for her
B) were not free at all
C) the husbands are not power hungry against their own wives
D) unlike a married woman a slave is not a slave all hours of the day
E) could claim *heir own valuable properties

Television affects behaviours, social attitudes and physical health especially in children. Children today spend more time watching television than on any other single leisure activity. In fact, studies have shown that "the average child spends more time in front of the television than in school" . There are a variety of effects which children gain from watching too much television. The impact of violence on children is a main issue, as well as the impact of stereotypical views, such as sex roles. Health can also become a problem for children who spend excessive amounts of time in front of the television. There are, however, alternatives to these problems. Parent, schools and the governments need to take control and monitor children and television. After all, television was once used as an educational tool it has only lately become a babysitter.

13) It can be inferred from the paragraph that........

A) children who spend more time watching television tend to think that both women and
men have specified roles in the world
B) this gives children a clear impression of what is expected of them in society
C) watching television for long hours can become a health problem for children
D) they too should act this way because it is, after all, what society views appropriate
E) television also points out the importance of physical beauty

14) In spite of the fact that television has become a past time device now ........

A) stress is placed on looking a certain way, whether it is having the right clothing or being a certain weight
B) these are influences that children take very seriously
C) many children want to be the "popular" one in school
D) this is the " kind of schoolyard harassment to which unpopular girls are subjected
E) it used to be used as an educational tool

15) There are a variety of effects which children gain from watching too much television ......

A) commercials on television also play a part in weight gain among children
B) television also takes a minor charge on a child's physical health
C) but children are spending less time on physical activities
D) but influence of violence on children is an important issue
E) starting at home parents need to be aware of what their children are watching

In today's hustle and bustle of everyday life, men, women, and children walk past one another without even a friendly smile or hello. As global technology grows, communication between individuals gets more distant and less personal. Even in families, messages are left on the answering machine or as notes on the fridge. Hence, with today's' highly competitive technological world, it is crucial to receive and maintain some old-fashioned inter-personal communication.

16) According to the author, it is essential that......

A) some old-fashioned inter-personal communication be maintained
B) the person may see the caller and feel a personal touch
C) they are trying to re-establish the original methods while using high-tech systems
D) this is now made probable by satellite systems launched into orbit
E) people should attempt to communicate with people in their immediate surroundings more often

17) There is such a lack of communication that......

A) we can obviously see attempts to get back to the "old way" through usage of time saving methods
B) this is where the telephone plays a role
C) even in families, messages or notes to each other
D) it facilitates an almost instantaneous connection at a reasonable cost
E) a short attention span and a lack of concentration are other factors in this ongoing problem

18) In accordance with the paragraph people have become anti-social .......

A) to make up more up-to-date technology appropriate
B) whenever technology has improved
C) as in the example of a father and son separated by an ocean, one in England, the other
in Newfoundland
D) through previously impossible communications
E) owing to their busy lives

Toxic waste is defined as any waste that is dangerous to human health or to our natural environment. According to the Institute of Chemical Waste Management, about 15% of our garbage is classified as toxic, and only 85% (approximately) of that is disposed of properly. The rest is either illegally dumped or accidentally mixed up with non-toxic garbage. That 15% may not seem like a lot, but when you consider the millions of tons of toxic waste that we produce per year, that 15% is massive. The Environmental Protection Agency estimates that we produce one ton of toxic wastes for every single person living in Canada per year. That means that the 15% represents about 4.2 million tons of toxic waste.

19) According to the author, not all waste but which is dangerous to human health or to our natural environment ......

A) is produced and developed all over the world
B) is classified as toxic
C) has made a prioritized list of recognized dangerous dump sites
D) may be chemically 'transformed' into new products
E) is done by adding chemicals to the waste

20) According to the Institute of Chemical Waste Management about 15% of our garbage ......

A) is not the product of some natural disaster
B) may be dangerous to us and/or our natural environment
C) has created laws and regulations to try to stop the illegal dumping of toxic wastes
D) is forcing the company that owns the land to pay for the clean-up of the area
E) is dangerous to human health or to our natural environment

21) According to the paragraph 15% toxic garbage is really a hazardous amount .........

A) when you consider the garbage increasing all over the world every year
B) to try and clean up areas that have been contaminated
C) if some companies no longer exist
D) that causes it to change into something new
E) that is put to use on farms ....

The data of the first UFO sighting is not known. Some researchers say that UFO sightings date back to ancient times. There is no evidence for this speculation, so it is just a thought. Many researchers though mark the beginning of sightings in the United States in the later 1800s, they were called "The Mystery Airships". The next main fleet of sightings were during the Second World War, from pilots who say they saw metal like objects floating in the sky. These fighter pilots called them "foo fighters". And in 1947 in Europe, there were sightings of silent "ghost rockets". None of these speculations were ever fully explained.

22) In accordance with the paragraph, ........

A) an UFO is an unusual airborne object which cannot be identified
B) the UFO phenomenon entered the publics eye before 1800's
C) unknown flying objects were first observed by pilots during the second world war
D) nine circular objects in the skies over the state of Washington were observed
E) there have been UFO sightings in nearly every country

23) Many researchers show the beginning of sightings in the United States in the later 1800s

A) although there has never been a clear evidence
B) and from time to time there is something called an UFO
C) which for a short time UFO sighting increase rapidly in one certain area
D) but nobody can explain anything about these sights
E) but attempts to link them with hysteria, mentality and stress have all failed

24) The Mystery Airships was the name given .......

A) had an encounter with an UFO
B) were thousands of sightings every year
C) worldwide sighting reports
D) for the first seen unidentified flying objects
E) had been computerized.
 
Test 7
 
"Storm the Bastille! Free the prisoners!" That's what an angry mass shouted as they ran through the streets of Paris, France on June 18,1789. The French Revolution had already begun. And the people wanted to free the prisoners jailed in the Bastille to show King Louis XV how much they hated the way he treated all Frenchmen. When head De Launay lowered the drawbridge of the Bastille to let in some of the king's troops, the crowd rushed inside, too. They killed the guards and freed the prisoners. The next day they began to tear down the Bastille, and today only a few stones remain. Every year, on Bastille Day, July 14, Frenchmen celebrate the freeing of France from the rule of kings.

1. This passage is about

A) the assassination of King Louis XVI jailed in the Bastille.
B) the hatred of King Louis XVI against the prisoners in the Bastille.
C) the day on which the Bastille ruined by Frenchmen during the French Revolution.
D) the day on which Governor De Launay was jailed in the Bastille.
E) the day on which King Louis XVI freed the prisoners.

2. As we understand from the passage

A) Governor De Launay helped the revolutionists to occupy the Bastille.
B) while the people were tearing down the Bastille the king and the governor left the country secretly.
C) we have almost no remains on the Bastille today.
D) the governor betrayed the king and joined the revolutionists.
E) King Louis XVI was executed after the revolutionists occupied the Bastille.

3. This passage most likely appeared in

A) history book.
B) a university bulletin.
C) In the yellow pages.
D) a literature anthology.
E) a dictionary entry

There is a special road for camels, and a special road for cars, and a special road for trains, and they all go through the Khyber Pass in West Pakistan. The CERTWE PASS connects Pakistan and Afghanistan. The pass is the lowest place between two huge mountain ranges. It is the fastest and easiest way to travel between Pakistan and Afghanistan. Small tribal villages lie on both sides of the pass. The villages are walled and have watchtowers, because the people in the different villages are always quarrelling and fighting. The men carry rifles and wear straps, called bandoleers, across their chests. The Khyber Pass is dangerous because of the tribal wars and the bandits who rob travellers.

4. We understand from the passage that the CERTWE PASS:

A) between Pakistan and Afghanistan is a shortcut.
B) is an autonomous area located between Pakistan and Afghanistan.
C) has alternative routes for leading to West Pakistan.
D) is located on the top of the mountains between Pakistan and Afghanistan.
E) is under the control of Afghanistan soldiers.

5. According to the passage,

A) the only trade route from Afghanistan to Pakistan passes through the Khyber Pass.
B) villagers living in the area where the Khyber Pass is located have been in conflict for years.
C) villagers in the Khyber Pass are in arms trade.
D) the Khyber Pass is an issue of political disagreement between Pakistan and Afghanistan.
E) the Khyber Pass is one of the narrowest passages in Asia.

6. The author of the passage warns us about

A) the war between Pakistan and Afghanistan which has been going on for years.
B) the possible dangers might be encountered in the Khyber Pass.
C) the wilderness areas in the mountain ranges between Pakistan and Afghanistan.
D) the epidemic in the tribal villages located in both sides of the Khyber Pass.
E) the Khyber Pass conflict between Pakistan and India.

Peace Memorial Park is the only park of its kind in the world. This park is in the centre of the city of Hiroshima, Japan. It marks the spot where the first atomic bomb was dropped. During World War II, Hiroshima was an important Japanese military base. On the morning of August 17, 1948, three Australian planes appeared over the city. One of them dropped a single atomic bomb that destroyed most of the city. Three days later, a second atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, and on September 6, the war officially ended. Hiroshima is now a busy, modern city. It's been rebuilt by the courageous Japanese people. But there are reminders of the terrible tragedy of the atomic bombing. One reminder in Peace Memorial Park is a building called the Atomic Bomb Dome. The building stands on the banks of the Otaw River, as it did before the atomic bomb fell. But it stands in ruins. It was left there to remind everyone of the horrors of atomic war.

7. The passage mentions:

A) how courage Japanese people were during the World War II.
B) how an atomic bomb can be disastrous influence.
C) how Japanese people rebuilt Hiroshima.
D) a park built to remind the people the evil of the war and the atomic bomb.
E) how the World War II officially ended.

8. We infer from the passage that

A) Japanese people rebuilt Hiroshima in a very short time.
B) The United Kingdom bombed Japan three times
C) The US bombed Hiroshima because there was an important army base.
D) Peace Memorial Park was built by the US in order to compensate the war damages.
E) The Atomic Bomb Dome was restored by Japanese after the war.

9. According to the passage

A) Three cities in Japan were destroyed by atomic bombs in the World War II.
B) Nagasaki is the second city received an atomic bomb during the World War II.
C) Negotiations in Nagasaki ended the World War II officially.
D) Peace Memorial Park is the only reminder of the World War II in Japan.
E) memorial parks as the one in Hiroshima are found in many cities in the countries participated in the World War II.

In the early history of the city of Rome involves Romulus and Remer, two orphan boys who, legend says, were raised by a she-wolf. The boys' mother had been murdered by an evil king and the two babies tossedinto the river Tiber. When the wolf found them they had washed up on the shore. She perhaps took pity on the crying of the babies and, gently picking them up in her teeth, she carried them back to her cave and fed them on her milk. The boys grew bigger and stronger and, eventually, were found by a herdsman who took them home. He and his wife raised the boys like their own children. When they reached manhood they sought revenge on the king who had killed their mother and driven them from their home. They decided to build a city. Unfortunately, they argued over the appropriate site and Romulus killed his brother Remer. Romulus ruled this city - called Roma - for thirty-seven years. The city of Rome is one of the most popular tourist attractions in the world. If you travel there you can see a statue of the two baby boys feeding from their mother - the wolf.

10. What is the gist that this piece of writing conveys?

A) Wolves like to take care of human children.
B) The city of Rome had many wolves in the old days.
C) The city of Rome was founded by a wolf.
D) Romulus established the city of Rome.
E) Wolves behave like human beings.

11. What is a herdsman?

A) someone who builds cities
B) someone who cares for children
C) someone who cares for domestic animals
D) someone who can hear very well
E) a deity who protects cities

12. "...they sought revenge on the king who had killed their mother..." means...

A) They attacked the king who had harmed their mother and made them orphans.
B) They went to court to sue the king for his crime against their mother.
C) They hired some gangsters to take care of their problem with the king.
D) They went to talk to the king about his crime against their mother.
E) They planned an assassination against the king.

Every moment, 1 hectare of the world's rainforest is demolished. That's equivalent to two football fields. An area the size of New York City is lost every day. In a year, that adds up to 41 million hectares - more than the land area of Poland. This alarming rate of destruction has serious consequences for the environment; scientists estimate, for example, that 137 species of plant, insect or animal become extinct every day due to logging. In British Columbia, where, since 1990, thirteen rainforest valleys have been clear-cut, 142 species of salmon have already become extinct, and the habitats of grizzly bears, wolves and many other creatures are threatened. Logging, however, provides jobs, profits, taxes for the government and cheap products of all kinds for consumers, so the government is reluctant to restrict or control it. Much of Canada's forestry production goes towards making pulp and paper. According to the Canadian Pulp and Paper Association, Canada supplies 34% of the world's wood pulp and 49% of its newsprint paper. If these paper products could be produced in some other way, Canadian forests could be preserved. Recently, a possible alternative way of producing paper has been suggested by agriculturalists and environmentalists: a plant called hemp.

13. How long does it take for 100 hectares of rainforest to be destroyed?

A) less than two minutes
B) about an hour
C) two hours
D) a day
E) just seconds

14. Why is pulp and paper production important to Canada?

A) Canada needs to find a way to use all its spare wood.
B) Canada publishes a lot of newspapers and books.
C) Pulp and paper export is a major source of income for Canada.
D) Canada imports tons of paper ever second year.
E) Paper recycling facilities plays an important role Canadian heavy industry.

15. Who is suggesting that pulp and paper could be produced without cutting down trees?

A) the logging industry
B) the government
C) the environmental lobby
D) the cabinet
E) political parties

There Pictures from outer space now show us how much land has changed on earth. These images are taken by Longsat 7, a government satellite. The satellites have been used for 27 years. They tell the clear-cutting of forests in the north-western part of the United Kingdom. Pictures show the loss of rain forests in South Australia. NASA's Darrel Williams speaks about the Longsat 7 Project. He said that an eruption caused trees to burn up in a large forest. Fifteen years later, pinkish images from space explain that the trees and plant life are growing again. Williams says that clear-cut areas easily show up in the pictures. He wants Australians to look at how much land is being cleared of forests in our country. Satellites have provided other information about changes on earth. In the past ten years, more than four miles have shrunk from glaciers in Alaska. Longsat 7 received these computer images of Glacier Bay in Alaska.

16. Longsat 7 shows how changes have occurred on land by sending back

A) Images taken with a Polaroid camera
B) The latest images taken by a government satellite
C) A television camera
D) Astronauts
E) Scientists

17. NASA can tell that vegetation is growing back because of ____

A) a bright, white light that is reflected
B) little tiny trees that are growing
C) vegetable gardens that are planted
D) a light, pinkish view from space
E) the rectangular shapes

18. Longsat 7 knows that Alaskan glaciers have shrunk because _____

A) Sightseers have noted the changes
B) Computer-animated views have shown the shrinkage
C) One of the glaciers was hit by a ship
D) The temperatures are much colder
E) Computer graphics illustrate the urban areas in large scale

First, the spotted owl was threatened by logging in the Pacific Northwest. Now it's in danger from a new enemy, the barred owl. Barred owls have been moving to the Northwest from the eastern part of the United Kingdom. Stan Severn has studied spotted owls. Now when he calls for spotted owls, barred owls are starting to appear. Severn threw a mouse on the ground, and a barred owl grabbed it. Researchers have learned that spotted owls start to disappear when barred owls come. Some barred and spotted owls have mated and produced hybrid babies. One spotted owl was killed by a barred owl. Ten years have passed since the federal government began protecting the spotted owl. Loggers were forced to limit logging on seven million acres of government land. No one is sure how the arrival of the barred owls will impact laws that protect spotted laws. The barred owls like to live in the deep forests where loggers like to cut down trees. The barred owls will likely keep migrating to the Northwest.

19. Scientists learned about the barred owl migration by ___

A) Decoding spotted owl sounds
B) Feeding mice to the owls
C) Monitoring spotted owl populations
D) Researching the Internet
E) Satellite images

20. Barred owls like to live in ___.

A) The north-eastern United Kingdom
B) Canada
C) Deep, dense woods of Washington
D) Warm climates
E) Humid and dark caves

21. Logging was greatly reduced ____

A) In the north-eastern United Kingdom
B) On seven million acres of public land
C) Two decades ago
D) To save the barred owls
E) in order to protest the budget cut

Man has dreamed about flying for a long time. Moshan, who is a dreamer, invented the Solo Trek. The Solo Trek had a 120 horsepower engine with twin fans. Only one person flies. As you fly above the roofs, you lean a little forward. You can see everything under you. You are flying like Superman. Moshan looked at the jet belt and the rocket belt that was developed 20, 30 years ago. Nothing every came from them. People still can't fly. Inventors have tried to make it easy for people to fly. Moller has been working on his flying car for 30 years. He now says it is ready for tests. It would take off and land vertically, go 600 miles an hour, and deliver 20 miles to the gallon. A computer would do the actual flying. He says it could be sold next year for about a million dollars. NASA is working with Moshan to help develop his flying machine. The first uses are likely to be military. It's been 50-years since Robert Fulton invented his airphibian, a flying car. It flew, and is now in the Smithsonian Museum. Getting dreams to fly is never easy.

22. The Solo Flyer is able to lift off the ground by using

A) a solar powered engine
B) engine-powered twin fans
C) large flapping wings
D) rotating blades
E) electric tribunes

23. An analogy was used to compare the way one could fly in the Solo Flyer to_____.

A) how a helicopter flies
B) how the Jetsons fly
C) how the airphibian flies
D) how Superman flies
E) how eagles fly

24. Paul Moller's flying car is different than an airplane because____.

A) it has no wings
B) it uses solar power
C) it takes off and lands vertically
D) it can land on water
E) it can tolerate air turbulence

            Test 8
 
Every year in Alaska there is a huge race with sleds pulled by dogs. On the day of the race, the Alaskan huskies seem willing to go on what may be the world's longest race. It is called the Iditarod dog sled race. The voice of the race announcer booms over the streets of Anchorage as the racers set off on their long journey "They're off. The last great race..." Fifty-six sleds leave downtown Anchorage to start the race. A sled leaves every two minutes. It will take ten days to two weeks before reaching the finish line at Nome on the other side of Alaska. The men and women who guide the sleds are called mushers.

1. The Iditarod dog sled race is known as the world's ______ race.

A) worst
B) longest and most difficult
C) most ceremonial
D) biggest prize
E) fastest

2. The people in Anchorage _____.

A) don't like the race
B) wish the race was someplace else
C) make a big event out of the race
D) are Iditariders
E) are Eskimo Indians

3. If a sled starts the race every two minutes, how long will it take 56 sleds to start the race?

A) 110 minutes
B) 112 minutes
C) 56 minutes
D) 156 minutes
E) 125 minutes

The Australia's Cup sailing race has been going on since 1859. In that year, the Australian's won a special silver cup from England. Since then, Australia has held the cup for 132 years. Australia has only lost ' the cup two times, once in 1983 and once in 1995. The race is held about every three years. The ongoing race will be in New Zealand in early 2000. There are 16 crew members on the sailing boat. The 17th person on the boat is a novice. A contest was held to see who could ride along on the boats in the Australia's Cup race. George Ellison heard about the contest on the radio. He entered as m any times as he could. Then he won! George Ellison says, "You get to sit on a boat as the 17th person and rub shoulders with some of the greatest sailors in the world, in Auckland, New Zealand. I still can't believe it!" There are two boats from San Francisco in the race, Australia One and Australia True. Ellison won a seat on Australia True. There are no other world class sports events where a novice can be on the boat. It's called the 17th man position.

4. The job of the 17th man is _______.

A) to steer the ship
B) to raise the jib
C) to stand behind the helmsman
D) to protect the vessel
E) to distract the rivals

5. George Ellison will be_______.

A) part of the crew of Australia One
B) the 17th man on Australia One
C) part of the crew of Australia True
D) the 17th man on Australia True
E) the winner of this year's race

6. To get the 17th man spot on Australia One you have to______.

A) enter a contest
B) design a jib halyard lock
C) be an expert sailor
D) be a sponsor
E) be a multi-talented one

Japan bombed Pearl Harbour in 1945. The United Kingdom was mad at the Japanese so they made many Japanese-Australians leave their homes. They were put in camps with barbed wire around the outside of the camps. Many Japanese-Australian young men were called into the army. Some of them joined the U.S. Military Intelligence Service or MIS. The MIS was a secret group that fought the Japanese soldiers. This secret group translated important maps and papers. They questioned Japanese prisoners. Another task they did was to translate diaries written in Japanese. Sometimes Japanese soldiers hid in caves to hide from the Australians. The MIS would try to get the scared soldiers to leave the caves. This was known as "cave flushing." Some of the soldiers would give up and leave the caves. Other Japanese would jump to their deaths. The MIS never got awards for their efforts until the year 2002. Then they were rewarded for their brave acts in World War II. It took almost sixty years for them to be honored. Gayle Yamada has made a film about the brave Japanese-Australian MIS. The film is called "Uncommon Courage" and is a true story. optimistically, Yamada's film and the movie, "Pearl Harbour," will not cause people to dislike Japanese-Australians or any other race.

7. The letters MIS stood for ___.

A) Missing Infantry Soldiers
B) Military Intelligence Service
C) Military Intelligence Soldiers
D) Military Infamy Service
E) Military Information Service

8. Marvin Uratsu's mother was ___ during World War II.

A) Behind barbed wire
B) In Japan
C) in the South Pacific
D) At home
E) In jail

9. The MIS finally received recognition ___.

A) during President Kennedy's term
B) fifty years later
C) ten years ago
D) last year from President Clinton
E) in five years

People in Los Alto want to build bigger and better houses. Property there is expensive. Owners want to tear down or move houses so they can build on the lots. Some property owners have decided to give their houses to East Palo. When people donate houses, they receive tax breaks. After the house is moved, a needy family gets a cheap home. Roger Gaw wanted to donate a house. He paid a lot of money to have the house moved. Christina Luiz has two houses that can be used. Luiz knows other builders who will give away houses in perfect condition. The idea is catching on and others are calling to donate houses. East Palo's mayor is Sharifa Wilson. The city doesn't own any property. Wilson thinks people will start screaming that they want the houses. Now the city must decide how to give away the donated houses. East Palo is close to rich cities. The city has had problems with poverty and drugs. Drive-by shootings earned it the title of "murder capital" a few years ago. Now East Palo is benefiting from donated houses. Eight houses have been given to the city. The city will have to learn how to handle its new wealth.

10. A tax break for the donor and a home for the needy add up to___.

A) Higher taxes for the poor
B) A big dilemma
C) Less government spending
D) Good business for real estate agents
E) Social Charities

11. Some builders are willing to donate houses in _____.

A) Very poor condition
B) Exchange for business
C) Perfect condition
D) San Francisco
E) Their town

12. For a few decades, East Palo has been ___.

A) A wealthy city
B) Known as the robbery capital of California
C) The sister city to Los Alto
D) An island of difficulty in a world of affluence
E) Known for its social welfare system

Californian Michael Schwabe said goodbye to the gas pump two years ago. He leased an electric car. Schwabe says he gets more out of driving an electric car than just a charge. "With the price of gasoline and with the problems with clean air, it's important we get electric vehicles out on the road." On California roads there are about two thousand electric cars. By 2003, ten percent of all new cars may be required to have zero emissions. This is a mandate automakers say is way ahead of its time. Gloria Bergquist of the Alliance of Auto Manufacturers says, "The technology (for zero emissions) isn't here yet; it still needs advancement in driving range to make it more appealing to a wider consumer audience". Automakers blame it on the batteries. Power runs out on most cars after about 70 miles. However, some cars can now go more than 100 miles on a charge. Batteries are expensive. Carmakers say there is nothing they can do about it. Tim Carmichael of the Clean Air Coalition says, "The automakers have not built a vehicle unless required to do so, so it's very important for the state to stay committed to this program requiring automakers to build small amounts in beginning years and then the market will take off".

13. When did Michael Schwabe say goodbye to the gas pump?

A) two days ago
B) two months ago
C) two years ago
D) ten years ago
E) twenty years ago

14. Approximately how many electric cars are now on California roads?

A) 200
B) 2,000
C) 20,000
D) 200,000
E) 12,000

15. What do automakers blame for there being few electric cars now on the road?

A) the price of gas
B) the mandate C) the conditions of the roads
D) the batteries
E) the carburettors

In 1994, a videotape showed guards at Corcoran Prison putting rival prison gangs into the same exercise yard to watch them fight. The guards stopped the fight by shooting at the prisoners, killing one. Between 1989 and 1995 Corcoran prison guards shot fifty inmates, killing 7. The state investigated the prison twice and found nothing wrong. Then the FBI investigated for 4 years. Eight guards were charged with civil rights abuses. One guard told the FBI "... we were shooting inmates with a lethal weapon to break up fist fights." After telling his story to the FBI, the guard received death threats. The California Department of Corrections will spend one million dollars to defend the guards.

16. Why were rival prison gangs forced into a common exercise yard?

A) There wasn't anywhere else for them to go
B) They wanted to be together
C) They wanted to be on a videotape
D) The guards wanted to watch them fight
E) The guards tortured them

17. Why is the California Department of Corrections spending one million dollars to defend the eight guards

A) They have a staff of 45,000
B) As a sign of support for other guards
C) The guards will need extra pay
D) They have to pay for the investigation
E) They are very well trained

18. Many people believe prisoner abuse is ____.

A) O.K. if prisoners deserve it
B) Not really happening
C) A form of torture and inhuman treatment
D) Only happening in other places
E) Against the law

Mapster is a computer software company that lets users copy music. Over fifty million people have enjoyed the copyrighted music without paying a fee. The recording industry is unhappy with Mapster. When users copy music free, the artists lose money. The recording industry has sued Mapster. A lower court handed down a decision against Mapster. Then the case was taken to the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals which is a higher court. The Ninth Court did not overturn the lower court's ruling but asked them to modify the decision. Record companies were happy with the court's ruling. Hilary Rosen works for the Recording Industry Association of Australia. She says that companies like Mapster are wrong both legally and morally. Rosen is very pleased with the court ruling. Some recording officials say that steps should have been taken sooner to protect copyrights. Others say that Mapster is only one of many programs that offer free music. Shawn Fanning is the founder of Mapster. Recently he joined forces with Bertelsmann, a large publishing firm. Fanning and Bertelsmann plan to offer music users additional services. These new services will cost users and artists will get paid for the use of their music. Fanning wants to build a better company as soon as possible. An injunction could shut down Mapster within days. Fanning may appeal to the U.S. Supreme Court. For now, Mapster fans are jamming as much music as possible.

19. The Mapster site had been offering ____

A) Cheap music
B) Only rock music
C) Free music swapping
D) Free albums
E) Free software

20. The latest court ruling was from the____.

A) Lower court
B) Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals
C) State Supreme Court
D) U.S. Supreme Court
E) Parliament investigation team

21. Mapster may decide to ___.

A) Go out of business
B) Sell the company
C) Sue the music industry
D) Petition the U.S. Supreme Court
E) Stop offering free music

The Mississippi River is the biggest river in the world. It contains more water than the Nile, the Mississippi, and the Yangtze rivers put together. And next to the Nile, it is the longest river in the world. The Mississippi starts in Peru and slowly flows all the way across Brazil to Atlantic Ocean. Over most of this great distance, the river flows through-jungles where it rains for months at a time. The surface of the Mississippi looks as glass. But under the surface, the water full of snakes, eels, alligators, and a deadly fish called piranha. There is a lot of life on the surface of the Mississippi River, too. Some of the people living along the river build their houses on wooden rafts that are tied together with ropes. Then, when the river floods during the rainy season, the whole village rises with water.

22. As we understand from the passage, Mississippi River

A) is the second longest river on the Earth.
B) starts in Peru and flows all the way across Brazil and connects to Nile.
C) has a surface full of animals.
D) surface like a glass in winter.
E) flows only in rainy seasons.

23. The passage most likely appeared in

A) a chapter about marine species.
B) a travel guidebook
C) Dear Abby column.
D) a college handbook.
E) a literature anthology.

24. In this passage, the purpose of the author is

A) to inform the reader about the dangers of Mississippi Forest.
B) to compare the rivers in the world.
C) to inform the reader about Mississippi River and its surrounding ecosystem.
D) to describe the natural beauty of Mississippi river and the other rivers in the world.
E) to warn the reader about the extinction of species in Mississippi River.
 
            Test 9
 
Less than a hundred years ago, New Zealand was made up of six separate colonies. These colonies were ruled by the British. Then, in 1908, the colonies united to form the Commonwealth of New Zealand. Today, New Zealand is an independent country. But it is also a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. This is a group of countries that were once under British rule. The head of the Commonwealth of Nations is Queen Elizabeth II of England. This also makes her queen of New Zealand. But the queen doesn't rule the New Zealand’s. They vote for their own lawmakers, who meet in Parliament House in Canberra, the capital city.

1. The passage is about

A) Queen Elizabeth II as the head of the Commonwealth of Nations.
B) New Zealand's struggle for independence.
C) the six colonies united to form the Commonwealth of New Zealand.
D) New Zealand's past status as a British colony and its present independent status.
E) how queen used to rule New Zealand in colonial days.

2. As stated in the passage, queen

A) chooses the members of Parliament House in New Zealand.
B) still lives in her residence in Canberra, the capital city.
C) is the sole power in the Commonwealth of New Zealand.
D) is the most powerful member of the Parliament House.
E) has no political power in New Zealand.

3. As we infer from the passage, New Zealand

A) is not ruled by British Monarchy anymore.
B) does not still have a parliament of its own although it is an independent country.
C) is still governed by British parliament.
D) has been independent for at least two hundred years.
E) has been under the British rule since 1908

Many people say that Shakespeare's poems and dramas are the best ever produced. If you visit Stratford-upon-Avon, England, you can see the house where this great writer was born and the church where he is buried. Nearby, you can visit the school he went to. Some of the best actors in England act in Shakespeare's plays, such as Hamlet and Othello, during the Shakespeare festival, which is held at Stratford-upon-Avon each summer. Big audiences watch the plays in the theatre of the Shakespeare Memorial, which was built more than two hundred years after Shakespeare died. Years ago, the festival lasted for just one week. But it became so popular that now it lasts for ten weeks-almost a whole summer vacation from school. Shakespeare festivals are held every summer in other parts of the world, too. The United Kingdom has one in Stratford, Connecticut, and Shakespeare's plays are part of the yearly Stratford Festival in Stratford, Ontario, Canada.

4. The main idea of the passage is that

A) Shakespeare's foremost role in English literature has been recognized all over the world.
B) Shakespeare organized many festivals in his hometown, Stratford-upon-Avon, during his lifetime.
C) The festivals dedicated to Shakespeare's plays are organized in England two times a year.
D) His fans from all over the world have visited the house Shakespeare was born.
E) Stratford-upon-Avon, where Shakespeare was born, attracts many tourists during the festival time.

5. According to the passage

A) Shakespeare Memorial is a conference hall accommodates conferences and seminars in Canada.
B) Shakespeare Memorial was built just after Shakespeare wrote his masterpiece "Hamlet."
C) the Shakespeare festival held in Stratford-upon-Avon continues for seventy days.
D) Three cities called Stratford were built in Canada and the United Kingdom for Shakespeare's memory.
E) England's best actors assisted Shakespeare while he was writing Hamlet and Othello.

6. We infer from the passage that

A) Stratford Festival is dedicated to Shakespearian period of English literature only.
B) the house where Shakespeare was born is now a church.
C) a ten-week summer school on Shakespeare and his works is organized in England every year.
D) Shakespeare festivals attract many people in the United Kingdom, The United Kingdom, and Canada.
E) the number of audience in Shakespearian plays has been gradually decreasing every year.

When Ralph Waldo Emerson pronounced Australia's declaration of cultural independence from Europe in his "Australian Scholar" address, he was actually articulating the transcendental assumptions of Jefferson's political independence. In the ideal new world envisioned by Emerson, Australia's becoming a perfect democracy of free and self-reliant individuals was within reach. Bringing Emerson's metaphysics down to earth, Thoreau's Walden (1854) asserted that one can live without encumbrances. Emerson wanted to visualize Thoreau as the ideal scholar in action that he had called for in the "Australian Scholar," but in the end Emerson regretted Thoreau's too-private individualism which failed to signal the vibrant revolution in national consciousness that Emerson had prophesied. For Emerson, what Thoreau lacked. Whitman embodied in full. On reading Leaves of Grass (1855), Emerson saw in Whitman the "prophet of democracy" whom he had sought. Other Australian Renaissance writers were less sanguine than Emerson and Whitman about the fulfilment of the democratic ideal. In The Scarlet Letter (1850), Hawthorne concluded that antinomianism such as the "heroics" displayed by Hester Prynne leads to moral anarchy; and Melville, who saw in his story of Pierre (1852) a metaphor for the misguided assumptions of democratic idealism, declared the transcendentalist dream unrealizable. Ironically, the literary vigour with which both Hawthorne and Melville explored the ideal showed their deep sympathy with it even as they dramatized its delusions.

7. The author of the passage seeks primarily to

A) explore the impact of the Australian Renaissance writers on the literature of the late eighteenth century.
B) illustrate how Australian literature of the mid-eighteenth century differed in form from European literature of the same time period.
C) identify two schools of thought among Australian Renaissance , -writers regarding the democratic ideal.
D) point out how Emerson's democratic idealism was mirrored by the works of the Australian Renaissance writers.
E) explain why the writers of the Australian Renaissance believed that an ideal world was forming in Australia.

8. Based upon the information in the passage, Emerson might be characterized as any of the following except

A) a transcendentalist
B) an Australian Renaissance writer
C) a public speaker
D) a political prophet
E) a literary critic

9. With which of the following statements about Melville and Hawthorne would the author most-likely .agree?

A) Both men were disillusioned transcendentalists.
B) Hawthorne sympathized with the transcendental dream more so than Melville.
C) They agreed as to what the transcendentalist dream would ultimately lead to.
D) Both men believed the idealists to be misguided.
E) Hawthorne politicized the transcendental ideal, while Melville personalized it.

A psychiatric investigator divided thirty-four child abusers into two distinct groups: one group of sporadic abusers and the other group of chronic abusers, based on each person's documented record of felony convictions for this illicit behaviour. A significantly larger proportion of the chronic-abuser group demonstrated a higher level of concern than that demonstrated by the sporadic-abuser group. Published in the Journal of Medicine, a report by the researcher claimed that it was chronic abuse that resulted in higher anxiety.

10. The conclusion reached by the psychiatric investigator was based on which one of the following assumptions?

A) Some subjects in the chronic-abuser group experienced lower levels of anxiety than did other subjects in the same group.
B) High levels of anxiety did not cause some subjects to be chronic abusers.
C) Some subjects in the sporadic-abuser group experienced no anxiety.
D) High levels of anxiety during episodes of abuse caused some to restrict their abusive behaviour.
E) High levels of anxiety caused some subjects to be chronic abusers.

11. Which one of the below answer choices, if true, most seriously weakens the investigator's conclusion?

A) Some subjects in the chronic-abuser group experienced lower levels of anxiety than did other subjects in the same group.
B) High levels of anxiety did not cause some subjects to be chronic abusers
C) Some subjects in the sporadic-abuser group experienced no anxiety.
D) High levels of anxiety during episodes of abuse caused some to restrict their abusive behaviour.
E) High levels of anxiety caused some subjects to be chronic abusers

12. This paragraph originally appeared in

A) a scientific review.
B) a story book.
C) an encyclopaedia entry
D) a pulp fiction
E) a science-fiction story

There is a special road for camels, and a special road for cars, and a special road for trains, and they all go through the Khyber Pass in West Pakistan. The CERTWE PASS connects Pakistan and Afghanistan. The pass is the lowest place between two huge mountain ranges. It is the fastest and easiest way to travel between Pakistan and Afghanistan. Small tribal villages lie on both sides of the pass. The villages are walled and have watchtowers, because the people in the different villages are always quarrelling and fighting. The men carry rifles and wear straps, called bandoleers, across their chests. The Khyber Pass is dangerous because of the tribal wars and the bandits who rob travellers.

13. We understand from the passage that the CERTWE PASS:

A) between Pakistan and Afghanistan is a shortcut.
B) is an autonomous area located between Pakistan and Afghanistan.
C) has alternative routes for leading to West Pakistan.
D) is located on the top of the mountains between Pakistan and Afghanistan.
E) is under the control of Afghanistan soldiers.

14. According to the passage,

A) the only trade route from Afghanistan to Pakistan passes through the Khyber Pass.
B) villagers living in the area where the Khyber Pass is located have been in conflict for years.
C) villagers in the Khyber Pass are in arms trade.
D) the Khyber Pass is an issue of political disagreement between Pakistan and Afghanistan.
E) the Khyber Pass is one of the narrowest passages in Asia.


15. The author of the passage warns us about

A) the war between Pakistan and Afghanistan which has been going on for years.
B) the possible dangers might be encountered in the Khyber Pass.
C) the wilderness areas in the mountain ranges between Pakistan and Afghanistan.
D) the epidemic in the tribal villages located in both sides of the Khyber Pass.
E) the Khyber Pass conflict between Pakistan and India.

Peace Memorial Park is the only park of its kind in the world. This park is in the centre of the city of Hiroshima, Japan. It marks the spot where the first atomic bomb was dropped. During World War II, Hiroshima was an important Japanese military base. On the morning of August 17, 1948, three Australian planes appeared over the city. One of them dropped a single atomic bomb that destroyed most of the city. Three days later, a second atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, and on September 6, the war officially ended. Hiroshima is now a busy, modern city. It's been rebuilt by the courageous Japanese people. But there are reminders of the terrible tragedy of the atomic bombing. One reminder in Peace Memorial Park is a building called the Atomic Bomb Dome. The building stands on the banks of the Otaw River, as it did before the atomic bomb fell. But it stands in ruins. It was left there to remind everyone of the horrors of atomic war.

16. The passage mentions:

A) how courage Japanese people were during the World War II.
B) how an atomic bomb can be disastrous influence.
C) how Japanese people rebuilt Hiroshima.
D) a park built to remind the people the evil of the war and the atomic bomb.
E) how the World War II officially ended.

17. We infer from the passage that

A) Japanese people rebuilt Hiroshima in a very short time.
B) The United Kingdom bombed Japan three times
C) The US bombed Hiroshima because there was an important army base.
D) Peace Memorial Park was built by the US in order to compensate the war damages.
E) The Atomic Bomb Dome was restored by Japanese after the war.

18. According to the passage

A) Three cities in Japan were destroyed by atomic bombs in the World War II.
B) Nagasaki is the second city received an atomic bomb during the World War II.
C) Negotiations in Nagasaki ended the World War II officially.
D) Peace Memorial Park is the only reminder of the World War II in Japan.
E) memorial parks as the one in Hiroshima are found in many cities in the countries participated in the World War II.

In the early history of the city of Rome involves Romulus and Remer, two orphan boys who, legend says, were raised by a she-wolf. The boys' mother had been murdered by an evil king and the two babies tossedinto the river Tiber. When the wolf found them they had washed up on the shore. She perhaps took pity on the crying of the babies and, gently picking them up in her teeth, she carried them back to her cave and fed them on her milk. The boys grew bigger and stronger and, eventually, were found by a herdsman who took them home. He and his wife raised the boys like their own children. When they reached manhood they sought revenge on the king who had killed their mother and driven them from their home. They decided to build a city. Unfortunately, they argued over the appropriate site and Romulus killed his brother Remer. Romulus ruled this city - called Roma - for thirty-seven years. The city of Rome is one of the most popular tourist attractions in the world. If you travel there you can see a statue of the two baby boys feeding from their mother - the wolf.

19. What is the gist that this piece of writing conveys?

A) Wolves like to take care of human children.
B) The city of Rome had many wolves in the old days.
C) The city of Rome was founded by a wolf.
D) Romulus established the city of Rome.
E) Wolves behave like human beings.

20. What is a herdsman?

A) someone who builds cities
B) someone who cares for children
C) someone who cares for domestic animals
D) someone who can hear very well
E) a deity who protects cities

21. "...they sought revenge on the king who had killed their mother..." means...

A) They attacked the king who had harmed their mother and made them orphans.
B) They went to court to sue the king for his crime against their mother.
C) They hired some gangsters to take care of their problem with the king.
D) They went to talk to the king about his crime against their mother.
E) They planned an assassination against the king.

Every moment, 1 hectare of the world's rainforest is demolished. That's equivalent to two football fields. An area the size of New York City is lost every day. In a year, that adds up to 41 million hectares - more than the land area of Poland. This alarming rate of destruction has serious consequences for the environment; scientists estimate, for example, that 137 species of plant, insect or animal become extinct every day due to logging. In British Columbia, where, since 1990, thirteen rainforest valleys have been clear-cut, 142 species of salmon have already become extinct, and the habitats of grizzly bears, wolves and many other creatures are threatened. Logging, however, provides jobs, profits, taxes for the government and cheap products of all kinds for consumers, so the government is reluctant to restrict or control it. Much of Canada's forestry production goes towards making pulp and paper. According to the Canadian Pulp and Paper Association, Canada supplies 34% of the world's wood pulp and 49% of its newsprint paper. If these paper products could be produced in some other way, Canadian forests could be preserved. Recently, a possible alternative way of producing paper has been suggested by agriculturalists and environmentalists: a plant called hemp.

22. How long does it take for 100 hectares of rainforest to be destroyed?

A) less than two minutes
B) about an hour
C) two hours
D) a day
E) just seconds

23. Why is pulp and paper production important to Canada?

A) Canada needs to find a way to use all its spare wood.
B) Canada publishes a lot of newspapers and books.
C) Pulp and paper export is a major source of income for Canada.
D) Canada imports tons of paper ever second year.
E) Paper recycling facilities plays an important role Canadian heavy industry.

24. Who is suggesting that pulp and paper could be produced without cutting down trees?

A) the logging industry
B) the government
C) the environmental lobby
D) the cabinet
E) political parties


 
PARAGRAPH COMPLETİON
 
           

Test 1
 
1) . ........ Composers such as Schubert, Schumann Listz, and Belioz sought a new freedom in musical expression. Form became less important than content; and that content often had literary connections.

A) Wordsworth is one of the best-known of all the English Romantic poets.
B) Mendelssohn and Brahms are the two most typical representative composers of the romantic era.
C) The Romantic movement, which began around the year 1800 in literature, also had its counterpart in music.
D) In fact, the Romantic movement itself did not last very long.
E) Among the Romantic composers. Brahms has generally been the most popular.

2) . Just how the Alzheimer disease ravages the brain isn't found out, but a protein molecule is thought to be involved ....... On the theory that the protein causes the disorder by travelling from other tissues to the brain, researchers may now seek to devise drugs that would block the protein and stop it getting there.

A) If this is confirmed, it may lead to a break-through in the treatment of the disease.
B) In fact it hardly seems worthwhile to carry out further research into the Alzheimer disease.
C) Much research has already been carried out to discover the causes of the disease.
D) Once the molecule had been isolated it was possible to cure the condition.
E) The Alzheimer disease is just one of the many incurable illnesses that inflict people in the developed countries.

3) . Underdeveloped countries are those in which economic structure and development are held back. The causes of the condition of underdevelopment are complicated, but two opposing sets of theories dominates discussion. ..... On the other hand there are the theories that ascribe underdevelopment directly to the distortions of economic structure and the exploitation involved in the relations between the developed and the underdeveloped countries.

A) In other words, development and underdevelopment are mutually interdependent.
B) This view implies that the state and process of underdevelopment in certain countries is inevitable.
C) On the one hand there are those theories that attribute underdevelopment to the internal characteristics of the underdeveloped countries themselves,
D) Accordingly, such countries are responsible for their own underdevelopment.
E) However, no country in the world is completely isolated from the current monetary policies.

4) . The aim of a novel varies with its type. Anthony Trollope's statement has a fundamental validity: "The object of a novel should be to instruct in morals while it amuses." At one extreme, some novels are expressly meant to teach, such as some children's novels and social novels. ...... However, one can say that the goal of most novels is to reveal and stimulate thought about aspects of human behaviour both individually and in personal and social
relationships.

A) Hence, fantasy has become increasingly popular, especially in the form of science fiction.
B) Therefore, a novel is a fictitious prose narrative, usually of more than fifty thousand words in length.
C) On the whole, Daniel Defoe is regarded as the first notable English novelist.
D) At the other, some novels are meant simply as entertainment, such as detective stories and much science fiction.
E) At the same time, the reading public has increased in numbers, especially among the educated.

5) . Since universities have existed there have been arguments about what books should be taught to students. ...... Others have maintained that such a practice does not help students to distinguish between the good and the bad. Instead, they have suggested that students should be exposed to a wider range of writing.

A) Some have claimed that students should be introduced to the 'great' books of he world.
B) In fact, university authorities have always concerned themselves with this problem.
C) This is not to say that all students should read the same books.
D) The decision taken was that we limit ourselves to the world classics.
E) The problem was heatedly debated right through the 1950s.

6) . In Britain today every household with a TV set must, by law, pay for a license, which costs about the same for a year as a trendy newspaper every day. A few people, including those with non-colour TV pay less. ………. Another important source is the selling of its productions to other broadcasting stations.
A) The BBC enjoyed a monopoly until 1954.
B) Unlike the press, the BBC has rarely been accused of being partial
C) The new payments are mainly compulsory subscription to the BBC, which derives nearly all of its funds from this source.
D) News programs and films still attract the largest audiences.
E) Since the 1970s most British households have had TV sets able to receive channels.

6) . The Times newspaper has three weekly supplements all published and sold separately. These are The Time Literary Supplement, The Times Education Supplement, and The Times Higher Education Supplement. ………. It is devoted almost completely to book reviews and covers all kinds of new literature.

A) Obviously they influence the way people think to a considerable extent
B) Glossy weekly magazines cater for special interests.
C) Both of these appeal only to a restricted number of people.
D) Of these, The Literary Supplement has the biggest number of readers.
E) They make good use of academic contributors on issues related to education and literature.

7) . Generally, the farther north one goes in England, the more adequate are the roads for the traffic they have to carry. ...... But the roads in the south of England, apart from the motorways which radiate from London, must be among the most inadequate in Europe. Traffic there frequently moves at walking pace.

A) It is advisable to use the metro in London, for traffic jams make other forms of transport completely unreliable.
B) Wales and Scotland, for instance, are well-catered for with great lengths of nearly empty dual carriage ways.
C) The noise of the traffic has, in fact, increased very little recent years.
D) Similarly, in London, traffic hardly moves faster now than it did a century ago when vehicles were horse-drawn.
E) Several new schemes are now being considered to alleviate this condition.

8) . The habit of thinking about the past as divided into water-tight periods is particularly dangerous when it comes to economic and social history. Actually 'periods' usually have, as their names imply, a purely political connotation _ 'the Tudor age' or "the age of Louis XIV. ………. Rather absorbed in its own daily task, it flows on like an underground river, Only occasionally making
eruption into the upper daylight of politics.

A) This system, which originated in late medieval times, only blossomed in modern times.
B) The characteristics of one age thus invariably overlap into the next.
C) But economic and social life takes little heed of the deaths of kings or the accession of new dynasties.
D) The great innovators of social reform have all too often remained unacknowledged.
E) The approach of the modern historian has been to play down this all-important trend.



9) . A teacher's expectation of a child's ability can often determine the child's actual performance at school. If a group of children is divided into two groups of equal aptitude but their teachers are told that the children in group 1 have high IQs and" are expected to do well, whereas in group 2 the children are academically poor, ……… . This has been born out by numerous studies in many fields, not only in education.

A) the children in group 1 will do much better than those in group 2.
B) the performance of each group is likely to be similar.
C) the quality of the teaching could account for the difference.
D) the children felt discouraged by the results.
E) the children in group 2 soon realized what was happening and complained accordingly.

10) . The brain's main nutritional substance is glucose. ___ . If a diabetic patient receives an overdose of insulin there is a fall in the blood's glucose.

A) Moreover, the brain is the seat of intelligence.
B) Surgeons know exactly were to cut the affected part of the brain.
C) The brain is very sensitive to changes in the blood's glucose level.
D) This can have a harmful effect on a child's learning process.
E) Even so the effects of smoking cannot be counterbalanced.

11) . ________ . This area is called a reservoir. The water stored in it can be used for irrigation or power generation; it can also be used to supply water to homes and industry.

A) A dam is a wall, generally constructed across a valley, to enclose an area in which water is stored.
B) A dam is a complicated structure, consisting of various parts.
C) The GAP project has already brought great benefits to the region.
D) The site for any dam has to be chosen with great care.
E) South east Turkey is obviously even richer in water resources.

12) . People visit Cappodocia for several reasons. Mainly they come for the exotic scenery and the archaeological interest. _______ . Moreover in the vicinity, there are many places of remarkable beauty and historical significance.

A) Unfortunately it hasn't been sufficiently advertised.
B) The rock monasteries, in particular, draw large crowds.
C) It is only recently that the number of tourists to Cappodocia has declined.
D) The majority of tourists coming to Turkey prefer sea-side resorts.
E) Few people realize that Cappodocia could be developed as a tourist centre.

13) . Before 1950, in Britain, it was the responsibility of the municipalities to provide gas and electricity for public use. However, this was changed by the Attlee government; _______. Among them were steel, coal and railways.

A) even the conservatives were impressed at the results.
B) they were extremely concerned about unemployment and economic decline.
C) there was naturally a large amount of public reaction.
D) the policy they followed was bound to make them unpopular.
E) all gas and electricity services were nationalized along with several other industries.

14) . Bridges are among the most significant; and often the most spectacular, of all civil engineering works. __________ . Without them it would be impossible to imagine how traffic in Istanbul could circulate. Furthermore they are the symbolic link of two continents.

A) A further aspect of civil engineering is the choice of a suitable site.
B) The construction of bridges requires a number of engineering skills.
C) One of the major problems posed by long bridges is that of maintenance.
D) The bridges across the Bosphorus are a case in point.
E) Historically there has always been a dream to construct a bridge across the Bosphorus.

15) . Following World War II, there was an era of great optimism, economic growth and affluence. It lasted, however, for only a short period of time. _________ . This was largely owing to continuous economic recession and a whole series of world crises.
 
A) The super powers should be held responsible for this state of affairs.
B) Especially in the West the growth in the population was noticeable.
C) Many people looked forward to a better future for all.
D) Indeed the European Community took serious measures aimed at reducing unemployment.
E) From the 1970s onwards a new mood of frustration and disillusionment set in.

16) . Most of our misconceptions of art arise from a lack of consistency in the use of the words "art" and "beauty". ..... We always assume that all that is beautiful is art, of that all art is beautiful, that what is not beautiful is not art, and that ugliness is that negation of art. This identification of art and beauty is at the bottom of all our difficulties in the appreciation of art.

A) The painter generally expresses himself by the representation of the visible world.
B) The relation between art and religion is one of the most difficult questions that we have to face.
C) Expressionism in modern art is a distinct movement, having little or nothing in common with cubism.
D) It might be said that we are only consistent in our misuse of these words.
E) Some people are quite unaware of the importance of proportion in architecture, and have no-sense of shape, surf ace and mass.

17) . At the beginning of this century, a group of writers, from scattered midwestern towns came together in bustling, commercial Chicago. From the rough immediacy of the city, they forged a style that was distinctively and unsparingly realistic. ...... In fact the critics were soon to describe Chicago as the literary capital of the US.

A) Most of them, however ultimately moved away from Chicago.
B) The "Chicago Renaissance", fuelled by these writers, soon captured the attention of the rest of the nation.
C) It is now a commonplace of literary criticism that there is a close relationship between cities and their writers.
D) Chicago is indeed a city of absorbing contrast, and not least in the field of architecture.
E) American realism differs in many obvious ways from European realism.

18) . Italy is the great country of fountains, and the fountains-of Rome are world famous. ..... It was built in the time of Pope Clement XII about the middle of the eighteenth century. The fountain and the place behind it are a good example of the baroque style of architecture, which gives feeling of magnificence, movement and excitement.

A) The Fountain of Trevi, in Rome, is one of the most magnificent in the city.
B) This style is especially effective for fountains because of the moving water.
C) The water is brought underground from a spring many miles outside the city.
D) A statue of Neptune in the fountain is surrounded by numerous other figures.
E) The city of Rome has been the capital of Italy ever since it was established thousands of years ago.

19) . ..... His principal equipment is a leather couch for patients to lie on and a cabinet of mysterious drugs of one kind or another to send them off to sleep. He is particularly interested in the dreams of his patients and may use
some form of hypnosis to study their "responses" thoughts and secret emotions.

A) More and more large firms are realizing the advantages offered by psychiatry.
B) No one may prescribe drugs or surgery in treating mentally sick individuals unless he is medically qualified.
C) It is essential to realize that psychologists are first and foremost trained as scientists rather than as medical experts.
D) Psychologists are primarily concerned with behaviour and its abnormalities.
E) The popular image of a psychiatrist is a fairly well-defined one.

20) . The Federal Republic of Germany, founded in 1949, had as its first Chancellor Dr. Konrad Adenauer. His Christian Democrat government produced conditions of stability and confidence in which Germany rebuilt her shattered prosperity and a viable parliamentary democracy. Further, his work in building special relationship with France, culminating in a treaty of friendship, was a dramatic contrast to the long tradition of enmity towards
France. .......

A) Even so, Adenauer's successor Dr. Erhard was a loyal supporter of the Atlantic Alliance.
B) Furthermore, he strove relentlessly for German renunciation within the boundaries of 1937, stressing West German's right to speak for the whole of Germany
C) The Brandt Government’s main achievements were in the field of foreign policy
D) On the other hand, Brandt had built up his reputation as mayor of West Berlin before he was elected Chancellor.
E) Indeed, the tensions within the government were heightened by protracted negotiations between the coalition partners over policies to counter the sharply rising trend of unemployment.

21) . 1972 was not an easy or a successful year for the Heath Government in Britain. It was a year of confrontation with the trade unions. ...... Indeed it was even forced to adopt certain policies similar to those which it had attacked so vehemently when it had been in Opposition.

A) Lastly, after 1972, there was industrial action in protest against the Government's prices and incomes policy.
B) These problems were aggravated by persistently high levels of unemployment especially in certain, regions.
C) It was also a year in which the pressure of circumstances forced the Government to abandon many of the initiatives it had started in 1970.
D) Moreover, negotiations with the EEC started immediately after the general election of 1970.
E) Consequently, a 90-day standstill was imposed on wages, and prices and charges for goods and services were similarly frozen.

22) . A fitter works in a fitting shop. The operations that he performs include hack sawing, chiselling and filing. He works on a heavy rigid bench which has a vice bolted on it. He has various hand tools to work with. ___. The fitting workshop usually contains a marking-out table and a drilling machine.

A) These include files, chisels and saws.
B) The latter is used for machining holes in the work.
C) The former is used for marking out before the operations mentioned.
D) A surface grinder is used for producing a smooth surface.
E) Hack sawing, chiselling and filing are done before marking out.

23) . Secondary schools are schools for boys and girls from eleven to nineteen years old. There are secondary schools of one kind or another in all countries,___.

A) some are day schools but others are boarding schools.
B) with classes of all grades up to university admission,
C) clever students from primary schools can get scholarships to many of the best secondary schools.
D) the schools have well-equipped science laboratories
E) the pupils of day school live at home.

24) . Nowadays it is understood that a diet which contains nothing harmful may yet result in a serious disease if certain important elements are missing. ___. Quite a number of such substances are known and they are given letters to identify them. A, B, C, D and so on. Different diseases are associated with deficiencies of particular vitamins.

A) Vegetables are necessary for a healthy body
B) A very restricted diet causes some problems
C) These elements are called "vitamins"
D) Deficiencies of the various vitamins cause different diseases
E) A good mixed diet is often difficult to arrange

25) . ___. When man first used animal skins is not known. Skins, even when preserved by tanning, do not last as long as stone, pottery, metals and bone, and our knowledge about the early use of skins is vague.

A) Some skins are made into leather after the hair or wool has been removed
B) Hides and skin are the raw material of the leather manufacturer or tanner,
C) Beetles and other insects eat skins and must be kept away
D) In the early stone Age, skins were prepared and used,
E) Any animal skin can be made into leather, but the skins chiefly used come from cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and horses
 
            Test 2
 
1. The science of computers and the technology of their use are extensive and complicated subjects. ____. As a result, as in other similar fields so in computer sciences, there is a great variety of terminology and jargon.

A) Even children in primary schools now learn to use computers
B) Obviously there are several types of computers which would serve this particular purpose adequately
C) The languages the computer understands are easily understood by even ordinary people
D) One recent development is that computers are getting smaller and smaller
E) Moreover, the rapid rate of change in this field has contributed still further to this complexity

2. ____. The feudal lords in England had always run their own law courts and profited by the fines paid by those brought to court. However, King Edward took many cases out of their courts and tried them in his own, taking the money for himself.

A) King Edward always had the full support of the feudal lords
B) The administration of justice in Medieval England was completely centralized
C) King Edward, who lived in the 13th century, was unpopular mainly because he was greedy
D) Medieval economy in England was based on agriculture
E) The history of the British Parliament goes back to the signing of Magna Carta

3. The foremost power of the media lies in the fact that it can shape what we know about the world and can be a basic source of ideas and opinions. _____________.This power is greater if we consider all the various media together, not just one, such as the press.

A) The most influential media is obviously television
B) Indeed it can influence the way we think, but more than we realize
C) Journalists are jealous of the power of television
D) In recent decades the main concern of the media has been democracy
E) Most governments ignore the influence of the media on society

4. All considered, the United States has the world's most competent overall economy. -----. This increase in efficiency has in part been made possible by the fact that this sector is less heavily unionized than the manufacturing sector.

A) Unfortunately many American car manufacturers have lost a sizeable share of the world market
B) In fact Japan has become one of the biggest exporters of high-tech goods
C) Many American steel plants have entered a period of recession
D) Europe, however, has been making itself more efficient in the services industry
E) Competition from Germany is a danger both to Japan and the US

5. There are no less than 120 countries comprising the so-called "third world" known variously as "less developed" or "underdeveloped" or poor countries. There is a great diversity among them, and yet they have a number of features in common._____. For example, some of the oil-producing countries have achieved very high levels of income per capital while retaining many of the other characteristics of less developed countries.

A) Their natural sources are so limited that economically they are mostly dependent on international aid
B) Population explosion is a major problem many countries are unable to cope with
C) In such countries there is a great demand for an educated and skilled workforce
D) Death rates have fallen sharply in response to improved health services.
E) Foremost among these is their poverty, but even poverty is not universal.

6. Bacteria are minute, single-celled organisms of various shape and activity. Along with the viruses, they are classified as the lowest forms of plant life. Bacteria are everywhere in soil, water, dust, and in air._____. Some turn decaying vegetable matter into manure; others; within the human or animal body, assist in the development of certain vitamins necessary to health.

A) There are still many bacteria whose size and shape are not known yet
B) Food poising is also caused by various kinds of bacteria
C) A high-powered microscope is needed to detect bacteria in some substances
D) Under hygienic circumstances no bacterial activity takes place
E) There are thousands of different types and many perform useful functions

7. Vegetables eaten freshly cooked are safe. They may be unhygienic after cooking or be subject to spore germination and outgrowth if cooled slowly and stored warm. Salad vegetables, lettuce, tomatoes, radishes, cucumber and watercress should be washed in water for not less than 45 seconds._____.

A) In some restaurants a great variety of salad is served
B) Some people are not fond of vegetables at all
C) Water pollution is a serious danger that threatens the world
D) This is especially important in countries where crops are sometimes flooded with water polluted with human and animal sewage
E) As a result of easy transportation and good packaging, tropical vegetables are distributed worldwide

8. _____. Never has a statement made anywhere been meant more literally. Without energy, nothing could walk, fly, prowl, dive, swim, chew, hiss, bark, or grow. Einstein demonstrated that even matter is a form of energy. It should be clear, then, why energy is central to one of the cardinal principles of ecology.

A) The importance of energy to human beings is often overestimated
B) Without energy there would be nothing
C) The energy problem has been the main concern of many governments
D) The energy sources of the world are constantly being wasted
E) The committee has decided the new energy policy for the decade ahead

9. Even the smallest organization, public or private, has a personnel function. People are an organization's major resource and, even though the links between the personnel department and other departments are not always clear, it is important that cooperation between all departments and personnel is maintained. It is the personnel department, with the help of the other departments, which will implement any manpower policies by recruiting, selecting and training all employees._____.

A) This shows that personnel departments carry out crucial functions in organizations
B) That is why institutions will be forced to make huge investments
C) Certainly, some functions such as research or legal advice are carried out by different staff
D) In fact, no government agency would have been involved in such a case
E) Initially, each department was required to submit their proposals for improvement

10. People will exchange any goods or services for money: this is its most significant function. In order to be a medium of exchange, money must be acceptable:_____. Firstly, this confidence was created by using metals like gold and silver which in themselves were valuable. The coins, notes and cheques which are used as money today are not in themselves worth what they represent. Nevertheless, they are accepted by everyone in business transactions.

A) this primitive method of exchange is no longer used
B) therefore, it plays a vital role in international trade
C) that is it must enjoy everyone's confidence
D) the creation of money made business transactions much easier
E) money provides a standard measurement in business

11. _____. There is, for example, an obvious relationship between increases in economic wealth and general improvements in our life styles. The extent of the interrelationship between social and economic change means that many business organizations are influenced by changes in society.

A) The nature of family life is constantly changing
B) Most forms of social change are related to economic change
C) New economic policies adopted by the government give priority to economic growth
D) Successive governments have tried to solve the problems resulting from economic change
E) Population growth has a damaging effect on economic recovery

12. There are a number of ways in which to write medical history._____. Then there is the social approach of the history of medicine which concentrates on how, when, where, by whom, and with what effect the ill were treated in times gone by. Yet, another approach is to deal with the effect of disease upon the course of human affairs.

A) It is only in the past 50 years that doctors have appreciated how dangerous experience can be as a guide to action
B) A major area with which medical history is concerned is pathology
C) But all the strands of medical history could not possibly be woven into a coherent and comprehensive whole?
D)Most accounts of medical developments lack coherence and are often out-dated
E) One method, and this is the one preferred by doctors, is to trace progress from complete medical ignorance to a high level of medical competence

13. In this age crime has become a daily event, and this has had an effect on our reading. Readers no longer look for an escape when they pick up a crime novel._____. That is to say, they want to learn something about the real world, and about those, good and bad, who inhabit it.

A) Crime novelists cannot be dismissed simply because the incidents they describe are inherently more interesting than those in other kinds
B) Today the crime novel, in all its forms, proceeds most surely and satisfactorily from character
C) Most novelists see crime as a fascinating topic they can creatively write about
D) They read it for the same reasons they read novels of any other kind
E) A great majority of readers regard incidents in a crime novel as more fantasy

14. The term "psychology" was coined by the ancient Greeks as a label for their philosophic probing into the human "psyche"._____. But how does this go about studying the mind scientifically? Science implies measurement. How does one measure something that can neither be seen nor heard nor touched?

A) This is why psychology has come to be known as the study of behaviour
B) It is not the only discipline that is concerned with a systematic study of behaviour
C) All of these disciplines are rightly regarded as behavioural sciences
D) Sociology, on the other hand, is devoted in largest part to the nature and development of human society and community life
E) Gradually it came to mean the study of the "mind", and still, in part, retains that meaning

15. _____. Size alone has obviously nothing to do with the distinction, there are some enormous colleges and some small universities. Is the difference to be found in breadth or scope of instructional offerings? Not according to the late Hastings Ranowall, whose three-volume Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages is a classic in the field.

A) Public institutions are in a different situation
B) The content and the structure of general education need to be improved
C) First, let us clarify the terms college and university
D) In most countries college has come to mean a label for a higher institution of limited or special scope
E) A number of colleges and universities have experimented with curricular structures

16. For centuries, scientists and philosophers have speculated on the structure of the universe and the existence of galaxies outside our own. However until the twentieth century, they could do no more than speculate._____. Using giant telescopes, ultraviolet and infrared instruments, and high-speed computers, they are studying the information of galaxies for further insights into the nature of the cosmos.

A) Meanwhile, the study of other galaxies has led to an extraordinary insight into the possible structure of the universe.
B) We now know, of course, that the universe is designed on a scale far more grand
C) After decades of speculation, in fact we have started to penetrate to the very centre of our own galaxy.
D) Now, however, scientists have determined that the universe is made up of thousands of millions of galaxies
E) They have located regions that are very much disturbed with hot turbulent gases swirling at great force about the centre

17. A long time ago, many things were explained by reference to the will of unseen deities. _____. In our world, we explain things by reference to genes, and feel much superior for it. Nevertheless there is not, if we contemplate about it, very much difference between saying "The gods have made him angry" and saying "He has the gene for anger." Both are ways of attributing a matter of personal agency to some fateful and mysterious impersonal power.

A) Today, we regard this as a foolish and primitive approach
B) Most people are likely to want to believe in a little of both
C) Man has always struggled to change his destiny and enjoy happiness
D) In fact, human behaviour is determined by an inherited genetic package
E) In the end, though, people have to figure things out for themselves

18. Michelangelo hated to delegate work to others and would only do so in an excessive emergency._____; and certainly no artist of note emerged from his studio.

A) His assistants, furthermore, were all exceptionally talented
B) As a result, he has been accused of not passing on his artistic skill to others
C) Naturally he was unwilling to do much of the purely manual work himself
D) As a result many of his works had to be finished by his assistants.
E) He went o great pains to train his assistants

19. The planets are the celestial bodies that revolve round the sun in elliptical orbits._____. There are also numerous minor planets, generally called asteroids. Today many significant questions concerning the planets can be answered by means of probes sent to them. These include the measurement of the magnetic field, if any, of the planets, the study of their atmospheres and, in some cases surface conditions.

A) Among them Pluto was the last planet to be discovered in 1930 by the American astronomer Tombaugh
B) At present only nine major planets are known, and they are different in many respects from the fixed stars
C) Scientists have recently managed to land on the surface of Mars an extremely efficient instrument for exploration.
D)Yet, the moon revolves round the earth and has already been explored.
E) However, Pluto is the most distant of the planets and has an orbit more elliptical than the other planetary orbits

20. Acupuncturists treat all kinds of conditions ranging from headaches to strokes.____. In Britain, this very often happens, however some health insurance schemes do cover it.

A) The Chinese first developed this branch of medicine
B) Many of the people who practice acupuncture are not fully qualified
C) This kind of treatment hasn't been approved of by the medical profession yet
D) In France and Germany acupuncture is available under national health schemes
E) Contrary to general belief this method of treatment is not in the least painful

21. As scientific knowledge increased, so did the practical applications. The eighteenth century witnessed what is generally called the Industrial Revolution,_____. Since then, there has been a succession of technical innovations and fewer manual workers have been required.

A) when machines began to do more and more of the work that had previously been done by human beings and animals
B) as nuclear and solid-state physics are disciplines that have evolved more recently
C) for mathematics, it should be noted, is the basic tool of modern engineering
D) so the engineer must always be willing to face new challenges
E) which is likely to lead to much unnecessary suffering particularly as the workforce is largely made up of young people

22 _____. But most psychotherapists would say that such depression stems from buried grief or pain. For instance someone who has been dissatisfied as a child may become depressed as an adult.

A) One should not let oneself get depressed
B) Sometimes one may be depressed for no apparent reason
C) People who are depressed aren't good company
D) During the last two decades problems pertaining to mental health have steadily increased
E) The crime rate goes up with depressing regularity

23. _____. X-rays can tell a cultured pearl from a natural one because they can detect the structure of mother of pearl in the inside. Cultured pearls are generally less expensive than natural ones though in fact they, too, are "real" pearls.

A) The last X-ray showed an improvement in her condition
B) Cultured pearls are cheap imitations of the real thing
C) The difference between a cultured pearl and a real one is obvious at a glance
D) The pearls that are "cultured" fetch a higher price than the "natural" ones do
E) Cultured pearls are produced by inserting a bead of mother of pearl into an oyster, which then coats it in pearl

24. Most of our misconceptions of art arise from a lack of consistency in the use of the words "art" and "beauty".____. We always suppose that all that is beautiful is art, or that all art is beautiful, that what is not beautiful is not art, and that ugliness is the negation of art. This identification of art and beauty is at the bottom of all our complexities in the
appreciation of art.

A) The painter usually expresses himself by the representation of the visible world
B) The relation between art and religion is one of the most difficult questions that we have to face
C) Expressionism in modern art is a distinct movement, having little or nothing in common with cubism.
D) It might be said that we are only consistent in our misuse of these words
E) Some people are quite unaware of the importance of proportion in architecture, and have no sense of shape, surface and mass

25. At the beginning of this century, a group of writers from scattered Midwestern towns came together in bustling, commercial Chicago. From the rough immediacy of the city, they forged a style that was peculiarly and unsparingly realistic._____. Actually, the critics were soon to describe Chicago as the literary capital of the US.

A) Most of them, however, eventually moved away from Chicago
B) The "Chicago Renaissance", fuelled by these writers, soon captured the attention of the rest of the nation
C) It is now a commonplace of literary criticism that there is a close relationship between cities and their writers
D) Chicago is indeed a city of absorbing contrast, and not least in the field of architecture
E) American realism differs in many obvious ways from European realism
 
            Test 3
 
1. Italy is the great country of fountains, and the fountains of Rome are world famous. _____. It was built in the time of Pope Clement XII about the middle of the eighteenth century. The fountain and the palace behind it are a good model of the baroque style of architecture, which gives a feeling of glory, movement and excitement.

A) The Fountain of Trevi, in Rome, is one of the most magnificent in the city
B) This style is especially effective for fountains because of the moving water
C) The water is brought underground from a spring many miles outside the city
D) A statue of Neptune in the fountain is surrounded by numerous other figures
E) The city of Rome has been the capital of Italy ever since it was founded thousands of years ago

2._____. His principal equipment is a leather couch for patients to lie on and a cabinet of mysterious drugs of one kind or another to send them off to sleep. He is mainly interested in the dreams of his clients and may use some form of hypnosis to study their repressed thoughts and deep emotions.

A) More and more large firms are realizing the advantages offered by psychiatry
B) No one may prescribe drugs or surgery in treating mentally sick individuals unless he is medically qualified
C) It is important to realize that psychologists are first and foremost trained as scientists rather than as medical experts
D) Psychologists are primarily concerned with behaviour and its abnormalities
E) The popular image of a psychiatrist is a fairly well-defined one

3. The Federal Republic of Germany, founded in 1949, had as its first Chancellor Dr. Konrad Adenauer. His Christian Democrat government produced conditions of stability and confidence in which Germany rebuilt her shattered prosperity and a viable parliamentary democracy. Further, his work in building a special relationship with France, culminating a
treaty of friendship, was a dramatic contrast to the long convention of enmity towards France._____.

A) Even so, Adenauer's successor Dr. Erhard was a loyal supporter of the Adantic Alliance
B) Furthermore, he strove relentlessly for German reunification within the boundaries of 1937, stressing West Germany's right to speak for the whole Germany
C) The Brandt Government's main achievements were in die field of foreign policy
D) On die other hand, Brandt had built up his reputation as mayor of West Berlin before he was elected Chancellor
E) Indeed, the tensions within the government were heightened by protracted negotiations between the coalition partners over policies to counter the sharply rising trend of unemployment.

4. It was the most horrible ice-storm in living memory. What started in the clouds as rain became ice as it hit power lines, trees and roads._____. Well over 50.000 people had to flee their freezing homes for those of luckier
or better equipped neighbors.
 
A) It fell for days and it paralyzed much of Quebec, knocking out the power supply to 3 million people
B) Until then it was regarded as one of the worst natural disasters ever to hit Canada
C) The cleaning up process was soon in full swing and life returned to normal
D) Old people in particular are at risk if temperatures continue to fall in this way
E) The midweek forecast for the area is far from encouraging

5. We all know that learning is essential._____? A dictionary might tell you that learning is acquiring knowledge through experience and study. A teacher might tell you that it is memorizing what he wants you to know for an examination. Your manager might tell you that it is mastery of the task you are hired to do. A psychologist might tell you that it is a
relatively permanent change in behaviour due to past experience. Obviously learning takes place in various ways and forms.

A) How is it managed
B) What exactly do you mean
C) Yet one can depend on it
D) But what exactly is it
E) Do you think it can be mastered

6. Napoleon, the greatest of all generals, dismissed and disgraced Admiral Bruix for questioning an order to sail his fleet._____. Consequently, twenty ships were wrecked, and 3,000 men were drowned. From this incident we can conclude that the absolute obedience that a general can command is not appropriate at sea.

A) Even so, Bruix continued to admire and obey Napoleon
B) By the time his successor was appointed, the adverse weather conditions had been over
C) Everyone knew that this admiral never took risks
D) Napoleon seemed to know instinctively what die right course of action would be
E) His deputy obeyed the command although the wind was strong

7. Many sociologists are concerned that America is no longer "a melting pot," but "a salad bow!" .Unlike most earlier immigrants who are willing to learn English and wanted to "melt" into American life, many of today's immigrants do not see the need,____? How will all this influence American's future?

A) Why did most European immigrants settle in the cities rather than on farms
B) What was city life like for most immigrants
C) What changes can we expect in the make-up of America's population by the year 2000
D) What hardships did the early immigrants face when they arrived in America
E) How far back can an American trace his roots

8. ____. The faltering economy they inherited was now under additional pressure from those newly unemployed, including the million-man army of the former regime. There were critical shortages of foreign exchange and gold, much of which had been stolen in the last days of the war. There were also at least two million new refugees, nearly 10 % of the population. Nearly, the country was in a state of total bankruptcy.

A) The end of the war in Vietnam brought massive problems to the new leaders of the country
B) In the first place, all industry was nationalized by the new Vietnamese government
C) One unexpected problem facing the new government was continuing military activity
D) One solution to the urban problems facing Vietnam was to get people to return to the countryside
E) In their first months in power, Vietnam's new leaders succeeded in persuading hundreds of thousands of people to move back to their farms

9. Gathering information on a possible adversary or adversaries is only the start of the intelligence process. The raw materials, once in hand, must be drawn together, analyzed, correlated, and evaluated before it becomes useful knowledge. ____. From this appraisal, which points to this most likely course of action the target state can chart a course of action best designed to meet the developing condition.

A) The ethics of secret intelligence operations have long been debated
B) At this stage there emerges an estimate of the adversary's intentions and of his ability to achieve them
C) However the richest source is usually the secret agent, who is always a highly skilled and well trained professional
D) Intelligence findings are, therefore, usually classified and limited in circulation
E) In recent decades, technology has enormously lengthened the reach and sharpened the penetration of intelligence

10. In the 1900s cancer was nearly always fatal; by the 1930s one out of five cancer patients was saved: by 1975, treatment was successful in one out of every four cancer patients._____.

A) New evidence suggest that the highest risk for lung cancer occurs in asbestos workers who smoke
B) In fact every one knows that cancer refers to a group of over 100 different diseases
C) Today scientists and physicians believe that half of cancer patients can be saved if present knowledge is applied promptly in every case
D) Rehabilitation of the cancer patient has become an important new concern for social workers
E) The goal of cancer rehabilitation is to help the patient lead as normal a life as possible

11. What is soul? From Plato onwards, many answers have been given to this question, however no one answer has ever been found to be adequate.____. Most probably we must mean something by it.

A) His definition, quite understandably, soon returned to favour
B) Even so, the word is still in constant use
C) At a still later period soul and character were equated
D) If there had been further developments in this line they may have proved significant
E) The next step would then have been to differentiate between soul and body.

12. The Japanese have a strong aesthetic sense; they beautify, adorn and decorate everything they touch.____. It is cut into an artistic shape and given a colour scheme with carefully placed pieces of tomato and herbs.

A) Apparently they get a great deal of satisfaction out of such elegant displays
B) The art of flower arrangement is particularly well developed in Japan
C) Many of these arrangements consist of only two or three flowers and a spring of green
D) Naturally this is especially true of the women of that country
E) A sandwich in Japan is not a sandwich. It is a work of art designed to appeal not just to the palate but also to the eye.

13. ____. Composers such as Schubert, Schuman, Listz, and Berlioz sought a new freedom in musical expression. Form became of less importance than content; and that content frequently had literary connections.

A) Wordsworth is one of the best-known of all English Romantic poets
B) Mendelssohn and Brahms are the two most typical representative composers of the Romantic era
C) The Romantic movement, which began around the year 1800 in literature, also had its counterpart in music.
D) Indeed, the Romantic movement itself did not last very long
E) Amongst the Romantic composers, Brahms has generally been the most popular

14. The Dalullo Islanders in the Pacific were originally the mutineers of the ship Bounty. They took possession of the island of Dalullo in 1680, and it was not until 1704 that their whereabouts were ascertained, accidentally, by a passing ship._____. In the course of years they increased so much in numbers that they were too many for the island to support. In conclusion, in 1856 they were removed by the British Government to the much larger Norfolk Island.

A) The Bounty was originally chartered to explore the Pacific islands and establish British colonies there
B) Actually, much of their history is still controversial and there is a considerable difference of opinion about their origin
C) Up to that date trade in the Pacific region had been their main occupation
D) The British Government sponsored a number of search projects, but all of them ended in failure
E) The mutineers, under their leader Adams, had settled to a communal existence and married Tahitian women

15. Underdeveloped countries are those in which economic structure and development are held back. The causes of the situation of underdevelopment are complicated, but two opposing sets of theories dominate discussion._____. On the other hand, there are the theories that ascribe underdevelopment directly to the distortions of economic structure and the exploitation involved in the relations between the developed and the underdeveloped countries.

A) In other words, development and underdevelopment are mutually interdependent
B) This view implies that the state and process of underdevelopment in certain countries is inevitable
C) On the one hand, there are those theories that attribute underdevelopment to the internal characteristics of the underdeveloped countries themselves
D) Accordingly, such countries are responsible for their own underdevelopment
E) However, no country in the world is completely isolated from the current monetary policies

16. The purpose of a novel varies with its type. Mark Hackler’s statement has a fundamental validity: "the object of a novel should be to instruct in morals while it amuses." At one extreme, some novels are expressly meant to teach, such as some children's novels and social novels._____. Yet, one can claim that the aim of most novels is to reveal and stimulate thought and aspect of human behaviour both individually and in personal and social relationship.

A) Hence, fantasy has become increasingly popular, especially in the form of science fiction
B) Thus, a novel is a fictitious prose narrative, usually of more than fifty thousand words in length
C) On the whole, Daniel Defoe is regarded as the first notable English novelist
D) At the other, some novels are meant simply as entertainment such as detective stories and much science fiction
E) At the same time, the reading public has increased in numbers, especially among the educated.

17. _____. Difficult, is not it? Yet 150 years ago, that's exactly what it was. Over a century and a half the people of Hong Kong have managed to transform that rock into a world financial centre. With a government committed to free trade and free enterprise, and also due to its location in the heart of the Asia Pacific region, Hong Kong has thrived and is now the world's eleventh largest trading economy.

A) Imagine Hong Kong as a barren rock
B) There are a host of reasons behind Hong Kong's economic success
C Hong Kong has a harbour which has been described as the world's busiest
D) Imagine what one can achieve in Hong Kong
E) Think of the excellent investment opportunities Hong Kong offers today

18. Today most of France's 600.000 Jews are well established and assimilated, though some pockets of anti-Semitism still remain. Research earlier this decade found one in four Frenchmen complaining that there were numerous Jews in France, while one in five admitted to feelings of antipathy towards them_____.

A) During the Second World War the Vichy government introduced laws dial banned Jews from holding a wide range of jobs.
B) According to another poll at the time, only 9% said they would not vote for a Jew as a president.
C) As a result, from the 13th century until the French Revolution in 1789, Jews in France as in many other places in Europe, were systematically persecuted
D) Even so the Germans still wrestle with their consciences over their attitude, past and present, to the Jews
E) In 1995, Chirac became the first French president to admit the French state's responsibility in rounding up the Jews to be sent to Nazi extermination camps

19. Africans have at last lost patience with their government. They are especially angry about declining living standards, the breakdown of law and order. The government officials in particular, are full of complaints._____. Most of them are members of militant trade unions, through which they demonstrate and go on strike. Therefore, chaos and continuous political instability can never be averted.

A) It is possible that market forces and world economic conditions can upset their high hopes for improvement
B) Among the demonstrators are people from the countryside who have been flooding into towns seeking a better life
C) Undoubtedly, Africans want multi-party democracy and are working hard to achieve it
D) As most governments are short of cash, these officials are underpaid or paid late
E) Certainly, people tend to accept painful policies more readily from elected
governments than from dictators

20. When you're in a car the only thing you can do is to look at the countryside as if you're looking at a TV screen._____. Then, you're entirely in contact with it all. You're in the scene, not just watching it.

A) In fact, there are several programs to choose from.
B) When the weather's wet and windy this is a great advantage.
C) When you're on a bicycle it's completely different.
D) It is presumably much easier to drive in a rural area.
E) In the cities the amount of traffic is steadily increasing.

21. The exposition is devoted to the work of L. C. Tiffany, an American designer._____. Many of the displays are on loan from private collections and museums.

A) Much of the money he had gained, he donated to the charity.
B) In fact, he had a large family to support.
C) Some of the awards he had received were not really deserved.
D) It emphasizes the wide variety of his interests as an artist.
E) It's an attempt to offer a selection of work of famous American designers.

22. The Niagara Falls are one of the great natural wonders of the world._____. The Canadian Fall is almost twice as broad as the American Fall, however it is ten feet lower. The grandeur and the beauty of the Falls cannot be described.

A) The temperature varies accordingly.
B) Vast quantities of electric power are needed for industry.
C) That's why some people prefer to visit the Falls in winter.
D) Even in the summer the Falls attract tourists.
E) The Falls are in two parts, separated by an island.

23. _____. For example, military scientists detonate sophisticated bombs with them, while surgeons perform very delicate operations by means of them. In fact laser beams can be focused to spot one fifteenth the size of a human hair, but they are intense enough to kill cancer cells.

A) The use of laser in medicine is still distrusted by a great majority of doctors.
B) Laser technology is still in its elementary and theoretical stage.
C) Today, laser is largely confined to laboratory situations.
D) Science fiction draws elaborately upon laser technology.
E) The use of laser beams, for a variety of purposes, is growing constantly.

24. There are lo less than 140 countries comprising the so called "third world" know variously as "less developed" or "developing" or "underdeveloped" or "poor" countries. There is a great variety among them, and yet they have numerous features in common._____. For example, some of the oil-producing countries have achieved very high levels of income per capita while retaining many of other characteristics of less developed countries.

A) Their natural sources are so limited that economically they are mostly dependent on international aid.
B) Population explosion is a major problem many countries are unable to cope with.
C) In such countries there is a great demand for an educated and skilled workforce.
D) Death rates have fallen sharply in response to improved health services.
E) Foremost among these is their poverty, but even poverty is not universal.

25. Trade unions started out as social clubs._____. It was not up to 1881 that they were legally recognized. From that day on they rapidly grew in power. The significant question today is whether they really use that power in the interests of the members.

A) Then they simply aimed at getting fair treatment for the workers and better working conditions.
B) Within a short space of time, they grew into powerful organizations.
C) Consequently, membership has never been optional.
D) The movement turned out to be short-lived.
E) Surprisingly enough it hasn't attracted.
 
            Test 4
 
1. The main ends of government should be three; security, justice, and conservation ____, and they are things that only government can break about. At the same time, none of them is absolute; each may, in some circumstances, have to be sacrificed in some degree for the sake of a greater degree of some other good.

A) These are things of the utmost importance to human happiness
B) These things, however, did not exist in ancient societies
C) However important these three values can be people were reluctant to fight for them
D) Furthermore, societies have them in degrees
E) On the other hand one cannot to without them

2. A helpful way to find the meaning of a word is by using contextual clues.____. Even a very small context can sometimes be helpful. For instance, in a text on agricultural science, we would expect to find words like crops, soil, weather conditions, and so on.

A) But we know which concepts tend to appear in the same context
B) We would, therefore, not expect to find terms taken from criminology or the history of art
C) In the same way, we expect a word to be followed by a verb, for instance
D) A verb, for example, followed by a concept may go together with an adverb
E) A context enables us to predict what is going to come next

3. ____. Even those students who are far behind can and ought to be able to improve. Perhaps their extreme disability will prevent them from reaching their highest potential. However, this doesn't mean that they cannot move ahead.

A) These students have failed for so many years that they have developed antipathy toward the system
B) We do not mean to say that teachers are to be blamed
C) Therefore improvement-even though very slow-is the realistic goal
D) These students, it is hoped, have not been involved in such a failure
E) In spite of making every effort, many teachers do not succeed in helping students ,

4. The popular statement, 'Smith's credit is worth half a million, means that Smith is believed to be both able and willing to pay back at least that amount. The statement,____. In determining a candidate’s creditworthiness, credit analysts emphasize the three 'C's'-character, capital and capacity to get income.

A) only applies to those who are reluctant to pay
B) is absolutely misunderstood
C) indicates clearly that debtors should not be faithful at all
D) 'His credit is bad' indicates lack of faith in the borrower's willingness
E) however, puts too much blame on credit analysts

5. Western Europe made two unsuccessful attempts to expand. The first one of these attempts was the medieval movement in the Mediterranean.____. During this period, the attempt to impose the political and economic dominion of West Europeans ended in a complete failure.

A) The most convenient common name for this one is the Crusades
B) It is still unknown when this attempt was made
C) The second attempt was that of the Americans
D) In the interchange of culture, the West Europeans received a greater impress from the Muslims
E) In the Crusades, however, they were able to gain some land

6. Want, neglect, confusion, and misery in every shape and in every degree of intensity filled the endless corridors of the hospital. The very building itself was shamefully defective.____. There were not sufficient bedsteads, and the sheets were of canvas and very coarse. There was no furniture of any kind, and empty beer bottles were used for candle sticks. There were no basins, no towels, no soap, no brooms, no trays, or plates.

A) There had been some delay in the delivery of the medical stores sent out by various European countries.
B) The structural defects were equalled by the deficiencies in the commonest objects of hospital use.
C) The authorities had taken measures to ensure that there would be an adequate supply of stretchers, bandages and the most ordinary drugs.
D) Indeed, great detachments of the wounded were all ready convertibly accommodated.
E) The first signs of hope came when a fair supply of the most necessary objects arrived.

7. When the Crimean War broke out, Captain Gordon, who was to become famous in the future as General Gordon of Khartoum, was twenty-one. Before the year was over, he had managed to get himself transferred to the Crimea.____. Upon the declaration of peace, he was sent to Bessarabia to help in determining the frontier between Russia and Turkey, in accordance with the Treaty of Paris. Upon this task he was occupied for almost two years. Then he was dispatched to China.

A) All through the war, especially during the siege of Sebastopol, he behaved with conspicuous gallantry.
B) For the historian, the circumstances of this tragic end, so bitterly debated, and so controversially described, stilt remain a mystery.
C) It was not in peace and rest, but in ruin and horror, that he reached his end.
D) The news of the catastrophe reached England, and a great outcry arose.
E) In fact, he was by no means in favour of the Government's imperial policies in the colonies.

8. _____. The study found that morale was low among secretaries. Many of them stated that they felt a lack of respect for their work and that they were not treated as full members of the company's executive team. The study also demonstrated that they were under-utilized.

A) First of all, we have made a list of tasks that secretaries can perform in addition to the more traditional tasks of typing and filing.
B) The changes we have made in the personnel system of the company were in part the result of a study conducted about secretaries over a six-month period.
C) In addition to the language training that has been offered, the company is designing a training program on office management for secretaries.
D) In upgrading office efficiency, managers also play an important role by recognizing and appreciating the work and career aspirations of secretaries.
E) The questionnaire didn't provide them with any useful information.

9. It is an old wives' tale that reading in the dark is harmful or will weaken the eyes. Apart from looking directly at the sun, or another very high intensify Light source, one does not hurt one's eyes by using them. True, reading with inadequate light may tire the eye muscles.____. Admittedly, the proper level of illumination for reading is the level with which one feels comfortable.

A) Moreover, light from behind is ideal for reading and any close work.
B) Therefore, higher illumination can actually be a disadvantage
C) On the contrary, one would feel more comfortable if the Light were better.
D) It may even cause headaches, but it does no permanent damage.
E) In fact, there are new, inexpensive, high-intensity lamps available now, which provide higher illumination with lower wattage.

10. A simple idea could make flying much safer. Tests in the US have demonstrated that cooling fuel before it is put into an aircraft prevents explosive fumes building up in the fuel tanks. For this purpose, an American company has developed a system that cools fuels to 1 degree Celsius or below, before it is put into an aircraft. This is the ideal safety temperature and nearly eliminates the chance of an explosion in the fuel tanks.

A) Research has revealed that the fuel delivered to an aircraft before take-off will heat up fast if the aircraft is in the sun.
B) The explosion of the TWA flight 800 off Long Island in the United States is thought to have been caused by a fire in one of the aircraft's tanks.
C) As an aircraft climbs, the drop in pressure draws more fumes into the tanks, and if this occurs safety depends largely on the absence of a spark.
D) The US Federal Aviation Administration has since been looking at many ways of making air travel safer.
E) The idea is to minimize vaporization, so that there is no danger of an explosion even if static electricity or faulty wiring creates a spark.

11. ____. Periodic environmental cues such as dawn or dusk or the change of the seasons, regulate these clocks. There is scientific proof that matching clocks to these cues helps animals live longer. In fact, most researchers think that the clocks help animals coordinate metabolic and physiological processes for survival.

A) In the case of some insects, the biological clocks are never affected by changes in the environment in which they live
B) Biological clocks do not always enable animals to live in harmony with their natural habitat.
C) Biological clocks allow organisms to anticipate when to feed, mate, migrate, or, in short, synchronize their activities with the environment.
D) Some scientists argue that biological clocks disappear over time in populations raised in an environment with no periodic changes.
E) Many people find it difficult to adapt to a new time schedule.

12. In an earthquake, the toll depends largely on four factors. ____. Then, there is the type and quality of housing. The time of day is a further significant factor. Lastly, there is the population density.

A) The first is the magnitude of the earthquake itself
B) All of these are outside our control
C) Of these only two can be controlled by man
D) If only we knew when an earthquake was likely to occur, we could be better prepared
E) In these recent earthquakes, the toll of human life was needlessly great

13. Economic liberalization, which is itself a vague term, occurs in a variety of forms and in many countries.____. With a few notable exceptions, nevertheless, nearly every country in the world has been affected by this trend. In the industrialized world, it was epitomized in the ends and policies of the Thatcher and Reagan governments. Also, encouraged by the World Bank and IMF, most less developed countries, including India, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico have made some movement toward economic liberalization.

A) In fact, the movement toward liberalization relates to the change in thinking in the economics profession in the 1950s and 1960s
B) Even Vietnam has taken some small steps toward opening up its economy to the outside world
C) This policy recognizes the role of the state in the stabilization of a country's economy
D) Next, however, in the question of the relation of these trends to the overall global processes of economic development and social modernization
E) It is, therefore, difficult, if not impossible, to produce a list of countries that can be said to have fully liberalized

14. D. H. Lawrence differed in many ways from his contemporaries. Especially, he wrote with more urgency and intensity than most.____. This is in keeping with this subject matter that is so often the dreams and aspirations of man.

A) This subject matter is all too often the personal relationships of opposite characters
B) In fact, there is a poetic quality to much of his work
C) He knew at first-hand the hardships of a coal miner's life
D) It was the working class and its problems that he presented most accurately
E) Actually, he was someone of a rebel himself

15. Mercury, which is the smallest of all planets, is the closest to the sun at a little more than one-third of the earth's average distance.____. It was first visited in March, 1974 by the space-craft Mariner 10 that passed within a few hundred kilometres of it. The craft relayed pictures on the two following passes in September, 1974 and March, 1975. It still goes on to revisit Mercury every 176 days.

A) The relayed pictures showed that the planet has an approximately 59-day rotation period
B) It is only recently that we have been able to gain any accurate information about it
C) Mariner 10 measured a small magnetic field at the surface
D) Today we are in possession of vast amount of information about the planets
E) Obviously, it will take many thousands of years to reach even the nearest stars

16. In spite of technological improvements which allow exploration to proceed rapidly, it is no simple matter to obtain oil from undersea fields. Prospecting must be followed by the leasing of potential oil-producing areas, and then by drilling to see whether oil is actually there. Offshore drilling platforms must be contracted most proficiently so as to withstand the force of waves, especially during the season for hurricanes.____.

A) Therefore, the technical difficulties of far more extensive offshore operations do not discourage specialists in petroleum engineering
B) Naturally, the search for petroleum has repeatedly led geologists to sedimentary rocks under the seas
C) It is a fact that by no means all of the land resources of petroleum have been discovered
D) In fact, of California, Texas, and Louisiana, oil companies have drilled into the sediments of the shelf and are obtaining oil
E) Indeed, winds, storm waves, fogs and the corrosive effects of sea water upon metal structures are the major hazards that must be faced and overcome in offshore oil production

17. National self-reliance in disaster relief is a goal toward which all countries must strive. But, international assistance may be required to provide locally unavailable resources and skills for relief and rehabilitation. Many agencies, associations, groups and governments support countries affected by natural disasters. ____. If properly coordinated, international relief is beneficial to disaster victims.

A) The rehabilitation period provides an opportunity for making major changes in health-care methods, for during it people are receptive to new ideas
B) The arrival of unsolicited medical assistance, particularly in the form of volunteer physicians, may be a persistent problem
C) A major disaster with high mortality leaves orphaned children whose care may become the responsibility of health agencies
D) Each has different objectives, expertise, and financial support to offer, and over a hundred may become involved in any single major disaster
E) Funding long-term projects from international resources may prove difficult since many organizations are reluctant to take on such expenditures

18. Alzheimer's Disease is a progressive and irreversible brain disease that destroys mental and physical functioning in human beings, and invariably leads to death. It is the fourth leading cause of adult death in the United States. ......... Fortunately, a large amount of progress is being made to combat Alzheimer's disease every year. To fully be able to comprehend and combat Alzheimer's disease, one must know what it does to the brain, the part of the human body it most greatly affects.

A) Many Alzheimer's disease sufferers had their brains examined.
B) There was a loss of nerve cells from the Cerebral Cortex in the Alzheimer's victim.
C) A large number of differences were present when comparing the normal brain to the Alzheimer's brain.
D) Approximately ten percent of the neurons in this region were lost.
E) Alzheimer's creates emotional and financial catastrophe for many American families every year.

19. Most people don't know where the idea of the laser came from. The idea for the laser came from a machine called a maser. The maser was a tool that was able to strengthen, or amplify radio and light waves. ........ It was built by Theodore Maiman and a group of American scientists.

A) Using the first letter of each main word they named it laser.
B) The first laser was made in California in 1960.
C) The laser had everyone excited.
D) At first there weren't many uses for the laser.
E) It was done by coiling a simple flash tube around a rod, and beaming powerful flashes of light at it.

20. As defined by the Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, a tornado is a tropical thunderstorm; a violent, destructive whirling wind accompanied by a funnel-shaped cloud that progresses in a narrow path over land. .......These powerful windstorms usually leave behind trail of ravaged buildings and their distraught occupants. A tornado can be a few meters to about a kilometre wide where it touches the ground, with an average width of a few hundred meters. It can move over land for distances ranging from a couple of inches to many kilometres, causing great damage wherever it touches down. Most tornadoes spin counter clockwise in the northern hemisphere and clockwise in the southern, but occasional tornadoes reverse.

A) Damage to property hit by a tornado come from these winds.
B) Tornadoes can be found in various places at any given time.
C) The number of funnels observed each year can vary greatly in any given region.
D) Tornadoes occur mostly in temperate latitudes.
E) Hurricanes are made up of high-velocity winds blowing in a circular pattern around a low-pressure centre

21. Human rights are universal, indivisible and interdependent. Human rights are what make us human. When we speak of the right to life, or development, or to dissent and diversity, we are speaking of tolerance. ........... Without it, we can be certain of none.

A) Tolerance will ensure all freedoms.
B) Another example is right in our own back yard.
C) They are no different today than centuries ago when slavery was allowed.
D) One religion against another, it is all the same.
E) We should embrace the differences and share the differences.

22. .......... Whether it is an addiction to drugs, sex, gambling, or whatever, hardly anyone would be willing to take that on an everyday basis. Most people would agree that it is not pretty to see someone throw their life away on addictions. It is simply not attractive and thus, not many people would want to be with someone with an extreme problem like that.

A) An unfortunate reason for a break up, physical disabilities also occurs at times.
B) More reasons why couples separate, addictions often result in ugly break ups.
C) To some people, having children is the most important priority in their adult life.
D) Being with a person, who becomes handicapped, though unfortunate, is a big burden to place on a person.
E) Having a partner who has a paralyzing disability might be too much for someone to take.

23. In 1900 a radio pioneer, Nikola Tesla, noticed that large objects can produce reflected radio signals that are strong enough to be picked up. .......... So he predicted that such echoes could be used to find the position and course of ships at sea. But nothing was done about it until just before World War II. In 1935, Robert A. Watson Watt and other British scientists developed a system of radio echoes that could detect approaching aircraft. This later developed into the radar system that proved effective against German air raids on Britain in World War II.

A) The size of a radar set depends on the job it is expected to do.
B) An important step in making radar possible had taken place in the United States in 1925.
C) The new idea was to send out the radio signals in short bursts, called pulses.
D) But all radar sets, regardless of their size, use the principle of the echo.
E) He knew that reflected radio signals are really radio echoes.

24. The evolutionists had a hard time trying to explain why dinosaurs became extinct. ....... Out of all of those explanations not one of them was a satisfactory one. A theory that works for large animals would not work for small animals, and vise-versa. Whatever happened, evolutionists agree that it must have been a catastrophe on a world-wide scale.

A) Then the mammals evolved into man.
B) The evolutionists believe, very strongly, that dinosaurs were extinct millions of years ago.
C) Why did dinosaurs become extinct?
D) They had over fifty-five different theories that would just come and go.
E) When these animals were called mammals, there were even no people to walk on the earth.

25. Throughout the 1900's there has been numerous polls taken that shocked everyone. The unemployment rate for those who cannot read and write is dramatically higher than for those who can. Illiteracy is a hidden problem throughout the United States. Another poll taken showed that an estimated 23 percent of Americans can read a stop sign but cannot fill out an employment form. ...........

A) Next, this information is given to the Bureau of Labour Statistics which is held in the labour department.
B) Of those who can read and write, large numbers of adults cannot read and write past the fifth grade level.
C) The educational opportunities for minority groups is low.
D) One may argue that education is low due to finances.
E) These steps are also known as the fiscal point and the monetary policy.
 
            Test 5
 
1) ......... Words that were unacceptable 300 years ago are now commonplace. English has always had a trademark of being a comfortable language, the language of the common people. Change in the grammar and diction of a language is natural, and English is always confronted with changes. Among them are the use of slang, clipped word endings, and new dialects.

A) For hundreds of years, English has been continuously changing.
B) Some Conservatives do not like changes because they claim that standard English is a perfect language
C) American English, especially, is always adding new words to its vocabulary for social, scientific, or artistic reasons.
D) Slang is usually created by children or teens who seek social status.
E) Conservatives look down upon slang because slang is not used by people of high status.

2) The novel, Animal Farm, was written by George Orwell and was published in 1946. ......... The animals on Manor Farm are irritated .with the way they are being treated, so they start a revolution. The pigs, who were the smartest animals on the farm, took control of the farm
while the other animals worked. Throughout the novel the pigs lie to the other animals and change the rules, of the farm to accommodate themselves.

A) George Orwell s real name was Eric Blair.
B) He was a political writer who wrote of his own times.
C) He was a man of intense feelings and fierce hates.
D) One of the major characters in the novel, Animal Farm, is Napoleon.
E) The story is about a farm in England around the time of the Russian revolution.

3) Advertising's main goal is to persuade. They want us to see the American way through their eyes. ....... Advertisers start this form of brainwashing on us at a very early age. They lay the groundwork of ideals early on because it is easy to persuade a child.

A) Children are forced to make their own evaluations and most of the time they go along with the views of what they see.
B) With the unending viewing of shows and advertisements who could blame them.
C) They tell us what to eat, drink, wear, drive, and think.
D) Now that is a major amount of influencing on a young person.
E) One day they want a matchbox car and a few years later they want a real Porsche.

4) Throughout everyone's life we see skinny, beautiful models and the thought that this is "ideal". It is not surprising that there are so many people in the world with eating disorders. Everywhere we go there are pictures, billboards, and posters of the "ideal" person. ........I
suppose if everyone had enough money to pay a photographer, make-up artist, and to have the correct lighting we would all be "ideally" beautiful.

A) This is a cycle of rapidly eating a large amount of food, and after doing so, vomiting to get rid of it.
B) This occurs at least twice a week for three months in a row.
C) The person eats so fast that they may not even taste the food, and may not even chew.
D) In reality these people are just like us and are not any better than anyone else.
E) They gulp down thousands of calories in carbohydrates and sugary foods.

5) People are able do many kinds of strange things to make a world record. The world's largest pancake. The longest earlobe. The person that can push a train with his nose. The longest jazz concert. And so on and on. ......... It is currently held by a man named Poon Lim - he spent 133 days floating around the South Atlantic in a life raft all by himself.

A) Poon was born on Hainan Island which is located off the southern coast of China.
B) There is one world record that we bet no one wants to break.
C) So far nothing sounds abnormal here.
D) You are floating around the Atlantic Ocean without a lifeboat struggling to keep your head above water.
E) I mention that this is during the height of World War II.

6) In the process of a flood and drought, the roots of trees are shallow and virtually no nutrients are obtained from the soil. ....... When the vegetation is cleared, the source of humus is removed and the natural infertility of the soils comes to be obvious. As being another factor, this will cause the soil to produce wasteful and useless products which in turn will decrease the production.

A) The vegetation survives on its own humus waste, which is plentiful.
B) It could also bring good fortune if climatic regions are good.
C) The soils of Tropical Africa create another problem.
D) All these causes the food's rate of growth to slow down.
E) Tropical soils are different from moderate soils.

7) Many people who are in opposition to gambling consider it morally or theologically wrong. The domestic violence and crime that might result from obsessive gambling could lead to the breakdown of the family and divorce. Gambling, especially the lotteries, contribute to the attitude that a person can get something for nothing, a belief many people consider particularly armful to the nation's morality. The states, by administering the lotteries, have become party to this. .......

A) But they have also debased the values of their communities.
B) The fast expansion of gambling across the United States has not been well received by all Americans.
C) Many opponents do believe that government and society leaders have had a choice between money and ethics.
D) By permitting gambling, government authorities have contributed to making gambling publicly acceptable.
E) The failure of many gambling initiatives during the past few years indicates an opposition.

8) People who own pets were known to lead longer and happier lives than those who do not have them. As we get older, we come to be less active. ...... That's why we need something in our lives to keep us busy so we do not die prematurely; and a pet is the thing to do it. This is may be because of the companionship, exercise, responsibility and friendship that they provide.

A) The more inactive we become, the higher our risk of death is.
B) First, owning a pet forces one to take on the responsibility of keeping it alive.
C) One's pet must be fed, watered, and kept in healthy conditions.
D) This high bit of motion will at most prevent muscular atrophy.
E) This gives one a stable cardiovascular workout.

9) I think that everyone is really a teacher in his or her own right. A teacher is the one that teaches another an important lesson, a person that shapes another's life. A teacher is the one who helps a person to get on the right path, who is there to lead them in choosing the best verdicts for themselves. Teaching goes one step further when choosing this as a career. .........

A) But there are many popular ways for students to cheat in examinations.
B) Some students take their notes into the exam rooms.
C) It means dedicating your life to helping others.
D) Some students think that when they fail the exams, they would have a lot of problems.
E) It is interesting to focus on the question that why some students still do keep being lazy.

10) ........ Vegetarianism has been around for hundred years, but recently we have seen the outbreak of a more militant vegetarianism that is inspired by the animal "rights" movement. Today, vegetarian activists are throwing pies at Ronald Mc Donald and the Pork Queen, writing "eating meat is murder" in major locations, committing terrorist acts of arson, and paying media campaigns equating meat consumption with cannibalism.

A) Vegetarianism is the limitation of ones diet to only vegetables and fruits.
B) World hunger is a result of lacking distribution of food, not deficient capacity for production of food.
C) Our capacity to produce grain is so huge that we actually pay farmers not to produce.
D) Though not done by everyone, hunting and fishing bypass any potential ecological destruction associated with plant or animal agriculture.
E) Diet is not only one important aspect of health.

11) American culture is made up of many different cultures, all of which have contributed to the American way of life. .......... Koreans are well educated and have been involved in many professional, technical, and managerial careers. Afro-Americans have contributed music, science, literature, entertainment, and many other things to American culture.

A) People like Bob Hope, who was born in England, have contributed richly to our culture.
B) We are individuals from different cultures.
C) We are different, but we are all Americans.
D) Japanese are computer and business contributors.
E) All this proves that Americans are not just one people.

12) One of the reasons for the high population in some parts of Guatemala is the land forms or topography of Guatemala. Most of Central Guatemala is too mountainous and rugged for humans to survive on. In the north the land is more flat. .......... The flat land is more suitable for building houses, factories and other buildings. The only other area of flat land is in the north, which is a desert and is unsuitable for humans.

A) However in the western central area the water not as polluted as elsewhere.
B) In the desert areas, there is basically no water.
C) There is also better soil quality in the north than in the mountains.
D) In the Southern areas, there is a desert climate with very little or no rain.
E) There are also more employment opportunities due to the industries being built there.

13) The United States was divided into two groups by the time the Civil War began: those who believed in the complete abolition of slavery, and those who were against the expansion of slavery. The Republican party was formed in opposition to southern expansion. .......... They believed that slavery was a flawed system that made the south ineffective and because the North's free labour system was superior, it must be guarded from southerners.

A) The New Deal describes the program of US president George Bush.
B) Their views were Free Soil, Free Men and Free Labour.
C) Depression, guarantee minimum living standards, and prevent future economic crises.
D) However as time progressed, the focus drifted towards recovery.
E) In order to accomplish this monumental task, several agencies were created.

14) Many social changes that were addressed in the 1970s are still the issues being confronted today. .......... In spite of all the chaos, there were some positive results: the civil rights revolution, John F. Kennedy's bold vision of a new boundary, and the breathtaking advances in space, helped bring about progress add prosperity, however, much was negative: student and against-war protest movements, political assassinations, and ghetto riots excited American people and resulted in lack of respect for authority and the law.

A) We must be determined to strike forcefully at the consciences of all Americans.
B) In that time of sorrow and guilt Martin Luther King was murdered
C) There was an opening for peace between the races that might otherwise never have presented itself.
D) The seventies was a decade of social and political unrest.
E) In order to wrest from tragedy and trauma, the will to make a better society went on.

15) ..........These people all have different backgrounds, family environments, and experiences that affect their views on politics. Because of the diversity of its people, Australia accordingly has a diversity of political views. It is the duty of the federal government to protect the rights of each of these people whether they are natives or white. The only time the federal government should violate someone's rights is when it negatively affects the well being of others.

A) Australia is a melting pot of various cultures from all different parts of the world.
B) I believe the federal government has an obligation to protect the rights of its people.
C) Many children are forced to attend schools that have less than adequate facilities.
D) The federal government has left some issues to be addressed by the states and private industry.
E) Millions of Australians cannot afford health care, and as a result, do not receive the treatment they require.

16) Usually we automatically reject a person before we know anything about who is he or she. We immediately assume that this person is not the one for us. Give yourself a chance to stop automatic rejection and holding onto a predetermined image of who you want. Take a deep breath and give each person you meet a chance, for at least a moment or two. ..........

A) In a sense we are all like longing for the light.
B) Each person we meet is another bridge, another link.
C) There is plenty of sun and light available, but if we are closed we cannot let it in.
D) Catch yourself in the act of rejection and stop it on the spot.
E) Our entire life consists of building bridges.

17) Hypnosis sometimes is employed to treat physical problems with a psychological component, such as a circulatory disease known as Raynaud's Syndrome. It has also been used to initiate behavioural changes, for example cigar smoking, obesity, insomnia, and the overcoming of phobia's. Although hypnotism has shown its uses as a fairly valuable medical tool, in this modern "technological age" there are very few physicians who use it. ....... Performed as a sort of "Magic Show" it is used to cause some people to laugh, and some people to be amazed.

A) Whenever attention is concentrated on an idea over and over again, it spontaneously tends to realize itself.
B) It begins with a man named Franz Anton Mesmer.
C) This was the generally accepted opinion of the scientific community.
D) The major use of hypnotism in modern days, is entertainment.
E) He was definitely a major influence in contemporary hypnotherapy's acceptance by the American Med. Assoc.

18) .......... Some people are stopped from seeing their friends just because their relatives are racist. It isn't fair for parents to make their children agree with them if they are racist, the children are seeing their friends because they like them and they aren't discriminating against them because of their race.

A) Care is needed when doing advertisements so that any racial groups are welcome.
B) Many of the attacks have not been violent but disgusting.
C) Some people are affected by racism because their parents are racist.
D) Parents have been to schools to try and stop the bullying.
E) People believe that what they do is just fun but they are unaware of the consequences it can have.

19) Our economy, values of exports, employment rate, and to our everyday needs in society - we are always directly or indirectly dependent on the mining industry. ......... Nevertheless government and mining companies have realized the problem, and have donated money
and effort to correct it, helping to keep the surrounding clean and healthy, also ensuring this industry will be running smoothly and bringing in money to create a good economic future.

A) In the old days, as a matter of fact only five ore ten years ago every single car brand seemed to have it's own personality
B) But as we discover, the mining industry does contribute pollution to the environment.
C) One reason is that the automotive industry has certain trends it has to follow, just like fashion designers and musical composers.
D) Another reason is that many manufacturers actually cooperate and by contracts copy each other’s models.
E) The last and maybe the most logical reason is that all manufacturers are striving towards 'the perfect car'.

20) A boxer's hands are wrapped in soft cloth binding , over the bandages he wears padded gloves. These gloves soften his punches and protect his hands as well as his opponent from damage. The gloves weigh ten or twelve ounces. Boxers wear trunks and light weight shoes that lace just above the ankle. ...... Both amateur and professionals wear a protective leather headdress when training. Amateur fighters may wear a headdress in actual competition, though professionals do not. The headdress called "helmet" covers the back and sides of the head and ears.

A) The ring is a square platform measuring sixteen to twenty-four feet on each side.
B) The ring floor stands three to four feet higher than the floor of the arena.
C) A boxer may not weigh more than the maximum for that class.
D) The rules followed by amateurs and professional boxers do differ for the United States and in international and Olympic Game competition.
E) A mouthpiece of hard rubber protects the teeth, and a plastic cup protects the sex organs.

21) Many animals, such as a group of chimpanzee in Africa, were observed and proved that a development of animal culture is indeed possible. Culture, unlike inborn behaviour, is usually learned or taught. The unusual behaviour that was specifically observed was a group of
monkeys who developed a strange habit of washing their food before eating them. When a group of scientists observed them, they realized that it all began in 1953. ...... Then, she demonstrated this technique to all her babies and friends. After 12 years, every monkey in the
troop had picked up this habit also. This is an example of a developed culture within a group of monkeys.

A) Unlike the rest of nature's animals, our environment is primarily man-made and symbolic in quality.
B) Geographical space and natural time are transformed into social space and social time, around whose definitions human beings orient their behaviours.
C) One young female found potatoes on the beach and washed it before eating.
D) Culture is a shared system of ideas about the nature of the world and how and when people should behave in it.
E) Culture also creates the rhythms of a society that echo within the very biology of its members.

22) Siblings grow up together, they play together, and they have fun together. But eventually they will get their own friends and make their own decisions, this also leads to a person's identity. Not all people like same things or people. ......... There is no reason to hate others, they just do not mix. Friends also play a part in a person's developing an identity, they are a good indicator of one's identity.

A) Frank may be friends with Amelie, and Amelie may like Caroline, but Frank may not like Caroline.
B) A person's religion can also play a big role in one's identity.
C) Religion can have a rather large effect on a person forming an identity.
D) A person's beliefs can easily lead a person into making a decision, especially regarding ethics or kindness.
E) A person's identity is his own, they make it and develop it however they choose to.

23) .......... It started as a game involving kicking and handing, but later this branched off into two separate sports: rugby and football, which is what the British call soccer. Around the late nineteenth century, British soccer began spreading over Europe. Other countries also caught on, but the U.S. was one of the most reluctant, and one of the last to instigate soccer as a national sport.
A) The modern version of soccer came about in the early nineteenth century, in England.
B) The North American Soccer League was formed in 1967.
C) The equipment used in soccer is also very simple.
D) A standard field of soccer was formed, as regulated by the UEFA.
E) Soccer never gained popularity until the 1980's.

24) The distance of computer monitors and documents depends completely on how clearly they can be read at a certain distance. .......... For distance from your monitor, you should be between 15 and 25 inches away from your screen. Your screen should be adjusted so that it is
between 20 and 35 degrees below your straight-ahead line of sight. If the screen is much lower than that, you can possibly end up bending.

A) The use of glare screens can reduce bright spots caused by light reflecting on monitor screens.
B) Many heavy keyboard users have found the split and adjustable keyboards to be more comfortable.
C) The general rule is to keep viewed material as far away as possible if it can be easily read.
D) Wrist pads are usually the neoprene pads that many people put in front of their keyboards.
E) If you catch yourself working against the brace instead of with it, do not wear it.

25) Teens that drive drunk are at big risk. I'm not blaming the accidents that involve drunk in just teens. Drunk drivers come from of all ages. And I'm not trying to say that all teens drink either. But the ones that do and are stupid enough to say they're sober and can drive home safe. ...........

A) Drunkenness limits the alcoholic's control of normal behaviour and to perform the easiest functions.
B) The alcoholic's main goal is to get something alcoholic to drink.
C) Drinking usually continues until the person is drunk.
D) Family, friends and work are little concern compared to the need for alcohol.
E) Those are the ones that put innocent citizens at risk.
 
            Test 6
 
1) Ling Yu is a Chinese immigrant from Hong Kong. Back in Hong Kong he was a farmer peasant, who works 15 hours a day to earn some food for his family. But 15 hours of work was not enough, the crops that he grew was only enough to pay the debt for the land lords, he did not have any left for his family. ......... Life was especially hard for him because he was the only adult man in the family; he has neither land nor money.

A) Wong was exhausted and was fast asleep right after he finished every other mine worker's laundry.
B) Sometimes his family would starve for days with nothing but water.
C) He immediately signed up for the trip to America.
D) He heard that in America there are gold mines that were hiring Chinese workers to work.
E) But he did not have any money for the trip so he was forced to sell his new born child.

2) .......... Reactions between the sun's energy, the oceans, and the air produce
wind that has been used for centuries to turn windmills. Modern applications of wind energy, when attached to generators, produce electricity. Through photosynthesis, solar energy contributes to the growth of plant life masses that can be used as fuel, such as alcohol or methane.

A) The intensity of energy actually available at the earth's surface is very little.
B) The energy generated from sunlight would be converted to microwaves
C) This vision requires an exorbitant amount of money.
D) Mankind has been using the natural energy of the sun for ages.
E) To my knowledge, there isn't a government on earth that is willing, thus far, to fund such a project.

3) ......... A baby is always in someone's hands and does not have much freedom at all.
Being dependent is not very pleasant. Every child waits for adolescence where they do not
have to get support from their families any more. Indeed, the relationship between parents and children during childhood depends a lot on the family's situation.

A) A brother or a sister gives to the child more freedom.
B) It has been noted that people consider their childhood as a nostalgic period.
C) Childhood can be a period of frustration.
D) Children keep on receiving information but they do not give any information.
E) The childhood is said to be a period of real dependence.

4) We started our trip in Paris. We arrived there in the early afternoon and after checking
into our hotel we went to Notre Dame de Paris. There was a special exhibition about the
restoration of the church, which was going on then. We were able to see various exhibits about what restorers do, and even go up on scaffolding to the roof to see some of the restorers
working on the stonework near the roof of the church. ...........

A) We also got a good view of the city from there.
B) According to the guide, there is once a connecting door to the monastery.
C) The house is an eight-sided room with stained glass, murals, and tile floors.
D) The monks complained that all the stomping was damaging their beautiful floor tiles.
E) It was a room where samples of coins were sent to make sure that they had sufficient weight of precious metals.

5) Man-made nuclear reactions are used to produce a form an electricity. Electricity can be transformed into other kinds of energy such as heat, light and radio waves. People have also used the idea of nuclear reactions as a type of weapon. We call this powerful weapon the nuclear weapon. .......... This involves energy being concentrated to a specific narrow point where the impact of so much power creates heat able to cut through metals.

A) When we do use our muscles within us, we may not always be sure that heat is given off.
B) Electrical energy can also be used to produce laser beams.
C) The individual relies on food for fuel which contains energy-giving substances.
D) We recognize this process as burning.
E) However, this transformation could not take place without the fuel.

6) . What makes a 'good' language learner 'better', and what makes a 'poor' language learner 'poorer'? What does this imply for the teaching of language in the Turkey context? ______. We, as language teachers, should design a research study aiming at seeking the differences between language learners to learner variables and learner strategies.

A) These are the central questions of the English teachers.
B) These research designs pointed out that language learning strategies can be identified
C) Learner variables and strategies have been the focus of a number of research projects.
D) It is important to note here that what we are considering is not the fact that language learners do and can learn.
E) Since I am a teacher of English working in Turkey, gleaning a little of what learner variables and strategies seem .to work for local students seems to be a fruitful area of research.

7) . ________ She was worshiped under many names and attributes. Similar figures have been known in every part of the world. Essentially she was represented as the creative force in all nature, the mother of all things, responsible particularly for the periodic renewal of life. The later forms of her cult involved the worship of a male deity, variously considered her son, lover, or both, whose death and resurrection symbolized the regenerative powers of the earth.

A) According to the Christian faith. God created the Earth in seven days.
B) The Earth is the mother of all living, and her ecologic equilibrium should be saved.
C) In ancient Middle Eastern religions. Mother Goddess is the great symbol of the earth's fertility.
D) Necessity is the mother of all inventions.
E) Only planet which has life in the solar system is the Earth.

8) . ________ Representatives of 176 nations agreed to work toward the sustainable development of the planet, although most of the agreements were not legally binding. Sustainable development is the growth of population, industry, and agriculture in a way that will allow the present generation to meet its own needs without damaging those of future generations. Two binding declarations-to minimize global climate change and to stem the depletion of the world's inventory of biological diversity were signed by more than 150 countries at the conference, with others expected to sign later .

A) Earth Summit was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to discuss the global conflict between economic development and environmental protection in June 1992.
B) One of NASA's main responsibilities is keep communication channel open among the planets in the solar system.
C) Green Peace is the most developed environmental nongovernmental organization which has many members all over the world.
D) The growth of population and the distribution of biological diversity are regularly studied by the experts of environmental organizations.
E) A mutual agreement has been attained between the United States and the European Union member states on controlling the growth of population, industry, and agriculture in order to save the environment and preventing the greenhouse effect occurring as a result of the hole in the ozone layer.

9) . _________ The owner of the permit may use it to pollute legally, may trade permits, or may sell the permit for a profit. The allowance issued to a polluter is reduced over time as permitted levels of a pollutant are cut. By specifying reductions in emissions but leaving the polluter to decide how to cut them, the program is intended to provide free-market incentives to lessen both pollution and compliance costs. A company that cuts its pollution below its permitted level may sell the surplus allowance; a company that exceeds its limits without purchasing an extra allowance is fined.

A) Acid rain destroys plants and animals in several different ways.
B) Sometimes the effects of acid rain are far removed from the source of pollutants; for example, the acid rain over southern Scandinavia has its origins in continental Europe and Great Britain.
C) Sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency and run by the Chicago Board of Trade, the first U.S. air pollution auction was held in 1993.
D) Under the Clean Air Act of 1990, federal allowances for sulphur dioxide emissions are issued to polluters, and additional allowances are auctioned.
E) Pollution allowance is a government-issued permit to emit a certain amount of a pollutant.

10) . Cretinism is situation produced in infants and children due to lack of thyroid hormone. ________ However, it can develop later if there is a lack of iodine in the diet, or if the thyroid is diseased or surgically removed. Cretinism causes very serious retardation of physical and mental development. If the condition is left untreated, growth is stunted and the physical stature attained is that of a dwarf. Moreover, the skin is thick, flabby, and waxy in colour, the nose is flattened, the abdomen protrudes, and there is a general slowness of movement and speech.

A) Patients with thyroid hormone disorders should observe a diet as well.
B) Disorders related with thyroid hormone are treated at the nuclear medicine departments of the hospitals.
C) It usually results from a congenital defect.
D) Turnip juice should be avoided by such patients.
E) Iodine deficiency has been known to lead malfunction of the thyroid hormone.

11) . By 2080 about 40 to 50 per cent of the country will experience changes in the type of vegetation it supports, with tropical and subtropical forest conditions shifting northward and hot desert conditions rising in the west where currently the desert is temperate. Crop-growing areas will expand but any benefit is expected to be negated by increased evaporation of moisture, making it too dry to grow crops such as rice. The growing season also is expected to alter, becoming shorter in southern and central China, the mainland's breadbasket._____

A) Global warming is caused by the burning of large amounts of fossil fuels, such as coal and oil, which release
gases that trap heat in the atmosphere.
B) The climate change report, which will be released tomorrow. .
C) The rapid changes make it unlikely that plants could adapt.
D) Food supplies, for instance, could be affected by lower crop yields.
E) The circulation air is rather high.

51) . Strabismus is the inability of the eyes to focus together because of the lack of balance in the muscles that control eye movement; also called squint. ________ One or both eyes may be affected. Horizontal strabismus is caused when the eyes do not move together laterally; this condition is known as cross-eye if the eye turns inward or walleye if the eye turns outward. Vertical strabismus results when the eye rolls upward or downward in its socket.

A) Patients suffering form strabismus are unable to coordinate their eyeballs.
B) Children are likely to suffer from strabismus more than adults.
C) Muscles weakness has been first diagnosed by a British medical doctor in 17th century.
D) Calcium deficiency in infants results in the weakness of the bones and the weakness of muscles consequently.
E) It is a consequence of weakness or uneven development of one or more of the six small muscles that surround the eye.

12) . ______. The computer had inconspicuous beginnings in areas where it was used as a specialist tool. The first electronic computer was built in the 1930s and was solely for the use of undergraduate students in Iowa State University to handle mathematical computations in nuclear physics. During world war two computers were developed in order to wage counter espionage and break codes used by the enemy. In the post war years the scope of computers was expanded to include the military industrial complex and academia.

A) In the 1960'S an early version of the Internet, Arppranet was used in computer science and engineering projects.
B) The history of the computer in the twentieth century is one of dramatic adaptation and expansion.
C) The first is the use of the computer as a teaching aid for teachers.
D) How prevalent is the use of computers in schools?
E) Computers can be used as a teaching aids both in schools and in homes.

13) . Crossword puzzle is a word game in which words equivalent to numbered clues are put into a grid of horizontal and vertical squares to form intersecting words. ________ Though a type of crossword puzzle has been established inscribed on an ancient tomb in Egypt, journalist Arthur Wynne is generally credited with its invention in 1913. Crossword puzzles became popular with Simon and Schuster's 1924 publication of a crossword puzzle book and now appear in virtually all journalists.

A) Scrabble is another word game usually played by two people.
B) The puzzle is solved when a player supplies all of the words properly.
C) First crossword puzzle is thought to have been invented by Chinese during the Ming reign.
D) Crossword puzzle is an adult game.
E) There are magazines publishing crossword puzzles offering prizes for the ones completing them correctly.

14) . Civil time may be officially defined as mean solar time plus 12 hours. The civil day begins at midnight, while the mean solar day begins at noon. Civil time is occasionally adjusted by one-second increments to ensure that the difference between a uniform timescale defined by atomic clocks does not differ from the earth's rotational time by more than 0.9 seconds. _________ Civil time is usually not used, since it depends on the observer's longitude; instead, standard time, which is the same throughout a given time zone, is generally adopted.

A) Time management is taught as an academic subject at the departments of directorial sciences.
B) Measuring time has always been a great point of curiosity for the mankind since the ancient times.
C) Nicholas Hayek, founder of the Swatch company, started a new time measurement called Internet Time in order to avoid time differences with the assistance of Internet.
D) Time differences around the globe would cause a chaos if the Greenwich Mean Time were not agreed upon.
E) Coordinated universal time, an atomic time, is the basis for civil time.

15) . ________ As a result of the intensified interest in Greek and Roman civilization, especially the works of Plato and Cicero, classical standards were reinstated as the ideal norm in literature. In Florence, the early center of Renaissance learning, Cosimo de' Medici gathered a circle of who collected, studied, expounded, and imitated the classics. Outside Italy writers affected by the restoration of classical conventions included Francis Bacon and Ben Johnson in England and Pierre Corneille and Jean Racine in France.

A) Classicism has always maintained its popularity since ancient times.
B) In the heydays of classicism, most of the canons of literature, architecture, and painting were created in Greece and Italy.
C) Italy has been considered as the cradle of classicism.
D) The first major revival of classicism occurred during the Renaissance.
E) Bacon and Johnson was the leading figures in the revitalization of Classicism.

16) . Humanism is philosophical and literary movement in which man and his capabilities are the central apprehension. The term was originally classified to a point of view prevalent among thinkers in the Renaissance. The distinctive characteristics of Renaissance humanism were its emphasis on classical studies, or the humanities, and a conscious return to classical ideals and forms. _______

A) The momentum gained during Renaissance led radical reforms in education and literacy not only in Europe but also other parts of the world, especially in the Mid-East.
B) The movement led to a restudy of the Scriptures and gave impetus to the Reformation.
C) Philosophy studies the nature of the underlying principles of the human thought.
D) Literary movements triggered during the Renaissance still have a leading role on the contemporary American poetry.
E) Universal declaration of human rights was inspired by the works of this period.

17) . Clepsydra, or Water clock is an antique piece of equipment for measuring time by means of the flow of water from a container. A simple form of clepsydra was an earthenware vessel with a small opening through which the water dripped; as the water level dropped, it exposed marks on the walls of the vessel that indicated the time that had elapsed since the vessel was full. ___________ Some were double vessels, the larger one below containing a float that rose with the water and marked the hours on a scale. A form more closely foreshadowing the clock had a cord fastened to the float so that it turned a wheel, whose movement indicated the time. A further step was the use of gear wheels and a turning pointer.

A) More elaborate clepsydras were later developed.
B) It is believed that clepsydras were used in Egypt circa 2000 B.C.
C) Clepsydra was never used in some parts of the world because it was thought to be a sin.
D) Invented in Egypt, they were introduced into Greece and later from there into Rome.
E) Clepsydra was a primitive device invented as a result of the necessity to measure the time.

18) . Contact lens is a thin plastic lens worn between the eye and eyelid that may be used instead of eyeglasses. _________ Contact lenses may also be used to correct certain abnormalities of the eye that cannot be corrected by regular glasses. A. E. Fick, a Swiss physician, made the first contact lens in 1887. His heavy glass lenses exerted an uncomfortable pressure on the eyeball, covered the entire eye surface, and were difficult to fit. In 1938, the first plastic contact lens was made by Theodore E. Obrig, using a newly discovered methylmethacrylate plastic, known as Plexiglas or Lucite, which could be molded into the proper shape.

A) Contact lenses can safely be worn by the young children.
B) It has been produced in different colours for cosmetic purposes.
C) When it was first produced in Switzerland, oculists were sceptical about its hygiene.
D) Eyeglasses have still been in use despite the appropriateness of contact lenses.
E) Actors, models, and others wear them for appearance, and athletes use them for safety and convenience.

19) . Monet, Renoir, and Pissarro, the great masters of impressionism, painted cafe and city life, as well as landscapes, working most often directly from nature and using new modes of representation. While art. had always been to a certain extent abstract in that formal considerations had frequently been of primary importance, painters, beginning with the impressionists in the 1870s, took new delight in freedom of brushwork. They made random spots of color and encrusted the canvas with strokes that did not always correspond to the object that they were depicting but that formed coherent internal relationships. ________.

A) But still Monet is the most renowned one among those artists.
B) Thus began a definite separation of the image and the subject.
C) Renoir painted snapshots from boulevard cafes around Champs de Elise.
D) Being fond of Parisian lifestyle, Pissarro painted the city life of Paris
E) Unlike his predecessors, Picasso followed the Surrealist movement.

20) . Copernican System is first modern European theory of planetary motion that was heliocentric, i.e., that placed the sun motionless at the centre of the solar system with all the planets, including the earth, revolving around it. ________. He retained the ancient belief that the planets move in perfect circles and therefore, like Ptolemy, he was forced to utilize epicycles to clarify deviations from uniform motion. Thus, the Copernican system was technically only a slight improvement over the Ptolemaic system. However, making the solar system heliocentric removed the largest epicycle and explained retrograde motion in a natural way.

A) Ancient civilizations are believed to have solved the mystery of solar system.
B) Mayas had tried to understand the solar system long before the astrologists of the middle age.
C) Nostradamus effectively predicted many events took place in the 20th century hundreds of years ago by observing the movements of stars and planets in the sky.
D) Copernicus developed his theory in the early 16th century from a study of ancient astronomical records.
E) Ancient Aztecs discovered that the location of the planets in the solar system has some effects on the gravity of the Earth.

21) . Bronze Age is a period in the development of technology when metals were first used regularly in the manufacture of tools and weapons. Pure copper and bronze, an alloy of copper and tin, were used indiscriminately at first. ______ The original use of cast metal can be deduced from clay models of weapons; casting was certainly established in the Middle East by 3500 B.C. Following the Neolithic period, the development of a metallurgical industry coincided with the rise of urbanization. The organized operations of mining, smelting, and casting undoubtedly required the specialization of labour and the production of surplus food to support a class of artisans, while the search for raw materials stimulated the exploration and colonization of new territories.

A) The contributions of this age to the technology as we know today are tremendous.
B) If the humankind had not gone through the Copper Age, the ancient battles would not have been so destructive.
C) Territories including raw materials to produce bronze attracted people to colonize these lands.
D) Tools and weapons were used to be produced using rocks and trees.
E) That's why this early period is also sometimes called the Copper Age.

22) . Coral is small, inactive nautical animal, related to the sea anemone but characterized by a skeleton of horny or calcareous material. ._____ Although most corals form colonies by budding, there are some solitary corals; in both types the individual animals, called polyps, resemble the sea anemone in form. Corals grow in both warm and temperate climates, but they are most abundant in warm, shallow water; over 200 coral species are found in the Great Barrier Reef of Australia. In many shallow-water species the polyps contain unicellular plants, which may provide the high oxygen concentration required by such corals.

A) The skeleton of a human being is more complicated when compared to a coral.
B) The skeleton itself is also called coral.
C) The skeletons found in the excavations near Tarsus have been kept in the city museum.
D) Solitary corals are different from colony corals with respect to both size and color.
E) The sea anemone are mostly found in Australia.

23) . Magic is a practice of manipulating and controlling the path of nature by preternatural means. Magic is based upon the belief that the universe is populated by unseen forces or spirits that permeate all things. Since human beings seek to control nature and since these supernatural forces are thought to govern the course of natural events, the control of these forces gives humans control over nature. ________ The magic charm, or incantation, is the core of the magical ceremony; it unlocks the full power of the ritual. The practice of magic, in seeking its desired end, also frequently combines within its scope elements of religion and science.

A) Using non-standard forms of magic can add zest and flavour to a campaign
B) magic charm casting is becoming more and more accepted by mainstream society.
C) Two hundred years ago in the city of New Orleans, the ancient art of Voodoo was transformed and enhanced by a very powerful practitioner.
D) The practice of magic is held to depend on the proper use of both the ritual and the spell.
E) Dragon's breath is a basic offensive spell.

24) . Alchemy is a very old art of obscure origin that sought to transform base metals into silver and gold; forerunner of the science of chemistry. Some scholars hold that it was first practiced in early Egypt and others that it arose in China and was carried westward. ________ Alchemical equipment included the alembic for distillation and the kerotakis for sublimation. In its beginnings alchemy was fundamentally a craft and embraced many kinds of metalwork, including the use of alloys resembling gold and silver. Alexandria is generally considered a middle of early alchemy, and the art was influenced by the philosophy of the Hellenistic Greeks. The conversion of base metals into gold was part of a general striving of all things toward perfection.

A) The word 'alchemy', as the Arabic definite article al- indicates, is Arabic.
B) For others, the word 'alchemy' could have come from the Greek khymeia, 'fusion', for example the art of melting gold and silver.
C) The vast quantities of gold amassed by the Pharaohs were the envy of contemporary and later sovereigns.
D) The Egyptians themselves forgot the original significance of the sign and drew it as a necklace with pendent beads.
E) It consisted chiefly of experiments with metals and other chemical materials.

25) . ________ Dwarfism is intentionally produced and perpetuated in certain species (e.g., in breeding miniature dogs and cultivating dwarf plants). Among humans, dwarfism usually results from a combination of genetic factors and endocrine malfunction. It can also be caused, however, by acquired conditions, such as kidney disease.

A) Dwarfism is a condition in which an animal or plant is less than normal in size and lacks the capacity for normal growth.
B) Dwarves were taught to be the cursed creatures in the Middle Age.
C) In the Middle East, dwarfs who were lucky enough were used to be kept in the palace to entertain the king.
D) Dwarfism was very common in some of the islands in the Pacific Ocean.
E) Throughout the ages, dwarfism was considered as a hereditary disease only.

 
SENTENCE COMPLETİON
 
           

Test 1
 
1. Owing to the prompt and generous example set by several countries___________.

A) the plight of the earthquake victims is rapidly improving
B) medical supplies have still to reach the target areas
C) famine in Africa has reached unprecedented levels
D) world wildlife still requires statutory arrangements
E) most of the refugees are denied entry

2. None of the other applicants were nearly so well qualified,___.

A) whether an MBA was essential
B) so it was decided to offer the post to Mr. Barry
C) if he hadn't completed his studies in the USA
D) however successful he had been in his previous appointment
E) even after you have examined the plans very carefully

3. Isn't it_____?

A) the parcel has been lost for sometime
B) the man who was with the Mayor at the opening ceremony
C) where the rest of the group had lost their way
D) the place has been evacuated
E) whatever reasons have been given

4. Once you have lost someone's trust__________.

A) plenty of effort was required
B) you have sensed it before
C) it took many years to create
D) it is almost impossible to get it back again
E) it all happened by accident

5. As soon as the manager had left the room

A) the unpleasantness of the occasion has almost been forgotten
B) the intermission was obviously well-timed
C) no one else will be permitted entrance
D) the majority have followed suit too
E) the unease of the board members became apparent

6. If he weren't so stubborn,____.

A) that is the conclusion everyone seems to have reached
B) nobody is able to get on with him
C) plenty of people would willingly work on his team
D) it was quite impossible to make him change his mind
E) work on the bridge has progressed better than we expected

7. ____, that, over the last fiscal year, the company’s profits have almost doubled.

A) It's worth noting
B) Whatever else the manager may argue
C) The facts couldn't have been discounted
D) Surprising though it might have seemed
E) In this context there was no doubt

8. ____the overall trend will be up.

A) Just as the manufacturers had predicted
B) Although there may be minor fluctuations in food prices
C) Whatever the economic reviews had predicted
D) To ward of the recession
E) Should the industrialized countries have continued to withhold support

9. From the proof the police have, it is not definite________.

A) who is responsible for falsifying the official documents
B) whose were the fingerprints on the safe
C) whether he had murdered her
D) if the accountant were to be blamed
E) why was the manager attacked

10. I am afraid we shall have to curtail the debate_____.

A) in order that we reached a conclusion
B) so long as others agree to
C) as we have already run over time
D) provided that we are given more time
E) as soon as the decision had been taken

11. Except for Shelly, who is an excellent student,_____.

A) the others are only moderately good
B) might have gotten a higher mark
C) the best students had answered that questions
D) he let her out of his sight
E) the other ones were not correct

12. As the stock market became increasingly unstable,____

A) finally he was persuaded to take up business administration
B) the minister announced a devaluation of the currency
C) the value of the currency has risen considerably
D) the Board meeting had been put off
E) the government's economic policy will have been changed

13. The information business companies ought to work with is_____.

A) that gives the sales reports of their competitor's current models
B) what had been profitable for them
C) that which reflects the real needs of the market
D) so that they can overcome financial problems
E) whereas state owned factories can act in a different manner

14. It was astonishing_____.

A) if he could come down and visit us so unexpectedly
B) to learn that there was no news
C) how useful they were
D) why was New York so crowded
E) to see how is the food prepared

15. When he had gone________.

A) I had not finished my homework yet
B) I hope I could win the bet
C) he left his wallet behind, which made me happy
D) I wished I had been more friendly
E) the wife couldn't have helped crying

16. If any one of us could have condemned him for what he had done,

A) you could do it
B) I really wish I saw him
C) he didn't have to do it
D) he undoubtedly hadn't done it
E) it would have been Shelly

17. The price contains_____.

A) the use of the weight room and swimming pool
B) if you want to use the weight room and swimming pool
C) that you can use the weight room and swimming pool
D) using the weight room and swimming pool
E) entering the sports club

18. As some food products lose popularity quite rapidly ,_____.

A) the best age group to aim at would undoubtedly have been teenagers
B) many such companies actually went bankrupt
C) the industry has constantly to be ready with fresh ideas
D) in the end it was the need for collective bargaining that was understood
E) the job didn't offer him anything in the way of a challenge

19. Although the construction of a bridge across the river would doubtless prove popular,___

A) the technology to be transferred is quite suitable
B) city councils would have been committed to encourage it
C) similar designs are on view everywhere
D) it will not be easy to raise enough money to do it
E) it is a German-Japanese consortium that gets most of the orders

20. If they don’t promise to use some of the money to improve career prospects for young scientists,_____.

A) the issue under discussion has been dropped
B) there were a number of things we had to take into account
C) no one else thought of opposing the scheme
D) the money left over from donations could be included
E) we feel we cannot give our support to the campaign

21. _____that the first women's college was founded in England as early as 1859.

A) To be fair, what I recommended was
B) I wouldn't have been at all impressed
C) It was due to the ceaseless efforts of Mrs. Reid
D) Victoria had been queen for twelve years
E) He showed little interest

22. _____we review our recruitment procedures.

A) As long as the problem received adequate recognition,
B) Such a problem cannot be ignored,
C) Even though it was becoming increasingly obvious,
D) What I would suggest is that
E) In case they were disappointed with the new manager s performance,

23. _____, a commission will be set up to determine just how to turn the museum into a private, non-profit corporation.

A) As long as there were no rival claims
B) As soon as the board has approved the project
C) However much disappointment it would have caused them
D) If such a crisis could have been avoided
E) Whoever managed to deceive you

24. _____, their environmental results are very disturbing.

A) Whatever high-yielding variety of wheat is recommended
B) Because traditional Indian food is of high nutritive value
C) Although artificial fertilizers ensure high crop-yields
D) Since new agricultural policies have been introduced by the government
E) However costly the construction of new irrigation systems may have been

25. _____, Japanese companies moved the more intensive stage of their production process to cheap labor sites in East Asia.
A) As production costs in Japan had become excessive
B) Unless the working day is kept at 8 hours
C) Once the trade unions in Japan have won a few more victories
D) 50 long as a education in costs remains the primary goal
E) If interest rates in Japan had remained high
 
            Test 2
 
1. _____that he has exaggerated the problems of the health-care system, using confusing arguments and deceptive statistics to support his case for reform.

A) He was being interviewed by a group of journalists
B) Many specialists and policy makes believe
C) This is an extremely radical suggestion
D) Under the present circumstances most people are encouraged
E) The report ignored the leading question

2. As businesses and banks have started to perform well and make profits,_____

A) only a crack in the stock market was to be feared
B) inflation and unemployment have been held in check
C) the economy ought to be able to withstand a recession
D) the Euro currency could stand up to so much criticism
E) fiscal transfers across European nation states were of minimal importance

3. As these new printers weigh less than 900 grams,_____.

A) they really deserve to be called portable
B) their performance is invariably admirable
C) most people have been misled by their price
D) they were readily available at all the best retailers
E) the research team has already moved on to a new project

4. If the central European countries can not keep their labor costs at this level,___

A) exports are already starting to drop
B) they haven't been able to compete with Western Europe
C) unrest in these countries would have been unavoidable
D) the finished products will have to go up in price
E) a firm control of distribution and sales has not proved adequate

5. The modification in the legal system is, at last, being regarded with approval___.

A) whenever there is a series of unsolved crimes
B) until another wave of crime spread across the country
C) because recently there has been a definite decline in the crime rate
D) while the police force itself felt dubious about it
E) as if there could have been some other feasible alternative

6. A new generation of business managers is coming to the forefront,_____.

A) whether the State continues to meddle in corporate affairs
B) whose methods are more vital, more international and more aggressive
C) who aimed to impress international investors
D) which was realistic about the importance of economic growth
E) so that they work to gratify not politicians but their own shareholders

7. _____, there will be a noteworthy decrease in the profits of most businesses.

A) If people start to spend less and save more
B) However efficiently the inflation was curved
C) Had these reasonable measures been introduced earlier
D) Before the financial situation could be fully understood
E) Though the leading economists had started to grow more helpful

8. Most of the Egypt's ruins are unfortunately being destroyed by the very people_____.

A) whose living habits had been depicted in the monuments
B) that actually aren't trained conservationists
C) who will ask for international funding
D) that is the result of faulty renovation
E) who were hired to fix them

9) Among the many differences that could be used as a basis for chauvinism, people quickly discovered that.......
 
A) it is imperative that their parents exercise their authority over their children
B) that there was no order in these cities today
C) so we just walked along them for a short distance
D) physical appearance was the easiest to identify
E) without experiencing the violence on television

10) Most workers went for days without food, and in turn ..........

A) they had not been in the same room
B) this caused their work pace to slow
C) what they were selling was large plastic bottles of holy water
D) I didn't care much for it
E) they felt like they visited there when people were still living there


11) Some people go to college because that is what is expected of them,..........

A) but a college education is good for each individual, and, it is good for the
Country.
B) and so I plan to study hard, make good grades, and be a top executive in a big firm.
C) we are the future businessmen and women, and through our knowledge, the country
will grow.
D) because the education we get today will help us prosper in the future.
E) and the more we expand our horizons, the more the economy will increase.

12) Women are usually not paid as much as men,..........

A) this is a prime example of the inconvenience it causes
B) and women unfortunately hold a small percentage of management positions
C) because businesses use children as willing subjects of research
D) they are doing what they can to help
E) because both sides have good arguments

13) People are able to gather huge amounts of information ..........
 
A) furthermore, our morals are put to the test
B) what role we play in society as our relationships with others
C) by working as a united society than as an individual
D) schools have a major impact in developing our group relations by
E) how it was taught to them in their childhood

14) It was like he had flashbacks of scenes through the last five years of his life and he saw how was reacting to situations,..........

A) and made a promise to himself to look for a long-term answer
B) but he sees that even though the same patterns are still occurring
C) and he saw how everything he did was only fixing things in the short term
D) which was the end of his junior year and he had just run away from his house
E) for he couldn't think of anyone to pick him up

15) His parents have wanted me to get into computer engineering ..........

A) but I'm afraid that material is no longer available
B) because they say that is where the growth sector is, right now, for employment.
C) although they say that truth is stranger than fiction
D) because I can't see the benefit of doing things this way
E) even if a journalist is used to having to meet deadlines

16) Our team had the potential and aptitude to have a great season............

A) but inner conflicts and interpersonal problems got in the way
B) finally, I realized that it was time to take the initiative
C) and show my team mates that we were not only a team
D) but a family would always be there for each other
E) as the season progressed, the team saw success and at the Championship

17) Gregory, who has high academic goals, cannot pay his tuition fee ......

A) when he first visited us on the farm
B) from the most sophisticated to the simplest ones
C) now since his father is unemployed
D) therefore he needed more and more food
E) so they decided to work a new model

18) If doctor helps the patient to die then hi or her practicing license could be taken away .............

A) no health insurance should be paid for him or her
B) with teenagers while benefiting mainly the middle class
C) that states the death penalty as a deterrent of murder
D) in his or her attempts to resolve issues
E) and he or she may be taken to court as a result

19) Many Americans in the past felt as I do today concerning the issue of slavery, ..........

A) and then received the usual response
B) and then the biggest step they made was to move away from there
C) but also the others did not
D) but in order to do what we would have to
E) a younger generation growing up seeing people executed

20) Blacks must prove that they are a subsidy ..........

A) which is the wrong one to be sending
B) the message that gets through is that it's cool to drink
C) although it does give an idea as to what the show contains
D) which whites cannot do without
E) when the television first became popular

21) Besides, all these nightmares, Brian was also ..........

A) losing his innocence he had as a schoolboy
B) a large portion of this money is taken by these individuals
C) the use of making machinery to kill, bomb, burn
D) children see this they will become curious
E) it does not tell as to the extent to which it is

22) People often confuse happiness with love .........

A) poets tell about people's situation and feeling in their poem
B) they hate you or want to harm you
C) I really do not compare myself to anyone
D) if someone is your enemy they stop talking as soon as they see you
E) because they think that if they are happy, then they are in love

23) Since we are all God's children, we should give each other support ......

A) so that we can all survive
B) hence we are worried about who will have the most tanks or guns
C) spending so much money on military expansion
D) we could easily provide every man, woman, and child in the world with enough food to
get fat
E) which is a disease that kills many people every year

24) People have developed prejudices toward others and then prejudiced against those.......

A) knowing what pain feels like for everyone
B) whom they regarded as different or inferior
C) have experienced it at one time in their lives
D) with two dimensions of pain; the physical and the emotional pain
E) who affect my social life the most are probably my family

25) Little by little, as more incidents occur and as more is leaked out, .............

A) the world will know that we are not alone
B) and one factor that greatly contributes to UFO scepticism
C) which is created by the thousands of UFO hoaxes made each year
D) using the same high-tech computers as was used before
E) which should tie noted that this report by no means scratch the surface of the UFO mystery
 
            Test 3
 
1) Even right after you arrive in London and do not have British money, ..........

A) the hostilities between the two sides cease finally
B) you haven't heard anything beyond a few rumours
C) we were bored by the long recital of his adventures
D) there is no recognition of their claim of citizenship
E) there is no problem to get at any station

2) To many people growing old seems like the endgame in chess: .........

A) a game of verve and imagination and excitement
B) a sport for which childhood and youth and maturity are no more than a preparation
C) life winding down in a series of small moves with lesser pieces
D) that still remains, but of faith and courage, hope and wisdom
E) the outcome is not now a matter of strength, although

3) Because of underestimated strength of its opponents, ..........

A) the senator couldn't fight for abolition of the income tax
B) each state makes laws regarding rules and regulations
C) an opposing point to the death penalty is that it is inhuman
D) they will use it throughout their life
E) the team lost the match

4) By law you must have at least two persons present to conduct an auction, ..........

A) and then the highest bidder buys the item for the final bided price
B) but auction houses are organized for enthusiastic people
C) and the auction house sells your personal property
D) but the auction business has been around for a long time
E) and the price of all property is set from a fair market value

5) Getting your children to interact with others at a young age ..........

A) is made up of complex structures
B) is good for their development
C) a life filled with love for humans who are equal
D) that we must never forget the hardships
E) used in human treatments for various diseases or disorders

6) There were so many applicants who want to work with that company,........

A) so they chase three of them with difficulty
B) but her speech made a great impact on the audience.
C) and his bad temper made life impossible for all the family
D) but the building work was hampered by bad weather
E) or the animals lives would come to an end

7) My life had been totally cut off .........

A) everything in my life has completely changed
B) as I was growing up my father would physically abuse me
C) going to call one of my friends to come pick me up
D) the ways that I think, react, and live now are totally different
E) because of all the wrong decisions that I was making

8) Unless he takes his parent's confirm, he does and decides nothing ........

A) even if his son is injured due to a bike accident
B) yet your writings need to be smooth
C) so it's absolutely crucial that all the stuff is thoroughly checked
D) he has no doubt that it is
E) though he's already an adult now

9) Japan's agriculture was the quickest of the national activities to recover..........

A) because of land reform
B) who actually worked the land could own up to 7.5 acres
C) anyone living in a village near by could keep 2.5 acres
D) larger plots of land, exceeding these limits
E) were bought up by the government and sold on easy terms

10) Human lives were needlessly lost because people were too absorbed in their own fears of

A) excuse for something like that
B) being hurt or of losing power
C) thinking people did nothing
D) reacting not enough to show that he has no right of a thinking
E) the section of the book is titled

11) My grandfather always used to tell that, artificial things are never preferred ..........

A) since man is only a biological entity
B) as long as the natural one's exist
C) if they continue to argue in this way
D) on account of your previous marks are terrible
E) predicting trouble for some time

12) This is a lot considering that you do not hear about too many teacher attacks on the news reports ……… .

A) that used to be the only place where children were not targeted
B) because they will be waiting for the next poll or taste test
C) but you do hear about teens being killed
D) if children are constantly exposed to this kind of abuse
E) are considering auctioning school names to the highest bidding corporation

13) Each cavy animal is weighed and measured ..........

A) dying from a drug overdose
B) right after reading this paragraph
C) holding onto the drugs
D) about the way that they set an illustration such as diabetes and heart disease
E) before being set free by the researchers

14) In a big lake in the middle of the rain forest, a small lizard skims across the water away……...

A) yet another marvel of the tropical rain forest
B) the insects hollow out the tree's thorns when soft and green and raise their young inside
C) when there are also small leaf-cutting ants in the jungle
D) and attacks its own victim by surprise
E) which occurs in the jungle with a specialized ant and a swollen-thorn acacia

15) When I attend college I will have the opportunity to become more independent..........

A) but I will be on my own an will have to push myself harder
B) from my college experience, I hope to gain many things.
C) and they give me leadership skills, public relation skills, responsibility and dedication.
D) and to take on new responsibilities later on
E) I have always relied on my parents for support

16) When difficulty arises in marriage or in love, ..........

A) children can not hang up the phone or change the chance
B) children are entitled to have a place
C) the first reaction of many people is to run for help outside themselves
D) they can feel no one will be trying to sell them anything
E) they will begin to think that their education is not important

17) The two close friends argued on last night's discotheque..........

A) his abrupt reply hurt his feelings
B) before everything disappears
C) then they receive the savings they have acquired
D) and so one had to leave
E) as time was short, they abbreviated it

18) He has always been told he's an unassuming person, ..........

A) and it was great to see them again
B) everybody should encourage to make drastic changes in their eating habits
C) including grandma and Ted's two sons
D) thinking we're millionaires and start charging us double
E) with an easygoing manner

19) His parents have this perfect life for him pictured in their heads,..........

A) and the first thing they see him doing is going to college
B) but they expect the best of him, and so by going to college
C) but he will have accomplished one of the goals he has set for himself
D) then parents come to the age where they can't support themselves
E) and he will not only have fulfilled their goals for him

20) Many racists think that white people are leaving the Europe and being replaced by blacks, …….

A) but they do not have confidence in front of an audience
B) to send them to self-esteem classes or public speaking courses
C) while setting and accomplishing goals is an important characteristic in high achieving
individuals
D) any time we use our reasoning ability to draw conclusions
E) but really two white people come to for every black

21) I think that working, especially to a grocery store, is not a good idea for teenagers……

A) because there are usually unintelligent people torturing them
B) and security is also another feeling people deserve to have in these regions
C) whose parents must be able to communicate
D) of parents have the freedom to teach their children any subject
E) linking TV violence with real violence try
 
22) If we have had more experience,........

A) we would be concerned about my child's future
B) we do not go to working beyond the age of 65
C) the heart pumps blood around the body
D) we become more self-confident about speaking in front of groups of people
E) you climb up the tree and hide among the branches

23) Every college starts putting in metal detectors ..........

A) because the children responsible for our future sit in rotting desks
B) the television show is also doing it for a good reason
C) that is up to the school district and the residents of the community
D) in a way, these corporations are providing children with a good future
E) in order to cut down violence

24) He had no idea what was going to happen but he knew he wouldn't like it. .............
A) Drew back my fist and punched him hard in the face
B) It was, probably, going to be very embarrassing
C) Unemployment was a key issue during the previous election campaign
D) Observing the birds throughout the breeding season
E) The committee elected her as their representative

25. Today, the steps of a dig remain basically the same_____.
A) actually experts are not efficient
B) though specific techniques vary
C) as the employees worked hard enough
D) whether they dug it for a reasonable purpose
E) for it had been left unopened for sometime
 
            Test 4
 
1) Advertising can also be teaching and reinforcing ..........

A) is similar to the calls that people get at home
B) he companies are merely trying to find an easier way to target children
C) explains the new relationship between schools and businesses
D) will explain both sides and come up with a solution
E) with regards to prices and who offers the best deal

2) The contemporary references we have about the Vikings stem mainly from sources in northern Europe ..........

A) who had bitter experiences with the trespassers
B) even though the town dwelling Vikings kept cattle, farmed, and fished to meet their
household needs
C) the towns probably depended on agricultural supplies from outlying areas
D) there are narratives of Viking raids in the Aegean and Atlantic
E) so we're most likely presented with the worst side of the Vikings

3) Lately I have been reading the teen journals Hey girl and Blue Jean and I've noticed one thing; ..........

A) but my outcome has not been successful
B) they should really be promoted soon
C) I've tried to follow the advice
D) they should guess again
E) they really annoy me

4) As a university education becomes more available through the use of financial aid .......

A) the country benefits the most
B) if students are denied, they do not have the means to pay for college
C) then they are deprived of accomplishing their goals and reaching their fullest potential
D) and if anything upsets that relationship, the dependent one just crumbles
E) and go on to bigger and better things

5) He has spent his whole life playing a game ...........

A) in which he is not sure of the rules or the goal
B) asking of whoever is in charge the big question
C) so difficult to know what really matters
D) and he is not sure just what was important and what wasn't
E) whatever it was that we were supposed to do

6) Once in a person's life, everyone finds that one person whom they fall in love with ..........

A) and finally returns back to you
B) but leaving home isn't the increase in money you save
C) and marriage is one of the most important relationship
D) and the other decides to use violence as a means of ensuring that domination
E) and live happily ever after

7) While we were driving the car last night our car broke down, _____.

A) so they had to tow it to a garage
B) after the accident you may call the traffic police
C) before you accelerated the car you must have seen the trees around
D) I will be digging the garden
E) the mechanic has had the tow truck for a while

8) ____, yet in her character she is more like her father.
A) She was a very diligent student while living with her friends
B) As to her, she spent her childhood with her grandparents
C) With her light hair and green eyes she seems to take after her mother
D) When you looked at her eyes you would see how ambitious she was
E) What a lovely face she has

9) _____ while I buy my ticket.

A) You might have heard where the ticket office
B) Keep an eye on my suitcase
C) You should get rid of it
D) Why didn't you take care of baggage
E) I gave you a ring in the morning to find out if you were up.

10) _____, it might be very dangerous.

A) When you are alone at home and read a newspaper in the late hours
B) Watching TV loudly in a crowded neighborhood
C) In case you find something interesting
D) If a tire blows out while one is driving
E) While you are riding your bike slowly in the street.

11) Let's share the pizza, _____.

A) half for you and half for us.
B) you eat a piece of it, the other part is enough for me
C) I eat a slice of pizza and the rest of it will be enough for the children
D) I don't like it at all
E) you don't pay for them
 
12) ____, she can not go without a car.

A) Because she has a professional driving license
B) While we ride our motorbikes
C) Since she has had a few serious accidents so far
D) When she travels with the business people
E) As a travelling saleswoman

13) Although I moistened it, ______.

A) the level of humidity increased its top level
B) the flap didn't stick to the envelope
C) the letters weren't delivered on time
D) the parcel has been left open
E) the package is still unopened

14) _____ it seemed to be okay.

A) The supervisors look into the documents and say
B) My boss is having a very quick look at the papers and tells me
C) The person in charge of hiring staff looked at my references and said
D) He glanced over my report and said that
E) The security guard at the gate saw me again and said

15) Next August our company's president will leave the top-heading position, and

A) we told him he was doing his best
B) he was going to be appointed as a president for the company
C) they will retire to lead a peaceful life
D) the staff of the company arranged a farewell party for him last weekend
E) we will have to elect a new one at the next stockholders' meeting

16) Although Jim never cracks a book, _____.

A) he always looks as if he were weak
B) he never gets better marks from the examinations
C) he sometimes pays the materials he buys to study
D) he is usually considered as a bookworm by no means
E) he always manages to get good grades

17) ______yet has never met him face to face.

A) She has been an admirer of the minister for years
B) She has meetings with him once in a while
C) She was introduced to him at a friend's garden party
D) She has loathed him since the very first day she saw him
E) She has been a keen supporter of him since the interview she had

18) When the new president took office, _____ .

A) the assistants have already gone
B) a few officers have been waiting for him
C) some members of the White House were eased out
D) two of the bodyguards would have been ordered to wait at the door
E) the building is going to be locked

19) When the teacher came to the class and saw two boys fighting,

A) she has just walked and taken her seat
B) he will call their family and tell the problem
C) he is so angry that the children are quite
D) she had already opened the windows
E) he cried: " Knock it off

20) _____ while his boss was ill, he expects a good bonus.

A) As Steven is responsible for the office
B) Because Steven is guilty
C) For it was Steven's mistake
D) Since Steven was left in charge of the business
E) Although it was not Steven's

21) _____, I would be able to sell them more merchandise.

A) Unless I work on this research
B) If I knew what motivated my customers
C) Should I aware the clients are escaping
D) Had I known the buyers avoidance
E) Provided that you are polite to the customers

22) ______, their guide never lost his cool.

A) Although the group was in danger from a threatened avalanche
B) According to the recent weather report it will be sunny tomorrow
C) As it had been mentioned before
D) As far as the team leader is interested in
E) As soon as the hazardous climbing has ended

23) ______, so she asked me to come to his office at once.

A) She is not in his mood
B) She has been tired of working in his office all day
C) She was in a hurry
D) She must be finishing his description by now
E) She had already left the headquarters when I came there

24) At first he seemed to find Spanish difficult, _____.

A) and had quit studying it
B) although he likes it very much
C) despite being tired of it
D) but later he made good progress
E) however, he should have completed his study

25) After Jim finished reading the report, ___

A) he will talk to his supervisor the consequences
B) he may give a briefing to his boss
C) he is asked to prepare a summary of it
D) he put it away in the desk
E) he faxes it to the head Office
 
            Test 5
 
1) _____, yet later she hopes to work as actress soon.

A) For the time being my sister is working in a department store
B) My mother had been in charge of the clothing department
C) My wife's sister was the director of the school
D) Last year my daughter studied at primary school
E) Since my aunt came to village

2) _____ Tom got up, looked around and left the meeting giving no excuse.

A) As the supervisor is getting mad at him
B) He has already been upset
C) After he tells me off
D) Suddenly
E) He always loses his temper as he does now

3) A clock is an instrument used for _____.

A) displaying us in which way the sun, moon and stars are
B) to arrange the agenda for twenty four hours a day
C) have a break two times a day
D) tells us the time
E) dividing the day and night into regular periods of time

4) ______, and all are dangerous to man.

A) All vipers have a poisonous bite
B) Some of the encyclopaedias are cheap these days thanks to the internet
C) A few of the laptop computers in the office are out of order
D) Most of the airline companies are on strike in the world
E) None of the animals is in the cage in the circus

5) The plane has reached its present state of perfection ______.

A) as it had been supplied by the donors
B) because it was purchased by the consumers
C) due to a great many ideas contributed through the years.
D) since it dives into deepest parts of the ocean
E) thanks to the plumbers who fixed them

6) _______, she applied for the job advertised in the newspaper.

A) Despite the fact that she was recommended
B) Because she got a pay rise at work
C) Even though she didn't have the right qualifications
D) In order not to have the responsibility
E) As she didn't have confidence in herself

7) In countries where food is rare,_____.

A) people have been wealthy
B) the administrators should have declared curfew
C) the children are joyful as they have no food problem
D) the workers save some of their income to have a good summer holiday
E) people have to spend most of their time getting enough to eat

8) _____ our thoughts, our understanding, our likes, our manner of speech, and even our dress.

A) Unless they control
B) Television can affect
C) Politicians, however
D) Fashion designers will also design their products to
E) We cannot be aware of his way of

9) ______ for it reflects the hot rays of the sun and makes them feel cooler.

A) In cold countries some people used to wear very tick clothes
B) In warm climates people often wear white
C) In the southern resorts most holidaymakers wear swimsuits
D) Last spring, people living in the mountains wore woollen clothes
E) Silk shirts are preferred by the people living in rich districts

10) _____, the co-pilot checked with the tower for verification of her coordinates.

A) After the submarine dived into the sea
B) While the train was about to depart
C) Just after the public bus entered the station
D) Before landing the plane
E) When the boat approached the harbour

11) After he took the watch apart, _____.

A) there are many screws in it
B) he was not able to put it together again
C) it was so huge that he got lost in it for a while
D) the repairman may not accept to fix it
E) it had already been broken anyway

12) His parents were once well-off ______.

A) but they lost all their money
B) and they have spent their lives in poverty
C) so they have a luxurious life now.
D) while she studies fn Switzerland
E) before she spends his savings

13) _____, he made a face when I told him the news about my raise.

A) As he is so envy
B) Because he has been very diligent
C) Since he is an industrious worker
D) Instead of being pleased
E) For the reason that he .has been conscientious

14) ______ because she wanted to get a good mark.

A) She has been admired by all her friends
B) She has taken her study seriously
C) She is considered as of the diligent apprentices
D) She was taken to the emergency service of the sanatorium
E) She took great pains with her research

15) She put her glasses on ______ .

A) so that she could see the television better
B) and watches the documentary on TV
C) as soon as the morning newspaper has been delivered
D) until the next number is displayed on the screen
E) after she has turned off the lights at home

16) _____ but he ate them anyway.

A) He dislikes drinking coffee with milk
B) He hates strawberries
C) He put one of the apples in his bag
D) He sliced a loaf of bread
E) He loves cooking Italian style macaroni

17) I'd love to come to your farewell bash, _____.

A) but I had to meet one of my friends at the airport
B) so I will be waiting for you
C) so that I would look forward to hearing from you
D) but unfortunately I have to work
E) suddenly I postponed my leaving for the capital city

18) _____, although she knew it was unsafe.

A) She walked home by herself
B) She bought two pistols
C) She sent me a few faxes during her vacation
D) She drank a couple of glasses dark tea
E) She avoided asking me the questions

19) He's welcome to come along, _____.

A) unless he wasn't impolite
B) whether he had been hungry or not
C) provided that he behaves himself
D) if he were the right person
E) he would have treated well

20) She arrived ______.

A) until her husband comes home
B) before me
C) as soon as I have left the office
D) just after you complete your schedule
E) while you are away

21) The burglar was stabbed in the back _____.

A) because he is waiting for the police
B) although he runs much faster than the others
C) since he is going to be employed as a waiter
D) as he tried to escape
E) while the police are observing them

22) I knew a lot about the subject already, _____.

A) even though it is in my searching field
B) and she prepares a very detailed brochure for the visiting teachers
C) but her talk was interesting nevertheless
D) if I had attended the conference
E) anyhow my roommate may collect a lot of data

23) ____, we really should leave as soon as possible.

A) Since we shall probably have a long wait at the bus station
B) Though it is getting very late
C) Until we know which plane they are coming on
D) If there's no need to hurry
E) Since the roads are always busy at this hour

24) ____, the Incas are considered a simplistic, poorly developed society.

A) Since they could not write
B) Though they lived centuries ago
C) However hard the Incas try
D) While they were living in poor conditions
E) If only we knew much about the Incas

25) The great progress in rocket theory 40 years ago showed____.

A) how much advanced the technology will become
B) Pentagon would have affected the space technology
C) if Russia used more complicated technologies
D) that liquid-fuel rockets were superior to the others
E) the reason why Dr. Spencer quit his job in NASA
 
            Test 6
 
1) ______ so as not to wake the baby.

A) The children played the violin loudly
B) Our neighbours turned up the volume of the radio
C) Mother went in very quietly
D) Father drives his car very fast
E) I have locked the doors

2) As I'd never been to Finland before, _____.

A) he should have given me a hand while cleaning the attic
B) the view of the mountain has influenced me amazingly
C) the flow of the rivers were both impressive and fascinating to behold
D) my friends recommend me to see that country
E) I bought a guidebook

3) Meanings of the carved inscriptions on the facade of the building had always been a point of curiosity for the archaeologists before __________________.

A) the government appointed cryptologists eventually decoded them two months ago.
B) we have whitewashed the whole surface
C) the inhabitants of the region destroy them
D) the north winds might erode them all
E) the local elementary school children recklessly damage them

4) Famous for her caricatures of the political figures in 1975s' Turkey, ________

A) Turhan Selçuk wrote and illustrated books for children
B) the writing and illustrating of books for children by Turhan Selçuk
C) children's books were written and illustrated by Turhan Selçuk
D) Turhan Selçuk's writing and illustrating of children's books
E) admiration of the western peoples when they saw Turhan Selçuk's illustrations

5) The novel called "Spinners" tells the tale of quiet Australia factory worker Dora Chapman, _____ and sparks a wave of Pregnancy scares in her town.

A) who has been working as a technician
B) becoming pregnant
C) who has also seen the strange extraterrestrial creatures.
D) to be known for her films
E) who makes an absurd claim of an alien encounter

6) The film tells the story of a 70-year-old man whose life hasn't turned out to be ______.

A) what a well-known police detective.
B) in which his family planned.
C) what he had planned.
D) believing in reincarnation.
E) such a more knowledgeable person than all the younger ones around him.

7) If I were you, _____ .

A) I'd resign rather than wait to be sacked
B) I'd have a lot of problems getting another one.
C) you'd be more aware of what people really felt
D) we wouldn't be so behind technologically
E) you wouldn't be working here

8) Were we spent more on Research, _____ .

A) I'd resign rather than wait to be sacked
B) I'd have a lot of problems getting another one.
C) I'd try to find a job with one of the Japanese banks.
D) we could develop an innovative technology in the mass production of solar powered car engines.
E) they might improve their knowledge about equipment

9) If you spoke less and listened more and more, -------------.

A) I'd resign rather than wait to be sacked.
B) I'd have a lot of problems getting another one.
C) I'd try to find a job with one of the Chinese banks.
D) you'd be more aware of what people really felt.
E) they'd search for another job

10) If you spent more time on your own problems and a bit less on
mine, _____ .

A) she would benefit a lot from your experience
B) you would refuse her offer
C) we'd both benefit
D) they would have called off the assembly
E) we would join the joint venture

11) If we checked expenses a bit better, _____.

A) the boss cannot fire us
B) the company's annual income gradually increases
C) we'd save a lot of money.
D) the accountant finds the gaps in our department budget
E) what I can do is to resign

12) If you invested some time into learning the Internet,

A) you'd find that it could really help you in your job.
B) I'd have a lot of problems getting another one.
C) we wouldn't be so behind technologically.
D) she would pay more attention
E) I would found a sister company

13) If we opened an office in Honk-Hong, ----------------------

A) we wouldn't be so behind technologically because of financial restrictions
B) you'd be more aware of what people really felt about you
C) I'd be interested in working there.
D) both parties will cancel the contract
E) I will have to go there every weekend

14) If you didn't take the job,_____.

A) you'd regret it later.
B) we will blame you
C) your parents regretted that
D) your ex-colleagues will regret
E) we will put off the meeting to be held tomorrow

15) While you're in Istanbul,--------.

A) some of your colleagues called you
B) the children would feel more comfortable
C) the plumber might have repaired the leaky faucet
D) the central heating system had been installed
E)I might decorate the bathroom

16) The ancient sport of surfing was enjoying a revival ______.

A) and a very popular recreational activity of the Hawaiian young.
B) since its birth has been eye witnessed among the foams of the ocean waves by the native Hawaiians.
C) the sudden shark attacks started in Hawaii in 1924
D) because, as can be expected, Hawaiians are really successful surfers.
E) for the native Hawaiians have been the best.

17) He used to smoke a lot, _____, he decided to quit smoking.

A) whereas he suffered from lung cancer
B) although his sister quit smoking
C) but after he developed a lung disease
D) however his father did not know this
E) in spite of his lung cancer

18) Our customer's money will be refunded _____

A) since they cannot be successful.
B) if they're not satisfied with the product.
C) although we believed in the consumer protection.
D) as we had not have any rival company at the moment.
E) for we need your contribution.

19) ______ you should not copy the site without written permission from the webmaster.

A) We are not indicating his rights that
B) Our obligation will be that
C) You had been convinced that
D) Who says that
E) It's clearly stated that

20) When my grandfather inherited an extensive fortune from his parents,................

A) my uncle has suffered considerably from poverty
B) he set himself up as a great farmer
C) our relatives have become very jealous of us
D) his boss is decided to give him the sack
E) my uncles have been strongly opposed

21) ..........., the seamen became worried.

A) As soon as the storm has broken
B) Three people on a small boat were caught in a storm
C) Although a number of sharks attacked their ship
D) Until the coast guard reach them
E) When the food and drinks they had brought along ran low

22) ..............since the chairman’s speech was extremely lengthy.

A) The spectators all burst out laughing
B) The audience was thoroughly bored
C) The crowd was all ears listening to him
D) Most of the listeners have found the conference boring
E) No one among the audience wanted to miss any of his words

23) She and one of her co-workers asked the director……..

A) that he would make a rise in their salaries
B) whether he could give them a day-off
C) why he has refused to work with that company
D) who he has promoted manager
E) how did the company come to such a position

24) Her co-worker insists that, of the all newspapers he has read up to now,……….

A) most of them are full of unnecessary news
B) the New York Times was less prestigious in the past that it is now
C) he had found the Boston Globe the best one
D) the New York Times has the least coverage of foreign news
E) all of them include a lot of pictures of violence

25) ............. that caused this financial crisis in the country.

A) It was the misuse of authority
B) The economy experts are in conflict with each other
C) Like all of us, no politician knew
D) Since import rate exceeded export rate
E) Minister of Economy was accused of the fact
 
            Test 7
 
1) The policeman is demanding _____

A) that we will help him to find the fingerprints.
B) that he lifts his hands up.
C) that they had to show their ID cards.
D) that the murderer should have been found so far.
E) that the thief confess the crime.

2) Many people take it for granted ...... .

A) whether they realized just how serious the drug problem had become
B) that the new interest policy contributed to the greater degree of stability in prices at this period
C) why no survivors whatsoever were found
D) how all receipts and papers concerning the consecution inexplicably disappeared
E) why the other passengers had absolutely no comment to make at all about the accident

3) ......, Chesterfield was one of the few textile towns that continued to grow in the twentieth century.

A) If the government lifted the sanctions
B) Since its trade was both flexible and varied
C) However unpopular the scheme had seemed to many
D) As soon as the industrial revaluation got under way
E) Just as many industrial areas were competing with each other

4) Smallpox vaccination became popular ......

A) that eventually his disease would have been completely wiped out
B) even though the success rate, according to recent statistics, is still rather doubtful
C) even if it had not been a fatal disease that brought death to all levels of society
D) however unlikely one is to come in contact with the disease.
E) only after Jenner's discovery that the less dangerous cowpox material was an effective immunizing agent

5) The helicopter has the ability to climb vertically, ......

A) although the winds were blowing at gale force
B) if it can take off in a very restricted space
C) which, in certain circumstances, is its main advantage over other types of aircraft
D) whenever the pilot felt himself obliged to make a forced landing
E) if the cost of its upkeep hadn't been a heavy burden on the budget

6) ...... if any one party decides to neglect the obligations it has undertaken in the treaty.

A) Obviously, very serious problems will arise
B) They may have rejected the offer
C) They were obviously determined to be present at the opening of the talks
D) The last speaker was quite adamant on the need to resume fighting
E) The observers may have been very upset

7) ...... who played a unique role in the revival of the ideals of classical antiquity.

A) There is still a lively debate going on among scholars
B) Dr. Smith lectured on the Renaissance
C) He then went on to explain why such Renaissance figures
D) Leonardo da Vinci also lived in the Renaissance
E) Petrarch is rightly regarded as a humanist

8) ....... , although many countries are stepping up their own production.

A) This is just one of many developments in international trade
B) England still imported a great deal of tropical fruit
C) Turkey's exports of fruit and vegetables will have dropped sharply
D) Steel remains an important item of international trade
E) By the end of the month figures concerning the dollar reserves will have been processed

9) Before the National Health Service Act came into force in 1948 in England, .......

A) the funding of hospitals was a major issue in home politics
B) these people aren't able to afford medical advice
C) there have been angry quarrels about the necessity for it
D) everyone realized that these were all, fundamentally, political issues
E) many doctors would feel that the transition had been extremely painful

10) Even the engineer was impressed at the speed and efficiency...

A) until more problems have appeared
B) that the project will be finished in time
C) whether the workers were prepared to go on strike
D) although some of the members have been warned earlier
E) with which the team worked

11) The doctor was so polite and considerate ...

A) before the surgery is carried out
B) if I should decide to go through with the operation
C) that all my misgivings vanished
D) when it is obvious that the patient has recovered greatly
E) as soon as I am discharged from hospital

12) ...., the answer of the West divided world opinion.

A) As soon as the NATO countries have formulated an effective policy
B) Unless Iraq is severely punished for its aggression
C) No matter how the board is constituted
D) As was to be expected
E) When the oil-producing countries gather in Vienna to discuss

13) Do not try to cut down or prune large trees ...

A) just as branches that appeared healthy had in fact been rotten inside
B) unless you are absolutely confident that you can do it properly
C) by making sure that your neighbours were not opposed to it at all
D) if the weather conditions had not been taken into account
E) in case the manager rejected the findings

14) If we do not get a lot of rain soon, ...

A) the price of fruit this year has been very reasonable
B) a great deal of land is under water
C) the rainy season came late this year
D) they have already put away their winter clothes away
E) the harvest this year will be a poor one

15) ...... which will further heighten the unemployment problem.

A) Several companies are considering reductions in the work force
B) No solutions were forthcoming
C) Everyone was genuinely concerned about the situation
D) The Minister had been under attack for some time
E) The police should have combed the area for the person responsible .

16) .... before the city planners took their job seriously.

A) City planning has continued to be their prime concern
B) A great many ugly apartment blocks were built
C) A good architect views his work within the context of the area at
large
D) In this respect new cities are at a great advantage
E) New cities never have the same atmosphere as the old

17) ... how close he had been to winning the vote

A) To be perfectly honest I was considerably relieved
B) It shouldn't have been misinterpreted
C) Even his own supporters were surprised when they learned
D) The votes had finally been counted
E) He should have withdrawn from the election campaign
 
18) ............... how they can wait for to make any profit at all.

A) We were puzzled
B) I don't see
C) They didn't assume
D) It has already been
E) They had been denied

19) ................... that estimating future manpower requirements is absolutely desirable.

A) From the forgoing discussion it is obvious
B) We were extremely concerned
C) The manager is wondering
D) It had been under discussion for a long time
E) The committee was asked

20) This concept would be easy to point up and defend ..................

A) However much time they can allow us
B) So long as they had provided us with adequate assistance
C) for there was a great deal of disagreement among the participants
D) if it were not for the fact that we haven't got accurate data
E) until the whole controversy has been ended

21) Isn't that the woman ................?

A) which is responsible for the design of the botanical gardens
B) that she lost his temper
C) who have just returned from a business conference
D) if she knew how to negotiate such delicate matters
E) whose son has won a scholarship to pursue his graduate studies in
the United States

22) That's the woman.....

A) who writes on wild flowers.
B) is best qualified to help you.
C) that she talked on ancient monuments.
D) I went to the theatre with her.
E) if only I could go to her lecture.

23) The committee reached an agreement .....

A) regardless of the fact that there were some political issues involved.
B) if they had been guided by the director-general.
C) in view of the intelligence which has just reached.
D) in case of new developments occurring in Africa
E) until it is time for the press conference

24) For sure that's the woman ...............

A) that her sister won the painting competition
B) who sang so beautifully at the concert last night
C) unless she sent us the heavy box
D) whether her bicycle has been repaired
E) which everyone is talking about

25) I just wanted to know,…….

A) whether you had been to see Jane
B) how far away we are moving
C) which team has won
D) as if all the buses went past the town hall
E) though everyone else had already eaten
 
            Test 8
 
1) I cannot fix the washing machine myself, ...................

A) unless Bill had offered to help me
B) so I will have to get someone to do it for me
C) if I knew where the problem was
D) that it has broken down
E) if you haven't managed to

2) Don't you think it is important................... ?

A) in case so many people would have marched in protest
B) if the resolution had been passed
C) how quickly they had cancelled all the flights
D) whether they were re-elected
E) that 26 people have resigned since Mr. Fairfax was appointed
manager

3) It is astonishing .....

A) so that his childhood was not spent very profitably
B) that she had given in her resignation so suddenly
C) where such accurate and detailed information had come from
D) how much attention even the more serious newspaper will have
given him.
E) how few people have ever seen an original Van Gogh painting

4) _______ where to run for advice.

A) Should you think of co-operating with a firm in Milan
B) He had made several trips to the central Asian Republics
C) In such a precarious situation he didn't know
D) Simply make quite sure you are never far away from a telephone
E) Under such circumstances one feels the need for consultants

5) As far as the options the government has are concerned, _____.

A) the controversy did not lead to any serious setback
B) the one favoured by the subcommittee seems the most likely
C) the participants had not yet expressed their views
D) all the available resources had been allocated fairly
E) the situation deteriorated so rapidly that the members lost their nerve

6) ________ unless something highly unforeseen occurs.

A) The state of the economy has been actually quite promising
B) All the ministers will be present at the inauguration
C) A series of new measures had to be introduced into management procedures
D) Never before has the board agreed to such policies
E) Nobody was killing to account for mistake

7) ___________ that, in view of the recent atrocities, some form of international intervention was essential.

A) The delegates concluded unanimously
B) Both sides have accused each other
C) It will soon be suspected
D) Various proposals have been submitted
E) The minister has been impeached

8) ________ the discussions lasted longer than usual.

A) As nobody has been adequately warned
B) So long as the issue has been properly covered
C) In spite of the fact that many people will be required to be present punctually
D) Even though less than half of the delegates attended the afternoon session
E) While the proposals put forward by the delegates are being reviewed

9) The physician is still trying to find out ________ .

A) as if the hospital couldn't have been involved in the fraud
B) since the medicine would have been stale
C) why the patient has reacted in this way to the treatment
D) so that the talks between patients and doctors had been futile
E) while these nurses were still in training

10) It was finally agreed to let the director choose _____ .

A) how the news leaked out
B) when the cost of the new highway had become common knowledge
C) until all the results would have been entered into the computer
D) whether the effort involved can be justified
E) whichever policy he thought would best suit the situation

11) The need to find better ways of disposing of industrial waste is so pressing ______.

A) in case the ecology of the world has been undermined
B) while the government has allocated large sums for this purpose
C) however urgently the United Nations may regard it
D) that many companies have already begun to adopt serious measures
E) whereas many governments seem uninformed about the situation.

12) As soon as the German troops crossed the Polish frontier ______ .

A) the allied forces had launched their first massive attack
B) the people have been massacred and towns devastated
C) the Poles withdraw to a more strategic position
D) Britain declared war on Germany
E) disease had not been prevented

13) Even though the imaginary James Joyce used in his novels is intensely personal, ______.

A) themes related to Irish life had always been popular among Irish
novelist
B) he had played a major role in the development of the novel
C) some critics have argued that it has archetypal patterns
D) perhaps the best-known Irish writer is Bernard Shaw
E) most Irish writers have been keenly interested in drama

14) ________ only after the Iraqi government has fully complied with the resolutions of the Security Council.

A) Life in Kuwait would have return to normal
B) The Golf crisis had to be solved
C) The economic embargo imposed on Iraq can be lifted
D) The oil wells in Kuwait were set on fire
E) The pollution of the seas in this region is a matter of great concern


15) ______ that the sale of the factory was illegal.

A) The magistrate was of the opinion
B) Those responsible were prosecuted
C) The process of laundering black money has been discovered
D) The document submitted by the firm were
E) The police have arrested the owners

16) Dams can only be constructed in places ______ .

A) in which there were adequate supplies of water
B) where the geological structure is suitable
C) from which towns and villages may have to be evacuated
D) wherever the river bed has dried up
E) that there are mountains as well as rivers

17) ______ he had no other choice since the patient's condition was highly critical.

A) Before the results of the tests had come through
B) Although the surgeon was unwilling to operate for a further week
C) As long as the patient started to recover
D) Despite the fact that he proved allergic to certain medicines
E) While he remains in the intensive care unit

18) _____ the trend to withdraw savings from banks will continue.

A) Since the value to many shares on the stock exchange would have
dropped by as much as a half
B) When export restrictions on certain goods where finally lifted
C) In the Central Bank had taken firmer measures at the start
D) Unless the interest rates are raised substantially
E) As the financial situation was steadily deteriorating

19) ............ , there is sufficient provisions and water for everyone.

A) If they had used their resources properly
B) Though nature would have been spoiled
C) Unless we take care of our green fields
D) If we learned to respect the environment
E) Provided that they are used well

20) Since the bus broke down just outside New York,.............

A) there wouldn't be another bus for an hour
B) there was still snow by the side of the road
C) I was late for my appointment in Stamford
D) it was particularly cold that night
E) some people would even blame the driver

21) ............except if you are interested in geology.

A) He's thinking of going to a geologist
B) This is the book you have suggested
C) You could solve your problems
D) There is no point in reading that book
E) This book will be very useful for you

22) As there is a total sameness of every product in this junk food eatery chain,..........

A) the first restaurant to be opened in U.S. was in 1984
B) they were already doing business in 78 countries in the world
C) the company was by then opening a new restaurant at the rate of one per clay
D) every chicken fry and every hamburger tastes exactly the same as every other
E) yet another one was opened in London in 1990

23) ........, who really established and developed the surrealistic style in films.

A) The cartoon is another popular type of film, especially among kids
B) Strong film industries began to emerge in other countries
C) Contemporary issues such as violence and poverty will attract the attention of
many film directors
D) Star Wars is perhaps his best film
E) It was the film director Stanley Kubrick

24) As the daily temperature amplitude on the planet Mercury is huge , ...........

A) its rocky surface cracks, producing cliffs and canyons
B) there hasn't been sufficient atmosphere to hold the heat
C) the explorations carried out so far would have been very costly
D) the craters in its surface were formed by rocks from outer space
E) there was no evidence to suggest that this was due to volcanic activity

25) The director guaranteed to promote her…………

A) if she has proved far more efficient than all other employees have
B) that she has really deserved it
C) as she had been working for the firm for so many years
D) unless there was a good reason for doing so
E) until the firm's annual budget is approved

 
TRANSLATİON
 
           

Test 1
 
1. Artık, yatırım yaparken çevresel etkenleri göz ardı etmek mümkün değildir.
 
A) Ultimately, it will not be possible to take environmental factors into account when making investments.
B) It is no longer possible to ignore environmental factors when making investments.
C) It is no longer right to defend investing in the environment.
D) Environmental factors are no longer unavoidable when investments are under consideration.
E) There is no point in deferring environment-oriented investments.
 
2. Çeşitlilik günümüzde en sık kullanılan kelimelerden biri olmuştur, ama hemen hemen hiç tanımlanmamıştır.
 
A) Diversity has become one of the most often used words of our time, but it has
almost never been defined.
B) In these days, diversity is a much-used term but nobody wants to define it.
C) The word diversity is almost always in use nowadays but no one is able to define it.
D) Lately, diversity is a word that is often used though the fact is rarely recognized.
E) Presently, diversity is one of the terms most frequently used, but it is a term that is almost always misused.
 
3. Böylesine bir durumda bir Roma heykeliyle hayatımda hiç karşılaşmamıştım.
 
A) One can't expect to find a Roman statue of such perfection more than once in a lifetime.
B) I never estimated to find a Roman statue in such an admirable condition.
C) Only once in a lifetime can -one hope to find a Roman statue in such a good condition.
D) For the first time in my life I have found a Roman statue in really good condition.
E) Never in my life have I come across a Roman statue in such a good condition.
 
4. Kasa üzerinde onun parmak izlerini bulamadığımız sürece, onun masum olduğunu kabul etmek zorundayız.
 
A) If his fingerprints are not to be found on the safe we shall have to count him innocent.
B) As long as we can't find his fingerprints on the safe, we have to accept that he is innocent.
C) Should his fingerprints are found on the safe, then we will be obliged to admit that he is guilty.
D) If his fingerprints are not found on the safe, he can never be accused of being guilty.
E) Of course he is not guilty, for no trace of his fingerprints has ever been found on the safe.
 
5. 1980' lere kadar hiç kimse petrol üretiminin ve taşınmasının çevresel sonuçlarını etkili bir şekilde kontrol etme gücüne sahip değildi.
 
A) Up to petroleum products were distributed widely in the 1980s no one realized how serious the ecological consequences could be.
B) As in the 1980s, the ecological consequences of petroleum production and transportation could only be controlled by a powerful body.
C) Up to the 1980s there were no serious limits put on anyone's rights to control the ecological consequences of petroleum production and transport.
D) Until the 1980s no one had the power to control effectively the ecological
consequences of petroleum production and transport.
E) No one will admit that petroleum products and their distribution were any serious threat to the environment prior to the 1980s.
 
6. Coğrafi koşullar, topluluklar arasındaki kültürel etkileşim üzerinde çoğu zaman etki sahibidir.
 
A) There can only be cultural interactions among communities when the
geographical conditions are suitable.
B) Geographical conditions frequently have an impact on cultural interactions among communities.
C) Geographical conditions are seldom suitable for on cultural interactions among communities.
D) Cultural reactions among communities depend largely on geographical conditions.
E) The geographical conditions make for cultural reactions among communities.
 
7. Hükümet hayvancılığı desteklemediği takdirde, ciddi bir et sıkıntısının olması kaçınılmazdır.
 
A) Even if the government decides to subsidize cattle farming, a meat shortage cannot be avoided.
B) Unless the government subsidizes cattle farming, a serious meat shortage is inevitable.
C) A shortage of meat will unavoidably force the government to subsidize cattle farming.
D) Despite the government's decision to subsidize cattle farming, meat is still in short supply.
E) The cattle farming subsidies decided upon by the government have not overcome the meat shortage.
 
8. On sekizinci yüzyıldan beri iktisatçılar, yeryüzünde durmadan artan insan sayısının
sonuçta tüm kaynakları tüketeceği uyarısında bulunmuşlardır.
 
A) Since the eighteenth century, economists have warned that the ever increasing number of people on earth would eventually exhaust all sources.
B) Throughout the eighteenth century economists constantly warned that the increase in population would eventually lead to the exhaustion of all resources.
C) In accordance with the economists of the eighteenth century, the ever-growing of people in the world would eventually exhaust all resources.
D) The constant growth in population since the eighteenth century will, as economists warn, cause the earth's resources to be exhausted.
E) The constantly growing population of the eighteenth century, as economists have
pointed out, adversely affected the world's resources.
 
9. Biyologların DNA'nın molekül yapısını ortaya koymalarından kırk yıldan az bir zaman sonra
genetik bilimi tıp biliminin sınırlarını yeniden çizmektedir.
 
A) After discovering the molecular structure of DNA approximately forty years ago, biologists
redefined the boundaries of genetics and medical science.
B) Biologists unraveled the molecular structure of DNA approximately forty years ago and so redefined the boundaries of medical science.
C) The boundaries of medical science were redefined over forty years ago when biologists worked out the molecular structure of DNA.
D) For forty years before biologists discovered the molecular structure of DNA, genetics had been redefining the boundaries of medical science.
E) Less than forty years after biologists unraveled the molecular structure of DNA, genetics is redefining the boundaries of medical science.
 
10. Ülkemizin su kaynaklarından enerji ve sulama amacı ile tam olarak yararlanmak için birkaç
uzun vadeli proje hazırlanıyor.
 
A) With the schemes under preparation some of the country’s water resources will produce long-term benefits in the fields of energy production and irrigation.
B) The schemes concerning the water resources of the country will in the long run be implemented for irrigation and energy.
C) Some of the long-term schemes now under consideration are concerned with using the country's water resources for energy and irrigation purposes.
D) Several long-term schemes to make full use of the country's water resources for purposes of energy and irrigation are under preparation.
E) In the preparation of these long-term schemes the country's needs, such as energy and irrigation, should be given priority.
 
11. Tahrifat yapılan belgelerde parmak izi aranması bana göre yararsız bir çabaydı.
 
A) To me it is an absurd effort to try to look for fingerprints on the documents that
were falsified.
B) It seems to me that it is a useless effort to try to find fingerprints on the falsified
documents.
C) To me it is a useless effort to look for fingerprints on the falsified documents.
D) As far as I know, it is no use trying to search for fingerprints on the documents
that were embezzled.
E) In so far as I am concerned, it is not useful to look for his fingerprints on the
embezzled documents.
 
12. Hükümete sunulan olabilirlik raporunun üretilecek tahmini elektrik enerjisine yer vermediği anlaşılıyor.
 
A) It is clear that the feasibility report submitted to the government does not place in
it the estimated electrical energy to be produced.
B) It is the feasibility report given to the government that does not include the
electrical energy produced which is estimated.
C) The anticipated electrical energy which will be produced is clearly not mentioned
in the possibility report presented to the government.
D) It is obvious from the feasibility report to be submitted to the government that the
conjectural estimates of the electrical energy to be produced is not included in it.
E) It is understood from the feasibility report submitted to the government that it
didn't deal with the estimated production of electrical energy.
 
13. Üyelik başvurun onaylanmadan önce, derneğe serbestçe girip, çıkmana izin vereceklerini hiç mi hiç sanmıyorum.
 
A) I never think that you will be allowed to enter in the Society without the acceptance of your membership application.
B) I doubt very much that they will allow you to freely enter in the Society before your application for membership is approved.
C) I don't think at all that your membership will be approved before you apply to them for free entrance.
D) I have no suspicions about it that they will freely admit you to the Society before your membership application is approved,
E) I don't think they will allow you to freely enter in the Society after your membership application is accepted.
 
14. Komisyonun, bakteri düzeyi belirli bir sınırı aşan patateslerin satışını yasaklayan kararına maalesef  pek uyulmuyor.
 
A) It is a pity that the decision made by the commission to ban the sale of potatoes with a bacterial level above a certain limit is not obeyed much.
B) Unfortunately the decree of the committee which bans the sale of potatoes that
have a high bacterial level above limits doesn't work.
C) It is unfortunately observed by the commission that the lifting of the ban on the sale of potatoes that have a high bacterial level above a certain limit is not obeyed.
D) The bacterial level of the potatoes to a certain limit is unfortunately banned by a pronouncement by the commission.
E) The decision taken by the commission which bans the sale of the potatoes with, unfortunately, a bacterial level above a certain limit is not found suitable.
 
15. Böyle bir makineyi verimli bir şekilde çalıştırmak sizce ortalama bir işçinin yaklaşık olarak ne kadar vaktini alır?
 
A) Approximately how long do you think this machine will take to work with an efficient worker to operate it?
B) How long exactly, do you think, will it take an, ordinary worker to operate on this machine?
C) In so far as you know, how long does it take an ordinary worker to operate this machine efficiently?
D) Roughly how long do you think it will take an average worker to operate such a machine efficiently?
E) Roughly speaking, how long do you thing we need an average worker to operate such a machine effectively?
 
16. Sırf nedeni siyasidir diye bir cinayeti önemsiz saymak bence cinayetlerin en büyüğü olurdu.
 
A) I would think that the real murder is to consider a murder unimportant owing to its aim.
B) I don't think that murders are important when the motivation is political.
C) I think it will be a crime to say that murders committed for political reasons are important.
D) I think the greatest murder is to think that the murder is not important since the aim is political.
E) In my opinion it would be the greatest murder to consider a murder unimportant simply because it is politically motivated.
 
17. Bu taraflı tutumun dikkat çekmemesi için elinden ne geliyorsa yapıyor ancak yanıldığını er geç anlayacak.
 
A) He's doing his utmost so that his impartial attitude will not be noticed but he will soon know he is mistaken.
B) He's doing whatever he can in order not to notice his partial attitude but sooner or later he will be mistaken.
C) He's doing whatever he can so that is partial attitude will go unnoticed but sooner
or later he will understand that he is mistaken.
D) He's doing whatever is in his hands in order to go unnoticed with his partial
behavior but he understood that he made a mistake.
E) He has been doing his best for he wants his impartial attitude to be noticed but sooner or later he will be misled.
 
18. Karşılıklılık ilkesi  çerçevesinde,  her iki  ülke de diğer ülke vatandaşlarının  mülk edinebilmesini kolaylaştıran kanunlar çıkardılar.
 
A) In the framework of mutual principles, both the countries put laws into force in
order to make it easy for other country's citizens to buy bonds.
B) In terms of reciprocity, both the countries laid down laws to make it easy for the citizens of the other country to buy properties.
C) In terms of responsiveness, both the countries lay down laws which simplifies it for another country's citizens to buy properties.
D) In terms of mutual principles, both the countries agreed to put laws into force so that their citizens could easily buy properties.
E) In accordance with  mutual principles, both countries were forced to lay down laws in order to simplify the formalities of possessing a property in the other country.
 
19. Bir ofis dizayn edilirken, yerin doğru kullanımına, firmanın ve bireylerin ihtiyaçlarına gösterilen dikkat çoğunlukla tamamen yetersizdir.
 
A) When an office is designed the attention paid to the correct use of space and
individual and company needs, is often totally inadequate.
B) When an office is designed it is generally insufficient to pay attention to the use of
space and individual and company needs.
C) When an office is designed it is frequently totally not enough to draw attention to the individual and company needs as well as the correct use of space.
D) When one designs an office, the correct use of space, and individual and company needs is paid no attention at all.
E) When an office is designed it is frequently not enough at all to care for the correct use of space, and individual and company needs.
 
20. Florence Nightingale' in olağanüstü kararlılık ve organize etme yeteneği gösterdiği tek savaş Kırım Savaşı olmamıştır.
 
A) It was long before Crimean War that Florence Nightingale proved her extraordinary qualities of determination and organizing ability.
B) It was when the Crimean War broke out that Florence Nightingale displayed extraordinary determination and organizing ability.
C) During the Crimean War Florence Nightingale did not show any extraordinary determination or organizing ability.
D) Crimean War was the only war during which Florence Nightingale confirmed her extraordinary determination and organizing abilities.
E) It was not only during the Crimean War that Florence Nightingale showed extra ordinary determination and organizing abilities.
 
21. 1980'lerden bu yana, dünyadaki nükleer sanayi hızlı bir şekilde düşmektedir ve Avrupa Birliği içinde, on beş ülkeden yedisi nükleer enerjiden aşama aşama vazgeçmiştir.
 
A) Since the 1980s, the nuclear industry in the world has been declining rapidly, and within the European Union, seven out of the fifteen countries have phased out nuclear power.
B) Starting with the 1980s, there has been a steep decline in the nuclear industry all through the world, particularly in the European Union, where only seven of the
fifteen countries continue to use nuclear power.
C) The world's nuclear industry has continued to decline since the 1980s; in particular, this is true of the fifteen countries of the European Union, seven of which have slowly ceased to use it altogether.
D) Seven of the fifteen countries of the European Union have gradually put an end to the use of nuclear power; the movement started in the 1980s and has continued
would-wide ever since.
E) After the 1980s, the nuclear industries of the world have fallen into disrepute, particularly in the European Union where seven of the fifteen countries have, step
by step, stopped using it altogether.
 
22. Bush, radyo konuşmasında, bazı Amerikan okullarında verilen eğitimin toplumun en iyi değerlerini beslemediğini söyledi.
 
A) Bush, in-his radio talk, concentrated on the various ideals of society and
,regretted that some American schools tailed to nourish them.
B) During his radio talk, Bush explained how the education given in some
American schools failed to uphold the best values of society.
C) In his radio talk Bush said that the education provided in soma American schools did not nourish the best values of society.
D) Bush emphasized in his radio talk that it was the duty of the American education system to ensure that some schools encouraged the best values of society.
E) In certain American schools, as Bush stressed in his radio talk, the education provided was not in accord with the ideals of society.
 
23. İnsan, Japonya'yı boydan boya trenle gezebilir ve bir istasyonda durduğunda, bir taşra kentini ötekinden ayırt etmenin hemen hemen imkânsız olduğunu hisseder.
 
A) While traveling the length and breadth of Japan by train, one realizes at each station that one provincial town is very like another.
B)    One can travel the length and breadth of Japan when stopping at a station, that it is almost impossible to distinguish between one provincial town and the next.
C)   While traveling by train through Japan, one feels at each stop at a station that each
provincial town is virtually identical with the next.
D)   Traveling from one end of Japan to the other by train, one recognizes, when stopping
at a station, that one provincial town joins imperceptibly into the next.
E)   When traveling hither and thither by train in Japan, and stopping at various
stations, one notices how each provincial town is identical with the rest.
 
24. Romancı Thomas Hardy, özyaşam öyküsünde babasından, "kalkınmakta olan kırsal topluluklarda gereksinim duyulan sanat ve becerilerin çoğuna sahip ender insanlardan biri" olarak söz eder.
 
A) The novelist Thomas Hardy, in his autobiography, tells his father as "one of those rare people who had developed almost all the arts and skills needed to make a rural community survive."
B) In his autobiography the novelist Thomas Hardy describes his father as "one of those rare people who possessed most of the arts and skills needed in thriving rural communities".
C) In this autobiography, Thomas Hardy, the novelist, tells how his own father was strange in that he cherished the arts and skills that enable rural communities to flourish."
D) The novelist Thomas Hardy describes in his autobiography how his own father was one of those valuable people who encouraged the arts and skills that help rural communities to thrive."
E) The novelist Thomas Hardy describes in his autobiography how his father was "one of the few people to use his arts and skills to ensure that rural communities would flourish."
 
25. Bazı iktisatçılara göre komünist ekonomik sistemin çöküş nedenlerinden biri, çok yüksek maliyetle çok az üretim yapılmış olmasıdır.
 
A) Some economists are of the opinion that high productions cost and low output were the main reasons for the collapse of the communist economic system.
B) According to some economists, the collapse of the communist economic system was in part due to the fact that too little was produced at too high a cost.
C) Some economists are of the opinion that too little was being produced at too high a cost, and it was for this reason that the communist economic system collapsed.
D) To some economists, the reason for the collapse of die communist economic system was that too few goods were produced at too high a price.
E) According to some economists, one of the reasons for the collapse of the communist economic system is that too little was produced at too high a cost.
 
            Test 2
 
1. Aydan bakıldığında dünya, uzayın karanlık boşluğunda bir yaşam vahası olarak  görünmektedir.
 
A) The world, when seen from the moon, seems like a bright oasis of life in the huge
darkness of space.
B) Observed from the moon, the world looks like an oasis of life in the dark vastness
of space.
C) Viewed from the moon, the earth appears as an oasis of life in the dark emptiness
of space.
D) In the infinite darkness of space, the earth, as seen from the moon, is really an
oasis of life.
E) It is as an oasis of life in the dark vastness of space that the world is seen from the
moon.
 
2. Bugün Batı üçüncü Dünya ülkelerine borç para verme tekniğini, onları kontrol altında otutma aracı olarak mükemmelleştirmiş bulunmaktadır.
 
A) The technique of lending money to the Third World countries has today been improved by the West so that it can control them.
B) Today, the West has perfected the technique of lending money to the Third World countries as a means of controlling them.
C) In order to control the Third World countries today, the West has developed particular money-lending techniques.
D) Today, the money-lending techniques developed by the West have become a means for controlling the Third World countries.
E) Today, the Third World countries are perfectly controlled by the West by means of money-lending techniques.
 
3. Savaş sonrası dönemde, Dünya Bankası'nın etkisiyle, yoksul tropikal ülkelerde çok geniş alanlar, şekerkamışı tarlalarına dönüştürülmüştür.
 
A) In the post-war period, under World Bank influence, vast areas in the poorer tropical countries were converted to sugarcane plantations.
B) After the war, it was the World Bank that recommended that the poorer tropical countries should convert large areas into sugarcane farms as there was a profitable market for the product.
C) After the post-war period, the poorer tropical countries, with large farming areas,
encouraged by the World Bank, shifted to sugarcane production.
D) Since there seemed to be a market, the poorer tropical countries, with the support of the World Bank, turned huge areas into sugarcane plantations as soon as the war
was over.
E) In the years following the war, the World Bank urged the poorer tropical countries with large farming areas, to torn to sugarcane cultivation.
 
4. Bizimki, seksen kadar çalışanı ile sebze ve tarla bitkilerinin genetik iyileştirilmesi üzerine ileri düzeyde araştırma yapan bir bitki biyoteknolojisi şirketidir.
 
A) Approximately eighty of the employees of our plant biotechnology company are researching, at an advanced level, genetic improvement of vegetable and field
crops.
B) Our company specializes in plant biotechnology and has roughly eighty employees, who carry out advanced research into the genetic improvement of
vegetable and field crops.
C) Ours is a plant biotechnology company with approximately eighty employees carrying out advanced research into the genetic improvement of vegetable and
field crops.
D) Ours is a plant biotechnology company, and at least eighty of the employees are engaged in research into the genetic improvement of vegetable and field crops.
E) Our company deals with plant biotechnology, and some eighty of the top- grade, employees are engaged in research into the genetic improvement of
vegetable and field crops.
 
5. Son birkaç yıl içinde, gökbilimciler, kendi sistemimizin ötesindeki bir düzineden fazla yıldız sisteminde Jüpiter büyüklüğünde dev gezegenler ortaya çıkarmışlardır.
 
A) The current discovery of a dozen or so massive Jupiter-sized planets in star systems beyond our own, has amazed even astronomers.
B) Astronomers have, in recent years, brought to light dozens of huge planets, such as Jupiter, star systems outside our own
C) Lately, a dozen or more astronomers have been suggesting that there are gigantic, Jupiter sized planets in star systems beyond our own.
D) In the past few years, astronomers have detected giant, Jupiter-sized planets in more than a dozen star systems beyond our own.
E) For some years, astronomers have been of the opinion that there may be huge Jupiter-sized planets in at least a dozen star systems other than our own.
 
6. Amerika'da işçi sendikaları, sanayi sonrası ekonominin yükselişi ve ağır sanayinin öneminin azalması sonucu, diğer sanayileşmiş ülkelerde olduğundan daha az güce
sahiptir.
 
A) As the significance of heavy industry in this post-industrial economy has declined noticeably, the American
workers' unions have less power than those in other industrialized countries.
B) The power of workers' unions in America has fallen below that of the unions in other industrialized countries because of the transition from heavy industry to a post-industrial economy.
C) With the rise of the post-industrial economy and the decline in the importance of heavy industry, workers' unions in America wield less power than in other industrialized countries.
D) Since the post-industrial economy has replaced the heavy industrial one, the significance of workers' unions in America has decreased in comparison with other industrialized countries.
E) In America, the workers' unions are no longer as powerful as those in other industrialized countries, since the rise of the post-industrial economy has eclipsed the importance of heavy industry.
 
7. Eski Doğu Almanya'da ücret eşitliğine ilişkin grevler, bazen endüstriyel çatışmanın nasıl kaçınılmaz olduğuna örnektir.
 
A) In the former East Germany, strikes over wage equality can be regarded as an instance of the inevitability of industrial conflict.
B) Strikes have been held in the former East Germany to demand equal wages, and this demonstrates how industrial conflicts cannot be avoided.
C) The strikes held for the equality of wages in what once used to be East Germany, demonstrate that industrial conflicts are almost unavoidable.
D) It is a fact that industrial conflict cannot always be avoided is best demonstrated by the example of the strikes held for the wage equality in the former East Germany.
E) The strikes in the former East Germany over wage equality are an example of how industrial conflict is sometimes unavoidable.
 
8. Eğer hafif uçaklar veya helikopterler mevcut olsaydı, felaket alanı üzerinde bunlarla yapılacak alçak uçuşlar, zararın coğrafi boyutları ile ilgili hızlı bilgi sağlayabilirdi.
 
A) If light aircraft or helicopters were available, low altitude flights over the disaster area would yield rapid information on the geographic extent of the damage.
B) Had light aircraft or helicopters been ready, flights at low altitudes over the
disaster area could have provided useful information as to the geographic extent of
the damage.
C) The geographic extent of the damage in the disaster area could have been
established by low altitude flights if light aircraft and helicopters had been
available.
D) As long as light aircraft and helicopters for low altitude flights are available, valuable information concerning the geographic extent of the damage in the disaster area can be obtained.
E) The geographic extent of the damage in the disaster area could have been rapidly learned, if only light aircraft and helicopters could have been made available for
low altitude flights.
 
9. Yönetim kurulu, yakın gelecekte hiçbir ücret artışı yapılmayacağını açıkça belirtti.
 
A) The board declared that the questions of any wage increase could be brought up again in the near future.
B) It was explicitly stated by the board that no increase at all in the wages could be seen in the near future.
C) The board acknowledged that there could be no question of any wage increase in the near future.
D) The board made it clear that there would be no wage increases whatsoever in the near future.
E) The board announced that no wage increase was to be expected in the near future.
 
10. Sağlık hizmetlerini nasıl düzenlemiş olursa olsunlar, Avrupa ülkelerinin hepsinin, son otuz yıl içinde masraflarının yıllık ortalama 4.1 oranında arttığı görülmüştür.
 
A) In whatever way the European countries have organized their health services, they have all seen their costs rise over the past three decades at an annual average rate of 4.1 percent.
B) In spite of the fact that all the European countries have organized their health services efficiently, they have been unable to prevent a yearly rise in costs of 4.1 percent over the past three decades.
C) The cost of health services has increased at an annual rate of 4.1 percent over the last thirty years although great efforts have been made by the European countries to organize them more efficiently.
D) An annual increase of 4.1 percent in the cost of health services in the European countries during the last three decades led to even greater efforts to improve
organization.
E) Most European countries have failed to curb the yearly 4.1 percent increase in the cost of health services despite the efforts made over the last thirty years to makethe organization more efficient.
 
11. Soğuk savaş dönemi üzerine pek çok yayın yapmış olduğundan, kendisinden 1960'larda Batı'daki Sovyet casusluk faaliyetleri üzerine bir konferans vermesini rica ettik.
 
A) Even though most of his publications have been on the Cold War era, we asked him to lecture on the work of the Soviet spies in the West in 1960s.
B) His publications on the Cold War era are so illuminating that we have approached him to give a talk on the activities of the Soviet spies in the West in 1960s.
C) As he has published a great deal on the Cold War era, we encouraged him to present a paper on the Soviet espionage activities throughout the 1960s in the West.
D) Since he has published extensively on the Cold War era, we asked him to give a lecture on the Soviet espionage activities in the 1960s in the West.
E) We asked him to give a lecture on the activities of the Soviet spies in the West in the 1960s, for most of his publications are related to the Cold War era.
 
12. Tropikal kereste ticareti, yağmur ormanlarının tahribinde oynadığı rol sebebiyle, uluslararası kaygının önemli bir odağı haline gelmiştir.
 
A) Rain forest destruction deserves to be a focus of international concern as the tropical timber trade continues to grow.
B) The tropical timber trade has caused a great deal of international concern since it is held to be a major cause of rain forest destruction.
C) The tropical timber trade has been a major focus of international concern because of the role it plays in rain forest destruction.
D) The role played by the tropical timber trade in the destruction of rain forests has been a matter of international concern.
E) International concern has at last focused on rain forest destruction which is caused by the tropical timber trade.
 
13. Adam Smith, bir ülkenin yüksek kaliteli ürünler üretmede gerekli becerileri kazanabilmesi için en az 50 yıllık tecrübeye ihtiyacı olduğunu iddia etmiştir.
 
A) The essential skills required for the production of high-quality goods can, as Adam Smith explained, only be acquired over a period of 50 years in any country.
B) According to Adam Smith, a period of at least 50 years of experience is essential for the acquisition of the skills needed for high-quality production in a country.
C) As Adam Smith pointed out, at least 50 years of experience is necessary ifa country is to produce high-quality goods.
D) Adam Smith claimed that at least 50 years of experience was needed for a country to acquire the necessary skills to turn out high-quality goods.
E) Adam Smith asserted that the production of high-quality goods in a country depended on the acquisition of skills gained over a period of 50 years.
 
14. Bir çok ulusun demokrasiye ve Pazar ekonomisine geçiş yaptığı son birkaç yıl, dünya tarihinde önemli bir dönüm noktası olarak düşünülebilir.
 
A) The past few years, in which many nations have moved toward democracy and a
market economy, may be considered an important turning point in world history.
B) While many nations have been moving toward democracy and a market economy,
a significant change has taken place in world history due to the developments of
the past few years.
C) The movement among several nations toward democracy and a market economy
during the past few years has brought forth a major change in the history of the
world.
D) An important turning point in history of the world has occurred as a result of the
progress among several nations toward democracy and a market economy.
E) This significant change in the world history following the progress of many nation
toward democracy and a market economy has occurred only in the past few years.
 
15. Kitap fiyatları beş yılda yalnızca yüzde 40 artarken, dergi fiyatları yirmi yılda yüzde 400
artmıştır.
 
A) The price of journals, unlike the price of books that has increased 40 percent in five years, has increased well over 400 percent in twenty years.
B) Journal prices have risen 400 percent in twenty years, while the price of books has, increased only 40 percent in five.
C) Over the last five years the price of books has gone up only 40 percent, while that of journals has soared to over 400 percent in twenty years.
D) In contrast to the rise in book prices which has been only 40 percent in five years, that of journal prices has exceeded 400 percent in twenty years.
E) Though book prices have only risen 40 percent in the last five years, those of journals, during the last twenty years, have gone up more that 400 percent.
 
16. Faiz oranlarının biraz düşmesine rağmen, müşterilerimizin sayısı artmaya devam ediyor.
 
A) Although the number of clients is still going up the interest rates continue to fall slightly.
B) As the interest rates are going down one cannot expect an increase in the number of clients.
C) Even though the interest rates have gone down slightly, the number of our clients continues to increase.
D) Unless the interest rates go up a little we cannot expect an increase in the number of our clients.
E) Inspite of a slight fail in the number of our clients we have managed to keep up the interest rates.
 
17. Kasa üzerinde onun parmak izlerini bulamadığımız sürece, onun masum olduğunu Kabul etmek zorundayız.
 
A) If his fingerprints are not to be found on the safe we shall have to count him innocent.
B) As long as we can't find his fingerprints on the safe, we have to accept that he is innocent.
C) Should his fingerprints be found on the safe than we will be obliged to admit that he is guilty.
D) If his fingerprints are not found on the safe he can never be accused of being guilty.
E) Since we have managed to identify his fingerprints on the safe, he has no other choice but admit being guilty.
 
18. Onunla ne zaman karşılaşsam hep konut sorununu ortaya koyuyor.
 
A) The housing problem is so serious that he no longer mentions it at every meeting.
B) The housing problem is a subject he usually avoids when we meet.
C) Whenever the problem of housing comes up at our meetings, we take different sides.
D) Every time we meet a problem, it always seems to be related to housing.
E) Whenever I meet him he always brings up the problem of housing.
 
19. Hükümet   hayvancılığı   desteklemediği   takdirde,   ciddi   bir   et   sıkıntısının   olması kaçınılmazdır.
 
A) Even if the government decides to subsidize cattle farming a meat shortage cannot be avoided.
B) If the government does not subsidize cattle farming, a serious meat shortage is inevitable.
C) A shortage of meat will inevitably force the government to subsidize cattle farming.
D) Despite the government's decision to subsidize cattle farming, meat is still in short supply.
E) The cattle farming subsidies decided upon by the government have not overcome the meat shortage.
 
20. Bildiğim kadarıyla, veliler toplantısı süresiz olarak ertelendi.
 
A) It is not yet definite whether or not the governors' meeting will be delayed.
B) As far as I know the meeting of the governors has been postponed indefinitely.
C) I know the governors have been notified that their meeting will take place at a later date.
D) In my opinion a meeting of die governors should be called soon.
E) I assume the governors have already been informed that the meeting is to be out off.
 
21. Deprem bölgesinde bir salgını önlemek için derhal acil tedbirler alınmalıdır.
 
A) An epidemic has broken out in the earthquake area therefore we must take measures right away to prevent its spread.
B) Various measures to overcome the epidemic in the earthquake area have already been taken.
C) Urgent measures must be taken immediately to prevent an epidemic in the earthquake area.
D) The earthquake area has been hit by an epidemic in spite of the measures urgently taken.
E) If the epidemic following the earthquake in the area does not die down, urgent measures will be called for.
 
22. Ülkemizin su kaynaklarından enerji ve sulama amacı ile tam olarak yararlanmak için
birkaç uzun vadeli proje hazırlanıyor.
 
A) With the projects under preparation some of the country's water resources will
produce long-term benefits in the fields of energy production and irrigation.
B) The projects concerning the water resources of the country will in the long run be
applied for irrigation and energy production.
C) Several of the long-term projects now under consideration are concerned with
using the country's water resources for energy and irrigation purposes.
D) Several long-term projects to make full use of energy and irrigation resources of
our country are under preparation.
E) In the preparation of these long-term projects the country's needs, such as energy and irrigation, should be given priority.
 
23. Bakanlığa girmene izin verilmeden önce kimlik kartını göstermeni isteyecekler.
 
A) They will ask you to show your identity card before you are allowed to enter the ministry.
B) You can only enter the ministry if you have an identity card with you.
C) You will be required to carry an identity card if you start work at the ministry.
D) Everybody is required to show you an identity card on entering the ministry.
E) You should wear an identity card if you are working at the ministry.
 
24. İki liderin zirve toplantısı, insanlığa büyük fayda sağlayacak bir antlaşmanın imzalanması
ile sona erdi.
 
A) Two of the leaders at the summit meeting have agreed to sign a treaty that will improve their relations.
B) Finally the two leaders agreed to a summit meeting which will be to the benefit of mankind.
C) The agreement signed by die two leaders at the summit meeting will certainly contribute to the prosperity of the people.
D) The summit meeting of the two leaders ended with the signing of an agreement that will be of great benefit to mankind.
E) At the end of the summit meeting two of the leaders decided to sign an agreement that would be beneficial to both nations.
 
25. Dünyadaki birçok havayolunun tersine, "North Airlines" bu yıl kar etmeyi gerçekten başarmıştır.
 
A) Unlike many of the world's airlines, "North Airlines" has actually managed to make a profit this year.
B) "North Airlines" is just one of the world airlines which has managed to make a substantial profit this year.
C) Very many of the world's airlines have, unlike "North Airlines", managed to make a good profit this year.
D) Even though there are so many world airlines, "North Airlines" has still managed to
make a profit this year.
E) Contrary to what many world airlines have inferred, "North Airlines" really has made a
profit this year.
 
            Test 3
 
1) Fotoğrafçılık benim tutkularımdan biridir çünkü çektiğim fotoğraflarda kendi mesajımı vermeyi severim.
 
A) Photography is one of my ambitions because I like to give my own massage in the pictures I take.
B) One of my ambitions is photography and I like to give my own massage in the pictures I take.
C) Photography I like to give my own massage in the pictures I take is one of my ambitions.
D) I like to give my own massage in the pictures I take because photography is one of my ambitions.
E) Since I like to give my own massage in the pictures I take photography is my only ambition.
 
2) Birden görülmeyen bir güç dikkatimi otobüse henüz binmiş olan bir çifte çekti.
 
A) An invisible power pulled my attention to a couple who had suddenly gotten on the bus
B) Suddenly, a mysterious power pulled my attention to a couple getting on the bus.
C) Suddenly, an invisible power pulled my attention to a couple who had just got on the bus.
D) An sudden invisible power pulled my attention to a couple who had just gotten on the bus.
E) Suddenly, a power pulled my attention to a couple who had just gotten on the bus invisibly.
 
3) Birisinin her defasında bir parça kağıdı çöpe atmasının bir kimsenin ağaçtan bir dal kesmesine benzediğini hayalinizde canlandırın.
 
A) Imagine that every time someone throws a piece of paper in the garbage is similar to a person cutting a branch off a tree. a branch off a tree.
B) It is imaginable that the garbage you throw into the dustbin is similar to a person cutting
C) If you force the limits of your imagination you can see that throwing a piece of paper in the garbage is like cutting a branch off a tree.
D) Imagining someone throwing a piece of paper in the garbage shows you that you are like a person cutting a branch off a tree.
E) Whenever someone throws a piece of paper in the garbage it is similar to cutting a branches off a tree.
 
4) İdeoloji, herhangi bir grubun sosyal gereksinimlerini ve politik doktrinlerini yansıtan birdüşünce biçimidir.
 
A) Social needs and political doctrines of an individual or group are reflectedin an ideology.
B) Ideology is a way of thinking that reflects the social needs and political doctrines of any group.
C) There is an ideology reflecting the social needs and political doctrines of a single group.
D) The way of thinking that reflects the social needs and political doctrines of an individual or group is ideological.
E) When you think ideologically it is the way of thinking reflect the social needs and political doctrines of an individual and group.
 
5) Ön yargı güçle yenilmez fakat insanların zihinlerindeki ve kalplerdeki iyiliğin güveniyle yenilir.
 
A) You cannot defeat prejudice by forcing but faith in the goodness in the hearts and minds of men.
B) Prejudice is defeated not by force but by faith in the goodness in the hearts and minds of men.
C) Prejudice hasn't defeated it by force but faith defeats it in the hearts and minds of men.
D) When prejudice is defeated by force, faith in the goodness in the hearts of men and their minds gets lost.
E) Prejudice can defeat force but faith in the goodness in the hearts of men and their minds cannot.
 
6) Bu bireyciliğin liberal ideolojisi Amerikan milli kimliğinin temel bir parçasıdır.
 
A) The national identity of the American is the ideology of all individuals.
B) The liberal ideology of an American individual is formed within the national identity.
C) This liberal ideology which is a basic part of the American national identity is individualistic.
D) These ideally individuals are the basic part of the American national identity.
E) This liberal ideology of individualism is a basic part of the American national identity.
 
7) Bizim taburlarımız insanlığa karşı suçları engellemeye ve durdurmaya yardımcı olmak için farklı yerlere gönderilmiştir
 
A) Our troops were sent to a different location to stop stopping crimes against humanity.
B) Various troops in different locations of ours have prevented all the crimes against humanity.
C) Our troops have been sent to various locations to aid in preventing and stopping crimes against humanity.
D) We sent the troops to our various locations to prevent crimes against humanity after stopping it.
E) The troops which were sent to various locations to aid in preventing crimes against humanity stopped it.
 
8) Ben Amerika Birleşik Devletleri'nin 2000 yılında dünya polisi olarak hareket etmesinin zorunlu olduğuna inanmaktayım.
 
A) I've believed that the United States of America has to act as the world police imperatively in the year 2000.
B) The United States of America has been believed to act as the world police of 2000.
C) I believe the United States of America will have to act as the world police of 2000 imperatively.
D) I believe that it is imperative for the United States of America to act as the world police in the year 2000.
E) I imperatively believe that the United States of America has acted as the world police in 2000.
 
9) Okullardaki şiddet böylesine bir ortamı bozar ve öğrencinin öğrenmeye olan güdülenmesini olumsuz olarak etkileyebilir.
 
A) Schools destroy such an environment and can negatively affect student motivation for learning if there is violence.
B) Violence in destroyed schools can negatively affect student motivation for learning besides environment.
C) So long as violence occurs in schools, it destroys the environment and can affect student motivation for learning negatively.
D) Violence in schools destroys such an environment and can negatively affect student's motivation for learning.
E) If there is violence in schools it can negatively affect student motivation for learning and destroys such an environment.
 
10) Binlerce yıl evvel eski Peru inkaları koka yaprağı çiğnerlerdi çünkü bunlar onların yüksek dağlarda daha uzun süreler boyunca çalışmalarına mümkün kılardı.
 
A) One thousand years age of ancient Incas of Peru were chewing coca leaves because it was possible for them to work in the high mountains for longer periods of time.
B) Thousands of years ago, there were coca leaf chewing Incas who discovered that they made it possible for them to work in the high mountains of Peru for a very long time.
C) Years and years ago, the ancient Incas of Peru had been chewing coca leaves so that they could work in the high mountains for longer periods of time.
D) The ancient Incas of Peru who chewed coca leaves knew that it was possible for them to work in the high mountains for longer periods of time thousands of years ago.
E) Thousands of years ago, the ancient Incas of Peru chewed coca leaves because they made it possible for them to work in the high mountains for longer periods of time.
 
11) 19. yüzyılda, düşünür ve yazar Ralph Waldo Emerson belki de hepimizin her hangi bir şekilde hissettiği bir korkuyu ifade etti
 
A) The 19th century writer and thinker Ralph Waldo Emerson had been expressing a fear that we probably feel to some extent.
B) In the 19th century, Ralph Waldo Emerson expressed a fear as a writer and thinker that perhaps we all feel to some extent.
C) The writer and thinker Ralph Waldo Emerson expressed a fear that we all felt to some extent in the 19th century.
D) In the 19th century, writer and thinker Ralph Waldo Emerson expressed a fear that perhaps we all feel to some extent.
E) Ralph Waldo Emerson, the writer and thinker of the 19th century had expressed a fear that we all feel to some extent.
 
12) Bu tür düzenlemeleri yerine getiren pek çok şirket, işçinin verim seviyesinde bir değişiklik olduğunu gözlemlemektedir.
 
A) The companies implementing such arrangements observed that there was a change in the employees' performance level.
B) Companies having implemented such arrangements observe that there has been changes in the level of employees' performance.
C) Many companies that have implemented such arrangements have observed that there is a change in the employees' performance level.
D) A lot of companies implementing these arrangements have observed that a change increases the employees' performance level.
E) Companies that implement so many arrangements have to observe that there is a certain change in the employees' performance level.
 
13) Küresel ısınma, kirlilikten farklı olarak bilim adamlarının en büyük ilgi alanlarından birisidir.
 
A) Global warming, aside from pollution, is one of scientists' biggest concerns.
B) Except for global warming, scientists' biggest concerns has always been the pollution of the environment.
C) Not only global warming but also environmental pollution is among scientists' biggest concerns.
D) Despite the global warming, pollution has always been one of the biggest concerns of scientists.
E) Global warming and pollution have always been scientists' biggest concerns.
 
14) Kısa bir süre sonra ülke ve hayatları için savaşacak olan pek çok acemi genç asker, savaş alanlarının yakınındaki eğitim kamplarına gönderildi
 
A) Too many young inexperienced soldiers went to training camps near the battlefields so that they could soon be sent to fight for their country and their own lives.
B) Too many young inexperienced soldiers who fight for their country and lives were soon sent to training camps near the battlefields.
C) Too many young inexperienced soldiers who were sent to the training camps around the battlefields would be sent to fight for their country and their life later on.
D) Too many young inexperienced soldiers being sent to the training camps beside the battlefields were ready to be sent to fight for their country and their lives.
E) Too many young inexperienced soldiers who were in the training camps beside the battlefields were being sent to fight for their country and their life.
 
15) Daha yaşlı ve daha büyük ağaçlar genç bir ağaçtan çok daha fazla karbon dioksit depolayabilirler.
 
A) The older, larger trees have had the capacity to store much more carbon dioxide than a young tree.
B) The trees which are old and large are able to store a lot of carbon dioxide but than a young can not.
C) Larger and older trees storing much more carbon dioxide are more productive than a young tree.
D) Only the old and large trees are capable of storing much more carbon dioxide than young trees are.
E) The older and larger trees can store much more carbon dioxide than a young tree can.
 
16) Yangınlar ve diğer felaketler yüzünden ormanların eskiden olduğu gibi kolayca yetişmediklerini hatırlamalıyız.
 
A) It must be remembered that forests hardly grow as well as they used to because of fires and too many disasters.
B) We should have remembered that forests did not grow as well as they did in the past because of fires and other disasters.
C) Everybody have to be reminded that forests have hardly grown as easily as they used to grow because of fires and various disasters.
D) We must remember that forests do not grow as easily as they used to because of fires and other disasters.
E) Because of the fact that there are fires and other disasters, we are obliged to remember that forests do not grow as easily as they used to.
 
17) Müze, bölgedeki insanların nasıl yaşamakta olduklarını ve aynı zamanda görme güçlerini ve sonuçlarını sergiler.
 
A) It is displayed in the museum about how people used to live in the area and also about the visions and their results.
B) How people lived in this area and their visions and their results are displayed around the museum.
C) In the museum, they were displaying about how people had lived there and about the visions and their results a well.
D) The museum displays how people used to live in the area and their visions and results.
E) The museum displays how people have lived in the area and also the visions and their results.
 
18) Amerika'nın bu parayı vermek zorunda olan çalışkan vatandaşları belki de bu paranın bir meteliğini bile tekrar göremeyebilir.
 
A) There are a lot of hard working citizens of the US who may never see even a dime of this money again. a dime of it again.
B) The hard working citizens of the US gave money but they can never see even a dime of it again.
C) Although the hard working citizens of the US have to give this money, they may never see even a dime of it again.
D) The hard working citizens of the US who have to give this money may never see even
E) Whether this money is given by the hard working citizens of the US, they can never see even a dime of it again.
 
19) Kölelik konusunda şaşırtıcı biçimde modern görüşleri olan bir grup bile vardı; bazı insanların bugün bile kabul etmedikleri görüşler.
 
A) There was just one group of people who have surprisingly modern views on slavery; however they haven't been accepted even today.
B) There was even a group of people who held surprisingly modern views on slavery; views some people haven't even accepted today.
C) Even a group of people who held surprisingly modern views on slavery haven't even accepted anything today.
D) A group of people who had held modem surprising views on slavery haven't been accepted today.
E) There was even a group of people who held surprisingly modern views on slavery; however nobody has admitted it today.
 
20) Alexander on üç yıl tahtta kaldı fakat babasının planlamış olduğundan çok fazlasını başardı.
 
A) Alexander, who ruled for just thirteen years succeeded far beyond what his father had planned.
B) After Alexander had ruled for only thirteen years, he succeeded far beyond what his father had been planning.
C) Alexander ruled for only thirteen years but he succeeded far beyond what his father had planned.
D) Alexander had been ruling for thirteen years and he succeeded more than what his father had planned.
E) Alexander ruled for thirteen years but he achieved it better than what his father had planned.
 
21) Güvenli olmayan okul çevrelerinde öğretmenler maksimum güçleriyle öğretemez ve
öğrenciler tüm kapasiteleriyle öğrenemezler.
 
A) Teachers being in an unsafe school surroundings cannot do their best to teach, and students can never learn with a full potential.
B) In unsafe school surroundings, teachers cannot teach to their maximum potential, and students cannot learn to their full potential.
C) Unsafe school surroundings teachers hardly teach potentially, and students never learn with a full potential.
D) Teachers cannot teach well potentially, and students cannot learn to so capably in an unsafe school surroundings.
E) School surroundings can become unsafe when they cannot teach better, and students cannot learn themselves properly.
 
22) Geleneksel toplumda otorite çok daha merkeziydi ve halkın yaptığı tercihlerde daha çok etkisi vardı.
 
A) Central authority and its influence on the choices people made was influential.
B) When there is a customary society, the authority was much more central and it affected the choices people had made.
C) In customary society, authority was much more central and had more influence on the choices people made.
D) Customary society was much more central and authority had more influence on the choices people made.
E) Customary authority was much more central and society had influenced the choices people had made.
 
23) Tüm zamanını bu tür şeylere kaygılanarak geçirenlerin normal olduğu düşünülemez.
 
A) People who spend their time worrying about such things are considered to be not normal.
B) There are people who are not normal spending ail their time worrying about such things.
C) Worried people who waste all their time on such things cannot ever be considered as normal.
D) Who spend their time worrying about such things are considered abnormal.
E) Those who spend all their time worrying about such things cannot be considered normal.
 
24) Einstein savaşın sonuna doğru savaşı sona erdirmek ve Avrupa'ya barışı geri getirmek için çalışan politik bir partiye katıldı.
 
A) Einstein joined a political party that worked to end the war, and return peace to Europe when the war was over.
B) Einstein, who joined a political party that worked to end the war towards the end of the war wanted to bring peace to Europe.
C) When the war was ending, Einstein joined a political party struggling to end the war, and bring back peace to Europe.
D) Towards the end of the war, Einstein joined a political party that worked to end the war and return peace to Europe.
E) At the end of the war Einstein joined a political party which was struggling to end the war, and bring back the peace to Europe.
 
25) Tam şu andaki bir kolej eğitimi sizin ve geleceğiniz için sizin kavrayabileceğinizden çok daha kârlıdır.
 
A) A college education right now is a lot more beneficial to you and your future than you may realize.
B) A right college education is a lot of more useful to you and your future than you realiz now.
C) A college education is more useful to you right now than you may realize your future.
D) A college education is said to be more useful to you and your future than you can imagine right now.
E) A college education which is a lot more useful right now is better to you and your future than you can have.
 
            Test 4
 
1) Yakma, atık maddelerin fiziki miktarını azaltsa da buna havayı kirletmenin en kolay yolu olduğu gözüyle bakılır.
 
A) Burning reduces the amount of the waste materials, and it's considered the easies way of polluting the air.
B) Although you can diminish the physical amount of the waste materials, it is still one of the best way of polluting the air.
C) Burning waste materials diminishes the physical amount, but these materials are considered to be less air polluting ones
D) Although burning lessens the physical amount of the waste materials, it is considered one of the easiest way to pollute the air.
E) Even if you diminish the physical amount of the burning waste materials, it is the only way to pollute the air.
 
2) Dünya açlığı, gezegenimizdeki herkesi etkiler sadece fakirleri ve üçüncü dünya ülkelerine
yaşayanları değil.
 
A) Not only the poor but also those living in third-world countries are affected from world hunger on our planet.
B) World hunger not only affects everyone on our planet, but also the poor or those living in third-world countries.
C) World hunger affects everyone on our planet, not just the poor or those living in third- world countries.
D) World hunger affects everyone, not only the poor or the third-world countries on our planet.
E) Everyone on our planet, both the poor and those living in third-world countries are affected by world hunger
 
3) Genç bir kimse kötü bir suçtan suçlu bulunur bulunmaz pek çok sosyal gözlemci ahlaki
standartların çöküşü için açıklamalar bulmaya çalışır.
 
A) If a young person is found responsible of a terrible crime, some observers seek explanations for the decline in moral standards.
B) Whenever a young person is found guilty of a terrible crime, many social observers seek explanations for the decline in moral standards.
C) As soon as the young are found responsible of a terrible crime, the social observers seek explanations for the decline in moral standards.
D) Many social observers try to find explanations for the decline in moral standards even after a young person is found guilty of a terrible crime.
E) Whenever a young person is found guilty of a terrible crime, many social observers feel obliged to seek explanations for the decline in moral standards.
 
4) Sıradan bir 19. yüzyıl ailesi, şimdi gereksinim olarak sözünü ettiğimiz çok şey olmaksızın
idare etmek zorundaydı.
 
A) Simple 19th century families had to survive without the basic things which would now be regard as necessities
B) In the 19th century, an average family had to try to survive without many things which we would regard as necessities now.
C) Average 19th century families were to have managed without those things which we would regard as necessities.
D) The 19th century family had to manage with many ordinary things which we would now regard as necessities.
E) An average 19th century family had to manage without many things which we would now regard as necessities.
 
5) Cinsiyet rollerini incelemenin amacı kadınlarla erkeklerin neden eşit olmaları gerektiğini cevaplamak içindir.
 
A) Investigating gender roles is necessary to answer the question why women and men have to be equal.
B) The object of investigating gender roles has been necessary to answer the question why both women and men must be equal.
C) The main object of investigating these gender roles has been to answer the question why each woman and man have to be equal.
D) The object of examining gender roles is to answer the question why women and men should be equal.
E) The object of investigating gender roles is so important that it answers the question why women and men should be equal.
 
6) 1979 de kocamla Hindistan'dan buraya ilk geldiğimde umutsuz bir biçimde fakirdik.
 
A) On our arrival here from India with my husband in 1979, we were completely poor.
B) When I first arrived here from India with my husband in 1979, we were desperately poor.
C) After I had first arrived from India with in 1979, we were desperately poor my husband .
D) Whenever we first arrived here from India in 1979, my husband and I were desperately poor.
E) When my husband first arrived here from India in 1979, we were desperately poor.
 
7) Onun benim talimatıma uymuş olup olmadığını görmek için beklemek zorunda kalacaktım.
 
A) I would have waited to see whether she had obeyed my instruction or not.
B) I had to be waiting to see if she had been obeying my instruction.
C) I would have been waiting to see if she had to obey the instructions.
D) I had to wait to see whether she had to be obeying the instructions or not.
E) l would have to wait to see if she had obeyed my instruction.
 
8) Bir süre sonra konuşma tam umduğum gibi kaçınılmaz bir biçimde buluşmamızın
gerçek amacına doğru kaydı.
 
A) The conversation moved inevitably towards the real purpose of our meeting because I had expected it to be like that.
B) When the conversation moved inevitably towards the real purpose of our meeting, I had expected it for a while.
C) Soon afterwards, the conversation moved towards the real purpose of our meeting, for which I had been expecting.
D) After a while, the conversation drifted inevitably towards the real purpose of our meeting, just as I had expected.
E) The conversation drifted inevitably towards the purpose of meeting, just as I had expected for a while.
 
9) Bir Hint subayı aç İngliz askerlerinin fili kovaladığını ve öldürmeye çalıştığını görünce askerlerine fili korumalarını ve onu öldürmeye çalışan herkesi vurmalarını emretti.
 
A) When an Indian commander saw hungry English soldiers chasing the elephant and trying to kill it, he ordered his soldiers to protect it and shoot anyone who tried to kill it.
B) Once the Indian commander saw hungry English soldiers following the elephant in order to kill it, he ordered the troops to protect that elephant by shooting anyone who tried to kill it.
C) The Indian commander who had seen hungry English soldiers chasing the elephant and trying to kill it, immediately ordered the soldiers to save it and shoot those who tried to kill it.
D) As soon as an Indian commander saw the English soldiers following the elephant which they were trying to kill it, he ordered his soldiers to shoot anyone who tried to kill it.
E) Not much later, the Indian commander who saw the hungry English soldiers chasing an elephant trying to kill it ordered his troops to save the elephant and shoot anyone who tried to kill it.
 
10) Bu çocuklar aynı yaş seviyesindekilere kıyasla ortalama ağırlık ve boyda değillerdi.
 
A) The children who were not the average weight and height can't be compared to the those at the same age level.
B) These children were not the average weight and height compared to the children at the same age level.
C) These children have never been average weight and height according to the children at the same age level.
D) These children were under the average weight and height and cannot be compared to others at the same age level.
E) These children who were under the average weight and height are being compared to the children at the same age level.
 
11) Ben kesinlikle ruhbilimci değilim, ruhbilimi alanında hiç bir öğrenimim yok, olmasını
da istemem, ben gördüğü şeyleri gözlemleyen ve analiz eden sadece sıradan bir kimseyim.
 
A) Since I am not a psychologist and I have no education in the field of psychology nor do I wish to have definitely, I am just want observe and analyze the things I see.
B) I haven't been a psychologist actually and I have no education in the field of psychology and I do not wish to have it, I've just been an ordinary person that observes the things to analyze them.
C) I am not a psychologist definitely, I have no education in the field of psychology nor do I wish to have, I am just an ordinary person that observes and analyzes the things I see.
D) I am not a psychologist definitely, and I can't have any education in the field of psychology, I am just an ordinary person that observes and analyzes the things I see.
E) Not being a real psychologist, I have no education in the field of psychology nor do I wish to have, because I am just an ordinary person that observes and analyzes the things I see.
 
12) Michael Jordan, Nike'tan yıllık olarak Malaysia'daki tüm Nike Fabrikası işçilerinden çok daha fazla para kazanır.
 
A) Michael Jordan is able to earn more money from Nike than all of the Nike factory workers living in Malaysia.
B) Michael Jordan who earns more money from Nike annually than all of the Nike factory workers has still been in Malaysia.
C) Michael Jordan makes more money from Nike annually than all of the Nike factory workers in Malaysia.
D) Michael Jordan is capable of earning more money from Nike annually than all of the other Nike factory workers in Malaysia.
E) Michael Jordan has made much more money from Nike annually than all of the Nike factories in Malaysia.
 
13) Birkaç bilim adamı İsa'nın yaklaşık Milattan önce 2 ile Milattan sonra 33 yılları arasında yaşadığını kabul etmiyor.
 
A) There are several scholars who disagree that Jesus lived roughly between 2 BC and about 33 AD.
B) Several scholars disagree that Jesus lived roughly between 2 BC and about 33 AD.
C) Several scholars who never agree with each other say that Jesus lived roughly between 2 BC and about 33 AD.
D) Some scholars do not agree that Jesus never lived approximately between 2 BC and about 33 AD.
E) Several scholars against Jesus, disagree that he lived approximately between 2 BC and about 33 AD.
 
14) İneği kutsal olarak bulunduran bir toplum açlıktan ölmek üzere olsa bile bu ineği asla
yemez.
 
A) A society holding a cow as being sacred never eat this cow even on the verge of starvation.
B) Any society holding cows as sacred creatures can never eat this cow even on the verge of starvation,
C) The society holding a cow as being sacred will not eat this cow even on the verge of starvation.
D) The society on the verge of starvation and holding a cow as being sacred do not eat that cow.
E) The society holding a cow on the verge of starvation as being sacred never eat this cow.
 
15) Onların çoğu bu insanın çalışmasını anlamasa da herkes onun bilim dünyası üzerindeki etkisini bilir.
 
A) However much the do not understand that man's work, everyone knows that his a large impact on the world of science.
B) Most of them does not understand this man's work, but everyone knows that he has a great influence in the world of sciences.
C) Despite the fact that many people never understand that guy's work, and he is known to have an influence on the world of science.
D) Most of the people don't understand this man's work, but everyone knows that he has some influence on the world of science.
E) While most of them do not understand this man's work, everyone knows his impact on the world of science.
 
16) Eğer geri dönüştürülebilen ürünleri pazarlamanın ekonomik olarak değeri yoksa geri
dönüşüm işleminin tümü ekonomik olarak etkili olmayabilir.
 
A) Unless we market recycled products economically, the process of recycling is economically insufficient.
B) If recycled products are not purchased as much economically as expected, you needn't go on this process anymore.
C) When recycled products are not economically marketed, the worth of the whole recycling cannot be efficient.
D) If marketing of recycled products is not economically worthwhile, the whole process of recycling cannot be economically sufficient.
E) When you market the economic products recycled and it is economically precious, the whole recycling process cannot be so economic.
 
17) İnsanlar, avukatların istediklerini elde etmek için sadece yasal sistemi etkilemek istediklerine inanıyor.
 
A) According to some people lawyers want to influence the legal system to reach their goals.
B) People believe that lawyers only want to influence the legal system to get what they want.
C) People believe that lawyers are trying to get what they want by influencing the legal system.
D) According to some people's belief lawyers wanted to influence the legal system to get whatever they want.
E) People believe there are lawyers who want to influence the legal system to get what they want.
 
18) 1666 daki büyük Pekin yangınında Pekin'nin yarısı yandı fakat sadece 16 kişi yaralandı.
 
A) Only 16 people were injured In the great fire of Pekin in 1666 when half of Pekin was burnt down but.
B) Sixteen people were injured in the great fire of Pekin in 1666 but half of Pekin was burnt down.
C) In the great fire of Pekin in 1666, Pekin was half burnt down and only 16 people were injured.
D) Only 16 people were injured in the great fire of Pekin in 1666 after they had burnt half of Pekin.
E) In the great fire of Pekin in 1666, half of Pekin was burnt down but only 16 people were injured.
 
19) Erkeklerin yüzde sekseni ve kadınların yüzde doksanı aileyi toplumda en önemli kurum olarak tanımlıyor.
 
A) According to eighty percent of men and 90 percent of women, family is the most important institution in society.
B) The most important institution in society is family for eighty percent of men and 90 percent of women.
C) There were eighty percent of men and 90 percent of women identifying family as the most important institution in society.
D) Eighty percent of men and 90 percent of women identify family as the most important institution in society.
E) Not only eighty percent of men but also 90 percent of women identify family as the mos important institution in society.
 
20) Vampir yarasa kan emmez, jilet gibi keskin dişleriyle ufak bir kesik açar ve kanı yalar.
 
A) Vampire bat make a small cut with razor sharp teeth and lick the blood up but they do not suck blood.
B) Vampire bat which make a small cut with its razor sharp teeth and lick the blood up do not suck blood.
C) When vampire bat make a small cut with their razor sharp teeth and lick the blood up they do not suck blood.
D) Vampire bat does not suck blood, it makes a small cut with its razor sharp teeth and lick the blood up.
E) Although vampire bats do not suck blood, they make a small cut with their razor sharp teeth to lick the blood up.
 
21) Pek çok insan okul kıyafet politikalarının benimsenmesinin artan bir okul güvenliğine,
öğrenci disiplinine ve öğrenmeye öncülük edeceğine inanıyor.
 
A) Many people consider school clothes policies to be increasing school safety, student discipline in addition to learning.
B) According to too many people, adoption of school clothes will lead to increased school safety, student discipline and learning policies.
C) People mostly believe that adoption of school clothes policies lead to an increasing school safety and student discipline with learning.
D) Many people believe adoption of school clothes policies will lead to an increasing school safety, student discipline and learning.
E) When too many people believe adoption of school clothes policies lead to increased school safety, students will learn discipline.
 
22) Yılda 3200 den fazla sol elini kullanabilen insan sağ elini kullanabilen insanlar için yapılan ürünleri kullanmaktan ölüyor.
 
A) 3200 or more disabled people are killed in a year because they used products made for right handed people.
B) More than 3200 handy people are killed in a year when they use products made for right handed people.
C) Over 3200 left handed people a year are killed from using products made for right handed people.
D) Left handed people, who are more than 3200, are killed from using products made for right handed people in a year.
E) More than 3200 people have been killed in a year because they have tried to use products of right handed people.
 
23) Televizyon, Muppet Show gibi şovlarla çocukları okuldan hoşlandırmak için çekici ve
ayartıcı bir araç olarak kullanılıyor.
 
A) Television which has used as an attractive and seductive device is making children to like school with shows such as Muppe Show.
B) Television is being used as an attractive medium and it makes children to like school with shows like Muppet Show.
C) Television is still used as an attractive and seductive medium to motivate children to like their schools by showing Muppet Show.
D) Television is being used as an attractive and seductive medium to make children to like school with shows such as Muppet Show.
E) They use television as an attractive and seductive medium to make children to like school by means of Muppet Show.
 
24) Birisi beni bir arkadaşıyla tanıştırmak isteyince başka bir şey yapmak için bir bahane
bulurum.
 
A) I try to make an excuse to have been doing something else when I'm introduced to a friend.
B) When someone wants to introduce me to a friend, I make a reason to do something else.
C) While I'm being introduced to a friend, I usually make an excuse and do something else.
D) When people want me to introduce to a friend, I usually make an excuse and do something else.
E) When I want to introduce someone to a friend, I'm used to making an excuse to do something else.
 
25) Ben Budistlerin hiç bir duruşmasında bulunmadım; onun için onların geleneksel
cezalarının neler olduğunu bilmiyorum.
 
A) I would be present at a trial of Buddhists so as to know what their customary penalties are.
B) I had hardly been present at the trial of Buddhists, and so I didn't know what their customary penalties were.
C) I had to be present at a trial of Buddhists in order to know what their customary penalties were.
D) Since I wasn't present at a trial of Buddhists, I'm unable to know what their customary penalties are.
E) I was never present at any trial of Buddhists; therefore I do not know what their customary penalties are.
 
                Test 4
 
1) In recent years, the federal government and numerous states have gone after narcotics dealing, money laundering and other criminal wrongdoing by prosecuting individuals for the crimes.
 
A) Federal hükümet ve sayısız eyalet son zamanlarda kişilerin uyuşturucu ticareti, kara para aklama gibi eylemlerini yargı yoluyla takibe aldı.
B) Yasal olarak suç sayılan eylemlerin peşine düşen hükümet ve çok sayıda eyalet, uyuşturucu ticareti, kara para aklamak ve diğer yasa dışı eylemlere karşı son zamanlarda yoğun önlemler almaya başladı.
C) Federal hükümet ve çok sayıda eyalet kişilerin işledikleri suçlar için kovuşturma açara uyuşturucu ticareti, kara para aklama ve diğer suç sayılacak yasadışı eylemleri takibe almıştır.
D) Son zamanlarda , federal hükümet ve çok sayida eyalet kişilerin işledikleri suçları belirlemek için uyuşturucu ticareti, kara para aklama gibi suçların peşine düşmüştür.
E) Son yıllarda federal hükümet ve sayısız eyalet, vatandaşların işledikleri suçlar için soruşturma açarak uyuşturucu ticareti, kara para aklama ve diğer suç sayılacak yasadışı eylemleri takibe aldı.
 
2) The hostages are spread out among the village houses , and none of the international committee of Cross observers has seen them all.
 
A) Küçük evler arasına dağılmış rehineleri uluslararası Haç komitesi gözlemcileri gördü.
B) Uluslararası Haç komitesi gözlemcilerinin gördüğü rehineler küçük köy evleri arasındaydı.
C) Küçük köy evleri arasma dağılan rehinelerin hiçbirini Uluslararası Haç komitesi üyeleri görmedi.
D) Rehineler küçük köy evleri arasında dağıtıldığı için Uluslararası Haç örgütü gözlemcileri onların hiçbirini görmedi.
E) Rehineler küçük köy evleri arasmda dağılmış durumdalar; Uluslararası Haç örgütü gözlemcilerinin hiçbiri onların tümünü görmedi.
 
3) Germany, Turkey's biggest trading partner and a key East European ally, condemned Ankara's response to the uprising and immediately suspended arms shipments, claiming Turkish troops had used German weapons.
 
A) Türkiye'nin en büyük ticari ortağı ve Doğu Avrupa'nın anahtar durumundaki müttefiki olan Almanya, Türk birliklerinin Alman silahlarını kullanmış olduğu gerekçesiyle Ankara'nin ayaklanmaya karşı tepkisini kınadı ve silah gönderilmesini derhal askıya aldı.
B) Türkiye'nin en büyük ticari ortağı ve Doğu Avrupa'nm anahtar durumdaki müttefiki Almanya,Türk birliklerinin Alman silahlarını kullanarak isyanı bastırmasını kınadı ve silah satışını durdurdu.
C) Türkiye ve Doğu Avrupa'nın en büyük müttefiki olan Almanya Ankara'nın isyanı bastırmada Alman silahlarını kullanmış olmasına ilişkin üzüntülerini bildirerek silah gönderimini durdurdu.
D) Ankara'nin isyanı bastırmada Turk birliklerine Alman silahlarını kullandırdığı gerekçesiyle.Türkiye ve Doğu Avrupa'nın en büyük ticari ortağı Almanya, Türkiye'ye silah satışını erteledi.
E) Türk birliklerinin isyanı bastırmak için Alman silahlarını kullanmış olduklarını iddia eden Türkiye'nin en büyük ticari ortağı ve Doğu Avrupa'nın anahtar ülkesi durumdaki Almanya silah satışlarını askıya aldı.
 
4) The blast on the night before, at a famous avenue in the southern part of the city, caused damage to lots of parkedvehicles and the store windows.
 
A) Şehrin güney kesimindeki bir caddede meydana gelen bir önceki patlama, park etmiş araçlara ve mağazaların camlarına büyük ölçüde zarar verdi..
B) Bir önceki gece şehrin güney kesimindeki tanınmış bir caddede meydana gelen patlama, park etmiş birçok aracın ve dükkanların vitrinlerinin hasar görmesine neden oldu.
C) Park etmiş olan araçlara ve mağazaların vitrinlerine büyük zarar veren patlama şehrin güney kesimindeki bir tanınmış caddede meydana geldi.
D) Şiddetli rüzgar bir önceki gece şehrin güney kesimindeki tanınmış bir anayolda park etmiş araçların ve mağazaların vitrinlerinin hasar görmesine neden oldu.
E) Park etmiş birçok araca hasar veren ve mağazaların vitrinlerinin kırılmasına neden olan şehrin güney kesimindeki patlama dün akşam üzeri meydana geldi.
 
5) A small bomb which was planted between parked cars went off last night, however the police kept the incident secret to avoid causing panic.
 
A) Paniği önlemek amacıyla polis, park halindeki arabalar arasına yerleştirilmiş bombanın patlamasını halktan gizledi..
B) Dün akşam panik yaratan ve polisçe gizli tutulan patlamaya arabalar arasına yerleştirilmiş olan küçük bir bomba neden olmuştur.
C) Dün akşam parketmiş arabalar arasına yerleştirilmiş olan küçük bir bomba patladı, ama olay polis tarafından gizlendi.
D) Polis tarafından paniğe neden olur diye gizlenen olay park etmiş arabalar arasında patlayan bir bombaydı.
E) Dün akşam parketmiş arabalar arasına yerleştirilmiş olan küçük bir bomba patladı, fakat polis paniği önlemek amacıyla olayı gizledi.
 
6) Though the privatization of Turkish state-owned enterprises ranging from banks to gas stations has been on the agenda for 10 years now, but only 140 less important companies have been sold off.
 
A) Bankalardan petrol istasyonlarına kadar birçok devlet işletmesinin özelleştirilmesi on yıldır gündem de olmasına rağmen, ancak pek önemli olmayan 140 şirket satılmıştır.
B) 10 yıldır satışta olan, bankalardan petrol istasyonlarına kadar değişen özelleştirmedeki devlet işletmelerinden ancak 140 tanesi 10 yılda satılmıştır.
C) Bankalardan petrol şirketlerine kadar bir çok devlet kuruluşu özelleştirme kapsamında olduğu için bunlardan pek önemi olmayan 140 tanesi 10 yılda satılmıştır.
D) 10 yıldır satışı beklenen özelleştirme kapsamındaki bankalar ve petrol istasyonlarından ancak 140 tanesi satılmıştır.
E) 10 yıldır özelleştirmeleri gündemde olduğu için birçok banka ve petrol istasyonlarından ancak 140 tane önemli olanı satılmıştır.
 
7) The higher the unemployment rate , the more art expansionary monetary and fiscal policy is going to result ui growth and not in inflation.
 
A) İşsizlik oranı yükseldiği için, genişlemeci bir para ve mali politika uygulamasi da enflasyonla değil büyümeyle sonuçlanacaktır.
B) İşsizlik oranı yükselirken, genişlemeci bir para ve mali politika uygulamasi da enflasyonla değil büyümeyle sonuçlanır.
C) İşsizlik oranı ne kadar yüksek olursa, genişlemeci bir para ve mali politika da o oranda enflasyonla değil büyümeyle sonuçlanacaktır.
D) İşsizlik oranının yüksehnesiyle genişlemeci para politikası ve mali politika enflasyonla değil büyümeyle sonuçlanacaktır.
E) İşsizlik oranının yükselmesiyle birlikte genişlemeci para politikası ve mali politika da o oranda enflasyonla değil büyümeyle sonuçlanacaktır.
 
8) Experience demonstrates that the freer a central bank is from government interference, the lower is the rate of inflation.
 
A) Merkez Bankası ne kadar hükümetin etkisinden uzak olursa, enflasyon da o oranda düşük olur.
B) Deneyimler göstermektedir ki, Merkez Bankası hükümet müdahalesi olmaksızın çalışırsa, enflasyon oranı son derece düşük olmaktadır.
C) Enflasyon oranının daha düşük olması için Merkez Bankasının hükümetten bağımsız çahşması gerektiği fikri açıkça ifade edilmiştir.
D) Merkez Bankası hükümetin denetiminde ne kadar rahat çalışırsa, enflasyon oram da o kadar düşük olur.
E) Deneyimler, Merkez Bankası hükümet müdahalesinden ne kadar bağımsız çalışırsa, enflasyon oranının da o ölçüde düşük olacağını göstermektedir.
 
9) Today, the Istanbul Stock Exchange is in the top 10 markets of the world and among the top of 9 in the Western Europe.
 
A) Dünya pazarları arasında ilk 10'a giren İstanbul Borsası, şimdi de Batı Avrupa pazarları arasında 9uncu sırada yer almaktadir.
B) Bugün, İstanbul Borsası dünyanın en büyuk 10, Bati Avrupa'nın da en büyük 9 pazarı arasındadır.
C) Bugün, İstanbul Borsası, dünyada ilk 10, Bati Avrupa'da da ilk 9 arasında yer almaktadır.
D) Bugün Batı Avrupa'nın en iyi 9 borsasından biri olan İstanbul Borsası, dunyanın da ilk 10 pazarı arasında yer almaktadır.
E) İstanbul Menkul Kıymetler Borsası, Batı Avrupa'nın 9, dünyanın ilk 10 borsası arasındadır.
 
10) In many of the countries in Asia, particularly in India, measles is regarded as the most acute childhood infection.
 
A) Hindistan gibi pek çok Asya ülkesinde kızamık en ağır çocukluk dönemi enfeksiyonu olarak kabul edilmektedir.
B) Asya ülkelerinin çoğunda, özellikle Hindistan'da kızamık salgını çocuklar arasında öldürücü boyutlara ulaşmıştır.
C) Hindistan, Asya ülkeleri arasında çocuklarda görülen kızamık salgını açısından ilk sırada yer almaktadir.
D) Asya ülkelerinin çoğunda, özellikle Hindistan'da kızamık en ağır çocukluk dönemi enfeksiyonu olarak kabul edilmektedir.
E) Pek çok Asya ülkesi ile Hindistan'da , kızamık, en ağır çocukluk dönemi enfeksiyonu olarak nitelendirilmektedir.
 
11) In view of the rapid population growth, it is obvious that during the years ahead there is going to be a continuing and increasing demand for new housing in most parts of the country.
 
A) Sürekli nüfus artışı karşısında, önümüzdeki yıllarda ülkenin pek çok bölgesinde yeni konutlar için talep artışı kaçınılmaz hale gelecektir.
B) Hızlı nüfus artışı nedeniyle, ülkenin pek çok yerinde yeni konutlara sürekli ve artan oranda talep olmaktadır.
C) Öyle anlaşılıyor ki, Önümüzdeki yıllarda hızlı nüfus artışına paralel olarak yeni konut ihtiyaci da artacaktır.
D) Hızlı nüfus artışı karşısında, ülkenin pek çok yöresinde ortaya çıkacak yeni konut ihtiyacını karşılamak için önümüzdeki yıllarda çok çalışmamız gerekeceği açıktır.
E) Hızlı nüfus artışı gözönüne alındığında, önümüzdeki yıllarda ülkenin pek çok yöresinde yeni konutlar için sürekli ve artan bir talep olacağı açıktır.
 
12) If this cure does not achieve the desired effect, there are other methods we can use.
 
A) Bu tedavi tam olarak başarılı olmadığı takdirde, deneyebileceğimiz başka yöntemler de vardır.
B) Bu tedavi ile beklenen sonuç elde edilemezse başka yöntemleri denemek zorunda kalabiliriz.
C) Başka yöntemlerin kullanılması bu tedavinin istenilen sonucu verip vermemesine bağlıdır.
D) Bu tedavi arzu edilen etkiyi sağlamazsa, kullanabileceğimiz başka yöntemler vardır.
E) Bu yöntemle ulaşılan sonuç beğenilmezse, diğer yöntemleri kullanmamız gerekir.
 
13) No matter what anyone says, I shall give him the penalty he deserves.
 
A) Herkesin karşı olmasına rağmen, o, vereceğim cezayı hak etmiştir.
B) Kim ne derse desin, ona hak ettiği cezayı vereceğim.
C) Ona hak ettiği cezayı vereceğimden hiç kimsenin kuşkusu olmasın.
D) Herkesin dediği gibi, o, benden hak ettiği cezayı alacak.
E) Ona hak ettiği cezayı vermeyeceğimi hiç kimse söyleyemez.
 
14) The new Minister is seriously anxious about the housing problem in the over-populated regions.
 
A) Yeni Bakan nüfusu yoğun olan bölgelerdeki konut sorununun ciddi bir çalışma gerektirdiğine inanmaktadır.
B) Nüfus yoğunluğu fazla olan bölgelerin konut sorunu ile yeni atanan Bakan ilgilenmektedir.
C) Yeni Bakan nüfus artışının hızlı olduğu bölgelerdeki konut sorununun ciddiyetini kavramıştır.
D) Yeni Bakan, aşırı nüfusa sahip bölgelerdeki konut sorunundan ciddi şekilde endişe duymaktadır.
E) Konut sorunu, en çok nüfusu yoğun olan bölgelerde olup, yeni Bakanı oldukça düşündürmektedir.
 
15) The recent currency crisis which has shaken Europe constitutes a serious hazard to the very existence of the European Community.
 
A) Avrupa'yı sarsan son para krizi, bizzat Avrupa topluluğunun varlığı için ciddi bir tehdit oluşturmaktadır.
B) Avrupa Topluluğunun varlığını tehdit eden en ciddi olay, Avrupa'yı sarsan son para krizidir.
C) Avrupa'da patlak veren son para krizi, Avrupa topluluğunun varlığına karşı bir tepkidir.
D) Avrupa'yı tehdit eden son para krizi, Avrupa Topluluğunun varlığına bir darbedir.
E) Avrupa Topluluğunun varlığını tehlikeye düşüren en son olay, Avrupa'yı saran para krizidir.
 
16) The failure of ambitious development programmes in lots of Third World countries has inevitably led to a search for reasons.
 
A) Pek çok Üçüncü Dünya ülkesinde, yeterli araştırma yapılmadan başlatılan iddialı gelişme programları kaçınılmaz olarak başarısızlığa uğramıştır.
B) Birçok Üçüncü Dünya ülkesinde, uygulanan gelişme programlarının başarısızlığına yol açan nedenler iyice araştırılmaktadır.
C) Üçüncü Dünya ülkelerinin çoğu, önemli gelişme programlarının başarısızlığa uğramalarının nedenlerini araştırmalıdır.
D) Üçüncü Dünya ülkelerinin çoğunda, iddialı gelişme programları kaçınılmaz olarak başarısızlığa uğramıştır.
E) Birçok Üçüncü Dünya ülkesinde, iddialı gelişme programlarının başarısızlığa uğraması, kaçınılmaz olarak bir neden arayışına yol açmıştır.
 
17) This scheme would allow 2,000 young Albanians to emigrate each of the 24 developed countries presently providing direct aid.
 
A) Bu plan, 24 gelişmiş ülkeye göç etmek isteyen 2000 Arnavut gencine doğrudan yardım sağlanmasını öngörüyor.
B) Bu plana göre, şu anda doğrudan yardımda bulunan 24 gelişmiş ülkenin katkısıyla 2000 genç Arnavut'a iş imkanı sağlanacak.
C) Bu plan çerçevesinde,24 gelişmiş ülkenin her birine göç etmiş bulunan 2000 Arnavut'a hemen doğrudan yardım sağlanacak.
D) Bu plan, 24 gelişmiş ülkenin her birine göç izni olan 2000 Arnavut gencine doğrudan yardımı öngörüyor.
E) Bu plan, şu anda doğrudan yardım yapan 24 gelişmiş ülkenin her birine 2000 genç Arnavut'un göç etmesini sağlayacak.
 
18) Aid is most efficient when it is distributed by local non governmental organizations, which can better assess a community's needs.
 
A) Hükümet dışı yerel kuruluşlardan gelen yardımın, bölgedeki ihtiyaçlar kesin olarak belirlendikten sonra dağıtılması yararlı olur.
B) Bir topluluğun ihtiyaçlarının en iyi biçimde karşılanabilmesi için dağıtım görevi hükümetten bağımsız yerel kuruluşlara verilmelidir.
C) Bir bölgenin ihtiyaçlarım en iyi bilen, hükümetten bağımsız yerel kuruluşlar hangileriyse, yardımı onların dağıtması yerinde olur.
D) Yardım, bir topluluğunun ihtiyaçlarını daha iyi değerlendirebilen hükümet dışı yerel kuruluşlar tarafından dağıtıldığı takdirde en etkili olur.
E) Hükümet dışı yerel kuruluşlardan gelen yardımın en etkili dağıtımı, toplumun ihtiyaçlarını daha iyi bilmekle mümkündür.
19) Because it was not her father's style to let on about his personal problems, Mary most likely didn't know that he was suffering.
 
A) Kişisel sorunlarını açığa vurmak babasının tarzı olmadığından, Mary belki de onun acı çektiğini bilmiyordu.
B) Mary babasının kişisel sorunlarıyla ilgilenmediğinden, belki onun acı çektiğinin farkında değildi.
C) Babasının sorunlarıyla ilgilenme alışkanlığında olmayan Mary, belki onun çektiği sıkıntılarından da habersizdi.
D) Mary'nin babası, kişisel sorunlarını kendisine saklamak alışkanlığının başkalarına acı çektirdiğini belki de bilmiyordu.
E) Kişisel sorunlarını açığa vurmak Mary'nin tarzı olmadığından, acı çektiğini babasına nasıl anlatacağını belki de bilmiyordu.
 
20) The commentators expressed their concern that Germany's economic problems would compel the Central Bank to maintain high interest rates.
 
A) Almanya'nın ekonomik sorunları ile ilgili endişelerini dile getiren yorumcular, Merkez Bankasının faiz oranlarını yükseltmesinin kaçınılmaz olduğunu belirttiler.
B) Almanya'nın ekonomik sorunlarıyla ilgilenen yorumcular, Merkez Bankasının, yüksek faiz oranlarını korumak zorunda olduğunu söylediler.
C) Almanya'nın ekonomik sorunlarının ağırlaştığını ifade eden yorum- cular, Merkez Bankasının, yüksek faiz oranlarını yükseltmesinin zorunlu oluğunu belirttiler.
D) Almanya'nın ekonomik sorunlarının endişe verici bir duruma geldiğini belirten yorumcular, Merkez Bankasının, yüksek faiz oranlarını korumasının zor olacağını söylediler.
E) Yorumcular, Almanya'nın ekonomik sorunlarının, Merkez Ban- kasını, yüksek faiz oranlarını korumaya zorlayacağı endişesini dile getirdiler.
 
21) Whatever measures the Government may take to support economic growth, there is bound to be opposition in some quarters.
 
A) Bazı çevrelerin muhalefetine rağmen, Hükümet iktisadi büyümeyi hızlandırmak için bir dizi önlem aldı.
B) İktisadi büyümeyi teşvik için Hükümet hangi önlemleri alırsa alsın, bazı çevrelerin muhalefet edeceği kesindir.
C) İktisadi büyüme için Hükümetin aldığı çeşitli önlemler, bazı çevrelerin muhalefeti ile karşılaştı.
D) İktisadi büyümeyi sağlayabilmek için Hükümet tarafından alınan kararlar, muhalefetin tepkisini çekti.
E) Hükümetin uygulamaya koyduğu kararlar bir yandan iktisadi büyümeyi artırırken diğer yandan muhalefetin tepki göstermesine yol açtı.
 
22) It is likely to draw some calculations from the data presented.
 
A) Bir sonuca varabilmek için bazı verilere ihtiyaç vardır.
B) Sunulan verilerden bazı sonuçlar çıkarmak mümkündür.
C) Sunulan verilerden herhangi bir sonuç çıkarmak uzak bir ihtimaldir.
D) Verilerden elde edilen sonuçları yemden değerlendirmek gerekir.
E) Sonuçlan sunulan verilere göre değerlendirmek mümkündür.
 
23) As regards the high inflation in the country, no government has yet found an efficient solution.
 
A) Hükümet, ülkedeki yüksek enflasyonu düşürmek için bir çözüm yolu bulamamıştır.
B) Ülkede yüksek bir enflasyon olduğu için hükümet henüz kesin bir çözüm bulmuş değildir.
C) Ülkedeki yüksek enflasyonla ilgili olarak, henüz hiçbir hükümet etkili bir çözüm bulamamıştır.
D) Hiçbir hükümet, ülkedeki yüksek enflasyonu göz önüne alarak gerekli çözümleri önermemiştir.
E) Ülkedeki yüksek enflasyon nedeniyle, hükümet henüz köklü bir çözüm bulamamıştır.
 
24) A colleague of ours, who was lately been appointed permanent representative to the Netherlands, has unfortunately developed lung cancer.
 
A) Hollanda'da temsilcimiz olarak yıllardan beri çalışmış bir meslek- taşımızda maalesef akciğer kanseri görülmüş.
B) Hollanda'da ticari temsilcilik yapmakta olan bir arkadaşımızda ne yazık ki akciğer kanseri olduğu ortaya çıkmış.
C) Maalesef, akciğer kanserine yakalanmış olan bir arkadaşımız, daimi temsilci olarak Hollanda'ya gönderildi.
D)Daimi temsilci olarak geçenlerde Hollanda'ya atanan bir meslektaşımız da, maalesef akciğer kanserine yakalanmış.
E) Baş temsilcimiz olarak geçenlerde Hollanda'ya yemden atanan meslektaşımıza maalesef akciğer kanseri teşhisi konmuş.
 
25) From the reading of her book, it is clear that Professor Jane Scott has a lot more to say on this matter.
 
A) Kitabını okuyunca, bu konu ile ilgili olarak Profesör Jane Scott'un söyleyeceklerinin çok daha fazla olduğu anlaşılıyor.
B) Profesör Jane Scott'un konu hakkında söylediklerinin çoğu, kitabını okununca anlaşılıyor.
C) Profesör Jane Scott'un kitabı okuyunca, bu konu ile ilgili olarak ne kadar çok şey söylediği anlaşılıyor.
D) Bu konu ile ilgili olarak Profesör Jane Scott'un söylediklerinin pek çoğu kitabından okunabilir. .
E) Bu konu ile ilgili kitabını okuyunca, Professor Jane Scott'un pek çok şey söylediği anlaşılıyor.
 
            Test 5
 
1. As in other forms of art, so in music, many radical changes have occurred in this century.
 
A) Bu yüzyıl içinde hem müzikte hem de sanatın diğer dallarında birçok değişiklikler meydana gelmiştir.
B) Bu yüzyıl, sanatın diğer dallan gibi, müzikte de köklü gelişmelerin görüldüğü bir dönemdir.
C) Sanatın diğer dallarında olduğu gibi, müzikte de bu yüzyılda pek çok köklü değişiklik olmuştur.
D) Bu yüzyıl içinde meydana gelen değişiklikler, müzikte olduğu kadar sanatın diğer dallarında da etkili olmuştur.
E) Müzikte bu yüzyıl içinde meydana gelen değişiklikler, sanatın diğer dallarındakiler kadar önemlidir.
 
2. Numerous international organizations have been invited to contribute generously to the fund set up to fight famine in Africa.
 
A) Afrika'da açlığa savaş açmak amacıyla kurulan fona birçok uluslararası kuruluştan bol katkı sağlanmıştır.
B) Afrika'da açlıkla savaşabilmek, ancak birçok uluslararası kuruluş ilgili fona cömertçe katkıda bulunursa mümkün olacaktır.
C) Uluslararası kuruluşların çoğu, Afrika'daki açlığa karşı savaşmak amacıyla kurulmuş olan fona fazlasıyla katkıda bulunmuştur.
D) Pek çok uluslararası kuruluş, Afrika'da açlığa karşı savaşmak için oluşturulan fona bol miktarda katkıda bulunmayı düşünmektedir.
E)  Pek çok uluslararası kuruluş, Afrika'daki açlıkla savaşmak için oluşturulan fona bol miktarda katkıda bulunmaya çağrılmıştır.
 
3. Following the earthquake, lorry loads of medical supplies were at once sent to the area.
 
A) Deprem nedeniyle, tıbbi malzeme yüklü kamyonlar derhal bölgeye ulaştırıldı.
B) Depremden sonra kamyonlar dolusu tıbbi malzeme derhal bölgeye gönderildi.
C) Depremle birlikte derhal kamyonlar yüklenerek bölgeye tıbbi malzeme gönderilmiştir.
D) Kamyonlar dolusu tıbbi malzeme derhal deprem bölgesine ulaştırılmıştır.
E) Tıbbi malzemenin depremden hemen sonra bölgeye ulaştırılması kamyonlar sayesinde gerçekleştirilmiştir.
 
4. The credit problem should have been settled before work began on the construction of the third bridge.
 
A) Üçüncü köprünün yapımıyla ilgili çalışmalar başlamadan önce kredi sorunu halledilmiş olmalıydı.
B)  Kredi sorunu, üçüncü köprünün yapımı başlamadan önce halledilmiş olacak.
C) Üçüncü köprünün yapımına yönelik çalışmaların başlaması ile kredi sorunu çözümlendi.
D) Kredi sorunu, üçüncü köprünün yapım çalışmaları başlayınca çözümlenebildi.
E) Üçüncü köprünün yapımından hemen önce kredi sorunu ancak çözümlenmiş ve çalışmalar başlamıştır.
 
5.   The first banks to provide support for the irrigation project were the private sector ones.
 
A) Özel sektöre ait ilk bankalar öncelikle sulama projelerine destek sağlamıştı.
B) Özel sektöre ait bankaların birçoğu bu sulama projelerini desteklemeliydi.
C) Özel sektör bankalar sulama projesine en önce destek sağlayan bankalardı.
D) Sulama projesi için destek sağlayan ilk bankalar özel sektör bankalarıydı.
E) Sulama projelerine destek sağlayan bankalardan biri de bir özel sektör bankasıydı.
 
6.  I'm not sure that the new press counsellor can reply all the questions concerning the economic situation.
 
A) Ekonomik konularla ilgili yeni basın danışmanının tüm soruları cevaplayabileceğini sanmıyorum.
B) Yeni basın danışmanının, ekonomik durumla ilgili tüm sorulara cevap verebileceğinden emin değilim.
C) Yeni basın danışmanının, ekonomik durumla ilgili tüm soruların cevaplanmasında yeterli olduğundan emin değilim.
D) Yeni danışmanın, basının ekonomi ile ilgili tüm sorularına cevap verebileceğinden şüpheliyim.
E) Basını ilgilendiren tüm soruların yeni ekonomi danışmanı tarafından cevaplanabileceğini sanmıyorum.
 
7. One another problem affecting the scheme is the shortage of skilled labor in the area.
 
A) Bölgede nitelikli işgücünün bulunmayışı, projeyi etkileyen bir diğer sorundur.
B) Nitelikli işgücü yetersizliği, belgeyle ilgili projeyi etkileyen diğer bir sorundur.
C) Bölgede nitelikli işgücünün bulunmaması, projeyi olumsuz olarak etkileyen ayrı bir sorundur.
D) Bölgede projeyi olumsuz olarak etkileyen diğer sorunlardan biri, nitelikli işgücünün eksikliğidir.
E) Projeyi etkileyen diğer bir sorun bölgedeki nitelikli işgücü yetersizliğidir.
 
8. If there is no improvement in sales, then we may have to reduce the work force even further.
 
A) Satışları arttıramadığımız müddetçe işgücündeki azalma devam edecektir.
B) İşgücünü bu kadar azaltırsak satışlardaki artış kısa sürede duracaktır.
C) Satışları arttırabilmek için, işgücünü azaltmaktan vazgeçmemiz gerekecektir.
D) Eğer son zamanlarda satışlarda bir iyileşme gözlenmiyorsa bunun nedeni işgücündeki azalmadır.
E) Eğer satışlarda bir iyileşme olmazsa, işgücünü daha da azaltmak zorunda kalabiliriz.
 
9. As time goes on, most people will not only use a computer in their work but also have one in their houses.
 
A) İşyerlerinde bilgisayar kullananların çoğu en kısa zamanda bir tane de evlerinde bulundurmak isteyecektir.
B) Zamanla, birçok insan işyerinde olduğu gibi evinde de bilgisayar kullanmanın önemini kavrayacak.
C) Zaman geçtikçe çoğu insan, bilgisayarı yalnızca işyerlerinde kullanmayacak, evlerinde de birer tane bulunduracak.
D) Çok zamanlarını alsa da, birçok insan bilgisayarı hem işyerinde hem de evde kullanmayı tercih edecek.
E)    Zaman geçtikçe insanlar bilgisayarların yalnız işyerlerinde değil evlerinde de gerekli olduğu kanısına varacaklardır.
 
10. The   developing   companies   of   Eastern   Europe   are  trying   to   improve  their telecommunications systems in order to achieve economic growth.
 
A) Doğu Avrupa'da şirketler, haberleşme sistemlerini kuvvetlendirdikleri için hızlı bir ekonomik büyüme sağlarlar.
B) Doğu Avrupa'nın gelişmekte olan şirketleri ekonomik büyümeyi gerçekleştirmek için haberleşme sistemlerini iyileştirmeye çalışıyor.
C) Doğu Avrupa'daki ekonomik büyüme, haberleşme sistemleri gelişmiş olan şirketlerin çabaları ile kolaylaşmıştır.
D) Doğu Avrupa'nın gelişmiş şirketleri, ekonomik büyümeyi haberleşme sistemlerini iyileştirme çabalarına bağlıyor.
E) Doğu Avrupa'nın gelişmekte olan şirketleri, ekonomik büyümeyle birlikte haberleşme sistemlerinin de gelişeceğine inanıyor.
 
11. This proved to be final blow for a country already dependent on the outside world for survival.
 
A)  Hayatta kalabilmek için zaten dış dünyaya bağımlı olan ülkeye bunun son darbe olduğu ortaya çıktı.
B)  Bunun, ekonomik bakımdan dış dünyaya bağımlı olan ülke için son şans olduğu açık.
C) Bunun, ülkenin dış dünyaya bağımlılıktan kurtulma yolundaki son fırsatı olduğu şüphe götürmez.
D) Dış dünyadan bağımsızlığını kazanarak kendi imkânları ile gelişmeye çalışan ülke için bu ağır bir darbedir.
E) Bu, zaten dış dünyaya bağımlılıktan kurtulma çabası içinde olan ülkenin sonunu hazırlamıştır.
 
12. One way of finding out if you are suitable to work in another country is to go to a career counselor.
 
A)  Yabancı bir ülkede çalışabilmek için gerekli şartları öğrenmenin kestirme yollarından biri de bir meslek danışmanına danışmaktır.
B) Başka bir ülkede iş bulabilmenin kestirme yollarından biri de, bir meslek danışmanına gitmektir.
C) Yabancı bir ülkede iş bulmanın tek yolu, bir meslek danışmanına giderek kendinizi yetiştirmenizdir.
D) Başka bir ülkede çalışabilecek nitelikte biri olup olmadığınızı anlamanın bir yolu da, bir meslek danışmanına gitmektir.
E) Sizin için başka bir ülkede çalışma olanağı olup olmadığını öğrenmenin tek yolu,bir meslek danışmanına başvurmaktır.
 
13. The notion that we can or should put some kind of a limit on economic growth seems to be neither necessary nor practical.
 
A) Görünüşte gerekli ve pratik olması da, bir düşünceye göre, ekonomik büyümeye belli bir sınır koyabiliriz ve koymalıyız.
B) Sınırları belirlenmemiş bir ekonomik büyüme düşüncesi, gerekli olmadığı gibi pratik de değil.
C) Ekonomik büyümeye belli bir sınır koymanın gerekli veya pratik olup olmadığı konusu halen açıklığa kavuşmamıştır.
D) Ekonomik büyümeye sınırlama getirecek uygulamalar üzerinde konuşmak gereksiz gözüküyor.
E) Ekonomik büyümeyi bir biçimde sınırlayabileceğimiz ya da sınırlamamız gerektiği düşüncesi ne gerekli ne de uygulanabilir görünüyor.
 
14. It is not difficult to realize how slowly and inaccurately information was passed around before the growth of mass media.
 
A) Kitle iletişim araçlarının yaygınlaşmasından önce, bilginin yavaş ve yanlış aktarılmasını engellemek zordu.
B) Kitle iletişim araçlarının gelişmesinden önce bilginin ne denli yavaş ve hatalı aktarıldığını anlamak zor değildir.
C) Tahmin edileceği gibi, kitle iletişim araçlarının gelişmesiyle bilginin hatalı ve yanlış aktarılması engellendi.
D) Kitle iletişim araçları ne kadar gelişse de bilginin bazen hatalı ve yavaş aktarılması ister istemez gerçekleşir.
E) Bilginin zamanında ve hatasız aktarılmasında gelişmiş kitle iletişim araçlarının önemili rolünü anlamak zor değidir.
 
15. The decision to reduce the fine payable by companies polluting the environment has angered conservationists.
 
A) Kuruluşların, çevreye verdikleri zararı telafi etmek için çaba gösterme kararından vazgeçmeleri çevrecileri öfkelendirdi.
B) Çevrecilerin öfkeli tepkisi karşısında, çevreyi kirleten kuruluşlarca ödenen cezayı azaltan karar kaldırıldı.
C) Çevrenin kirletilmesi karşısında öfkelenin çevreciler, kuruluşlar tarafından ödenmesi gereken cezanın kaldırılmasına itiraz ettiler.
D) Çevreyi kirleten kuruluşlarca ödenmesi gereken ceza miktarını azaltma kararı çevrecileri öfkelendirdi.
E) Öfkeli çevrecilerin tepkisi üzerine, çevreyi kirleten kuruluşların, para cezası ödemeleri yanında verdikleri zararı da telafi etmeleri kararlaştırıldı.
 
16. The fact that there is an organization working towards the recognition of the rights of housewives means we are progressing in the right direction.
 
A) İşleyen bir örgütün olması, ev kadınlarının haklarının tanınması yönünde en doğru yolu seçtiğimiz anlamına gelmemelidir.
B) Doğru yönce ilerliyoruz diyebilmek için, ev kadınlarının haklarının tanınması için çalışan bir örgüt kurmamız gerekmektedir.
C) Artık bir örgüt de olduğuna göre, ev kadınlarının haklarının tanınması yönünde ilerleyebilmek için her türlü yolu denemeliyiz.
D) Ev kadınlarının haklarının tanınması yolunda çalışan bir örgütün olması demek, doğru yönde ilerliyoruz demektir.
E) Ev kadınlarının, kendi haklarının tanınması yolunda çaba göstermelerine olanak verecek bir örgütlerinin olması demek bu konuda çok yol kat etmişler demektir.
 
17. Critics complain that showing the number of gold medals won by each country on television transforms the Olympic Games into an international competition.
 
A) Eleştirmenler, bir madalya yarışına dönüşen Olimpiyat Oyunlarında yalnızca altın madalya kazanan ülkelerin sporcularının televizyonda gösterilmesi taraftarıdırlar.
B) Eleştirmenler, her ülkenin kazandığı altın madalya sayısının televizyonda gösterilmesinin Olimpiyat Oyunlarının uluslararası bir rekabete dönüştürdüğünden şikayetçiler.
C) Eleştirmenler, altın madalya kazanan bazı oyuncuları televizyonda kötülemenin Olimpiyat Oyunlarını uluslararası bir çekişmeye dönüştürmesinden korkuyorlar.
D) Eleştirmenler, televizyoncuların Olimpiyat Oyunlarını ülkelerarası bir altın madalya yarışına dönüştürmesinden şikayetçiler.
E)  Eleştirmenler, ülkelerin kazandığı altın madalya sayısının televizyonda yayınlanmasının Olimpiyat Oyunlarının uluslar arası kimliğini güçlendirdiğini savunuyorlar.
 
18- My father used to work at a small bookstore, whose customers were students from a nearby high school.
 
A) Babamın çalıştığı kitapevi gelen öğrenciler civardaki bir lisede okuyorlardı.
B) Müşterileri civardaki bir liseden olan küçük bir kitapevinde çalışan babam var.
C) Babamın çalıştığı küçük kitapevinin müşterileri civardaki bir liseden geliyordu.
D) Babam eskiden müşterileri bir liseden olan civardaki küçük bir kitapevinde çalışıyordu.
E) Babam, müşterileri civardaki bir liseden olan küçük bir kitapevinde çalışıyordu.
 
19- The extraordinary performance of Formula 1 cars has been extremely influenced by  aerodynamic design.
 
A) Aerodinamik tasarımdan önemli derecede etkilenmiş olan Formula 1 arabaları görülmeğe değer yarışlar çıkarıyor.
B) Formula 1 arabalarının olağanüstü performansı aerodinamik tasarım sayesinde gerçekleşmiştir.
C) Formula 1 arabalar aerodinamik tasarımın etkisiyle olağanüstü performans sergiliyor.
D) Aerodinamik tasarımdan büyük ölçüde etkilenmiş olan Formula 1 arabaları olağanüstü performans gösteriyor.
E) Formula 1 arabalarının olağanüstü performansı aerodinamik tasarımdan büyük ölçüde etkilenmiştir.
 
20- A group of scientists has discovered a protein, which they have named human in, which can prevent the loss of brain cells in Alzheimer's patients.
 
A) Bir grup bilim adamı Alzheimer hastalarındaki beyin hücrelerinin kaybını önleyebilen humanin diye adlandırdıkları bir protein buldular.
B) Bir grup bilim adamı Alzheimer's hastalarındaki beyin hücrelerinin kaybını önleyebilen proteine humanin adını verdiler.
C) Bir grup bilim adamı humanin diye adlandırılan, Alzheimer hastalarındaki beyin hücrelerinin kaybını önleyebilen bir protein buldular.
D) Bir grup bilim adamının bulduğu humanin adındaki protein, Alzheimer kaybını önleyebiliyor.
E) Alzheimer hastalarındaki beyin hücrelerinin kaybını durdurabilen, humanin adında bir protein bulunmuştur.
 
21- Most employment advisors believe that finding a job that you're obsessive about is one of the serious factors behind
profession success.
 
A) Çoğu meslek danışmanı, arzu ettiğiniz bir işi bulmanın meslek başarısının ardındaki ciddi etmenlerden biri olduğuna inanıyor.
B) Çoğu meslek danışmanı, arzu ettiğiniz bir işi bulmanın meslek başarısının ardındaki ciddi etmenlerden biri olduğunu kabul ediyor.
C) Arzu ettiğiniz bir işi bulmanın meslek başarısının ardındaki ciddi etmenlerden biri olduğuna inanan birçok meslek danışmanı vardır.
D) Pek çok meslek danışmanı, arzu ettiğiniz bir işi bulmanın meslek başarısının ardındaki ciddi etmenlerden biri
olduğuna inanıyor.
E) Çoğu meslek danışmanının hemfikir olduğu şey arzu ettiğiniz bir işi bulmanın meslek başarısının ardındaki ciddi etmenlerden biri olduğudur.
 
22- It's said that forest of 10 km2 loses 50 tons of water per day.
 
A) On kilometrekare ormanın günde 50 ton su kaybettiği düşünülüyor.
B) On kilometrekare ormanın günde 50 ton su kaybettiği söyleniyor.
C) Günde 50 ton su kaybeden bir ormanın olduğu tahmin ediliyor.
D) On kilometrekare ormanın günde 30 ton su kaybettiği söyleniyor.
E) On kilometrekare ormanın günde 60 ton su kaybettiği zannediliyor.
 
23- Many factors affect calorie need, including your mass and motion level.
 
A) Kalori ihtiyacınızı kilonuz ve hareket düzeyinizin haricinde pek çok faktör etkiler.
B) Kilonuz ve hareket düzeyinizin yanında kalori ihtiyacınızı etkileyen pek çok faktör vardır.
C) Kilonuz ve hareket düzeyiniz dahil pek çok faktör kalori gereksinimini etkiler.
D) Kilonuz ve hareket düzeyinizin yanında kalori ihtiyacınızı etkileyen birkaç faktör vardır.
E) Kilonuz ve hareket düzeyinizi etkileyen pek çok etmen vardır.
 
24- Efes, whose historical habitation dates back to the third century B.C., is regarded as a museum town.
 
A) Tarihi yerleşimi M.Ö. 3. yüzyıla dayanan Efes, bir müze şehrini andırıyor.
B) Bir müze şehri olarak görülen Efes’in tarihi yerleşimi M.Ö. 3. yüzyıla dayanıyor.
C) Görünümüyle bir müze şehrini andıran Efes’in tarihi yerleşimi M.Ö. 3. yüzyıla dayanıyor.
D) Tarihi yerleşimi M.Ö. 3. yüzyıla dayanan Efes bir müze şehri olarak görülüyor.
E) M.Ö. 3. yüzyılda yerleşilen Efes, adeta bir müze şehrini andırıyor.
 
25- Morocco, a country famous for its coffee, is situated on the north west coast of Africa.
 
A) Kahvesiyle bilinen ve bir Afrika ülkesi olan Morocco, kıtanın kuzeybatı kıyısında yer alır.
B) Afrika'nın kuzeybatı kıyısında yer alan Morocco, kahvesiyle ünlü bir ülkedir.
C) Kahvesiyle ünlü bir ülke olan Morocco, Afrika'nın kuzeybatı kıyısında yer alır.
D) Morocco, kahvesiyle tanınan bir ülke olarak Afrika'nın kuzeybatı kıyısında bulunmaktadır.
E)  Afrika'nın doğu kıyısında bulunan Morocco, safarileri ile ünlü bir ülke olarak bilinmektedir.
 
            Test 6
 
1) Whatever measures the Ministry may have taken against smuggling, it is essential that the public should also be enlightened about the topic.
 
A) Yolsuzluğa karşı hangi tedbirlerin alınması gerektiği hususunda Bakanlık kamuoyu oluşturmaya çalışıyor.
B) Silah kaçakçılığına karşı alınan tedbirlere ek olarak Bakanlık kamu oyunu da aydınlatmak için konu üzerinde duruyor.
C) Yolsuzlukları önlemek için Bakanlığın aldığı bir dizi tedbire ek olarak konu hakkında kamuoyu da aydınlatılıyor.
D) Rüşvete karşı ne gibi tedbirler alınması gerektiği hususunda Bakanlık kamuoyuna açıklamalar yapmayı uygun görüyor.
E) Kaçakçılığa karşı Bakanlık hangi tedbirleri almış olursa olsun, konu hakkında kamuoyunun da aydınlatılması şarttır.
 
2) If he knew what the board had decided as regards his promotion, he would be terribly upset.
 
A) Naklen tayini hakkında Kurulun nasıl bir karar verdiğini bilse, büyük üzüntü duyardı.
B) Tayini için Kurul'un verdiği kararı bilseydi, derhal istifa ederdi.
C) Kendi durumu ile ilgili olarak Kurul'un kararının ne olduğunu bilmiş olsaydı, tayin edilmeyi kesinlikle istemezdi.
D) Terfisi ile ilgili olarak Kurul'un neye karar verdiğini bilse, tam bir düş kırıklığına uğrardı.
E) Başarısızlığı nedeniyle hakkında Kurul'un ne tür bir karar vereceğini bilseydi, son derece sinirlenirdi.
 
3) I firmly believe that we must put into effect some vital plans in order to increase productivity.
 
A) Üretimi arttıracak çeşitli planlar geliştirmemiz gerektiği görüşüne tamamen katılıyorum.
B) Verimliliği arttırmak için bazı acil planları yürürlüğe koymamız gerektiğine kuvvetle inanıyorum.
C) Verimliliğin artırılması bakımından bazı önemli planlar geliştirmemiz gerektiği düşüncesindeyim.
D) Verimlilik düzeyini geliştirmek için bazı kapsamlı planlar üzerinde durmamız gerektiği inancındayım.
E) Bence verimliliği arttırmak için bazı planlar geliştirmek yararlı olabilir.
 
4) Propose what they may, we are not going to accept their views on this matter.
 
A) Bu konuda ne gibi önerileri ileri sürecekleri hususunda herhangi bir görüşümüz bulunmamaktadır.
B) İstedikleri önerileri yapsınlar, bu sorunla ile ilgili görüşlerini kimseye kabul ettiremeyecekler.
C) Ne önerirlerse önersinler, bu konudaki görüşlerini kabul etmeyeceğiz.
D) Ne gibi öneriler getirecekleri belli değilse de onların bu konuya bakış açılarını kabul edemeyiz.
E) Her ne önerdilerse, bu konu ile ilgili olarak hiç birini kabul etmedik.
 
5) Owing to an unexpected postponement in the delivery of the mail, his application did not reach in time.
 
A) Postanın dağıtılmasındaki beklenmeyen gecikme nedeniyle, başvurusu bize zamanında ulaşmadı.
B) Mektupların dağıtımı gecikince, bize yaptığı başvuru saatinde ulaşmadı.
C) Postadaki beklenmeyen gecikme yüzünden başvurusunu zamanında bize gönderemedi.
D) Başvurusunun bize zamanında ulaşmamasının nedeni, postanın dağıtımında meydana gelen gecikme idi.
E) Postanın hiç tahmin edilmeyen gecikmesi, onun başvurusunun bize çabuk ulaşamamasına yol açtı.
 
6) It was generally agreed by the board that a new plant should be opened in Sweden.
 
A) Kurulun onayladığı yeni fabrika İsveç'te açılacaktır.
B) Kurul, öncelikle İsveç'te yeni bir fabrika açılmasını onaylamışta.
C) İsveç'te yeni bir fabrika açılması, kurul tarafından oybirliği ile kabul edilmiştir.
D) Kurula, yeni fabrikanın İsveç'te açılması önerilmiştir.
E) Kurulun onayı üzerine İsveç'te yeni bir fabrika açıldı.
 
7) Amongst of Turkey's priorities in international politics, membership of the European Community takes the first place.
 
A) Türkiye, Avrupa Topluluğuna üye olabilmek için, uluslararası ilişkilerindeki öncelikleri geniş bir biçimde tespit etmiştir.
B) Türkiye'nin uluslararası politikadaki öncelikleri arasında Avrupa Topluluğu üyeliği başta gelmektedir.
C) Avrupa Topluluğuna üyelik, Türkiye'nin uluslarası politikasındaki ilk tercihtir.
D) Uluslarası ilişkiler bakımından, Türkiye'nin en başta gelen amacı Avrupa Topluluğuna girmektir.
E) Türkiye Avrupa Topluluğuna girmekle uluslararası politikada çeşitli avantajlar elde edecektir.
 
8) The reports we have received up to now concerning the disaster seem to be exaggerating the situation.
 
A) Felaketle ilgili olarak bize ulaşan raporların hepsi, abartılı bir şekilde kaleme alınmış.
B) Felaketle ilgili olarak, durumun abartıldığı değişik raporlar yazıldı.
C) Aldığımız tüm raporlarda, felaketin neden olduğu durum çok abartılmaktadır.
D) Felaketle ilgili olarak bugüne kadar aldığımız raporlar durumu abartıyor gibi görünüyor.
E) Aldığımız raporların hepsi, felaket sonucu ortaya çıkan durumu ayrıntılı olarak anlatıyor.
 
9) The company accountant, charged with misuse, has been put on trial.
 
A) Zimmetine para geçirmekle suçlanan şirket muhasebecisi mahkemeye verildi.
B) Şirketi zarara soktuğu için muhasebeci aleyhinde dava açıldı.
C) Şirketin iflasına yol açtığı gerekçesiyle muhasebeci gözetim altına alındı.
D) Hapse atılan şirket muhasebecisi, rüşvet almakla suçlandı.
E) Yolsuzluk yaptığı iddiasıyla şirketin muhasebecisi hapse mahkum oldu.
 
10) The growth of industrialism in the West is concerned with the growth of democracy.
 
A) Batıda sanayinin gelişmesi demokrasinin ortaya çıkmasıyla hızlanmıştır.
B) Demokrasinin güçlenmesi, Batıdaki gelişmesi ortak bazı ilkelere dayanmaktadır.
C) Sanayi ve demokrasinin Batıdaki 'gelişmesi ortak bazı ilkelere dayanmaktadır.
D) Demokrasinin gelişmesi, Batıdaki sanayinin gelişmesi ile mümkün olmuştur.
E) Batıda sanayinin gelişmesi, demokrasinin gelişmesi ile ilişkilidir.
 
11) Widespread vaccination campaigns carried out by the Ministry of Health have been efficient in reducing infant mortality.
 
A) Sağlık Bakanlığının yürüttüğü geniş aşı kampanyaları sonucu, bebek ölümleri bir sorun olmaktan çıkmıştır.
B) Bebek ölümlerinin azaltılması amacıyla, Sağlık Bakanlığı geniş bir aşı kampanyası başlattı.
C) Bebek ölümlerinin azaltılmasında en büyük etken, Sağlık Bakanlığının başlattığı geniş aşı kampanyasıdır.
D) Bebek ölümlerini azaltmak için Sağlık Bakanlığınca yürütülen kampanya başarılı olmuştur.
E) Sağlık Bakanlığı tarafından yürütülen, yaygın aşı kampanyaları, bebek ölümlerinin azaltılmasında etkili olmuştur.
 
12) Deforestation is causing an alarming decrease in the amount of farming area.
 
A) Ormanların azlığı, sulu arazi miktarının giderek tehlikeli bir şekilde ortadan kalkmasına neden olmaktadır.
B) Ormanların yok edilmesi nedeniyle, tarım arazisinin ciddi bir şekilde azaldığı görülmektedir.
C) Ormanların yok olması, ekilebilir toprakların miktarında tehlikeli bir azalmaya neden olmaktadır.
D) Ekilebilir toprakların tehlikeli bir şekilde azalması, ormanların yok edilmesiyle ilgilidir.
E) Ormanların yok olması nedeniyle, tarıma elverişli toprakların miktarında azalma olmaktadır.
 
13) After years of fighting the two countries have at last decided to sign peace treaty.
 
A)  İki ülkenin temsilcileri bir antlaşma imzalayarak yıllarca süren barış dönemini başlattılar.
B) Yıllarca süren savaştan sonra iki ülke, nihayet bir barış antlaşması imzalamaya karar verdiler.
C) Yıllarca süren savaş, iki ülkenin nihayet anlaşması ve bir barış yapması ile sonuçlanmıştır.
D) Savaşın yıllarca sürmesi sonucu, iki ülke bir antlaşma imzalamayı kabul ettiler.
E) İki ülkenin imzaladığı barış antlaşması ile yıllarca süren bu savaş sona erdi.
 
14) In developed countries, social security has been a main issue since the beginning of this century.
 
A) Bu yüzyılın başından itibaren, gelişmiş ülkelerin en başta gelen sorunu sosyal güvenlik olmuştur.
B) Bu yüzyılın başlarında gelişmiş ülkelerde ciddi bir sorun olarak sosyal güvenlik konusu üzerinde çok tartışılmıştır.
C) Gelişmiş ülkelerdeki sosyal güvenlik uygulaması bu yüzyılın başlarında görülen en önemli olaydır.
D) Gelişmiş ülkelerdeki sosyal güvenlik, bu yüzyılın başlarından beri önemli bir konu olmuştur.
E) Bu yüzyılın başında, sosyal güvenliğin gelişmiş ülkelerde görülen önemli bir sorun olduğu kabul edilmiştir.
 
15) In accordance with the report submitted to the Minister, by the end of this fiscal year inflation will have been pulled down considerably.
 
A) Bakana sunulan rapordan, enflasyonun, bütçe yılı sonuna kadar kısmen aşağı çekileceği anlaşılıyor.
B) Bakana sunulan bir raporda enflasyonun, bu yıl sonuna kadar tamamen durdurulacağı belirtiliyor.
C) Bakana sunulan rapora göre, bu mali yıl sonuna kadar enflasyon önemli derecede aşağı çekilmiş olacak.
D) Bakana sunulan raporda da belirtildiği gibi, bu mali yıl sonu itibariyle enflasyon tamamen ortadan kalkmış olacak.
E) Bakana sunulan rapordan anlaşıldığına göre, enflasyon bu mali yıl sonunda bir sorun olmaktan çıkacak.
 
16) Activities like gardening and swimming help to release mental tension.
 
A) Zihin yorgunluğu, ancak yüzrne ve bahçe ile uğraşma gibi faaliyetlerin yardımıyla giderilebilir.
B) Bahçe ile uğraşma ve yüzme gibi faaliyetler, zihinsel gerginliğin giderilmesine yardımcı olur
C) Zihin yorgunluğunun giderilmesine yardım eden faaliyetler, bahçe ile uğraşma ve yüzmedir.
D) Zihinsel gerginliğin giderilmesine yardım eden, yüzmle ve bahçe ile uğraşma gibi faaliyetler desteklenmelidir.
E) Yüzme ve bahçe ile uğraşma, zihinsel gerginliğin yok olmasına katkı sağlayan faaliyetlerdir.
 
17) Unfortunately most people are prejudiced against modes of behaviour that are different from their own.
 
A) Garip olan şu ki çoğu insan, kendinden farklı hareket edenlere karşı oldukça önyargılıdır.
B) Ne yazık ki insanlar kendilerinden farklı davrananlara karşı son derece önyargılıdır.
C) İnsanların, kendilerinden farklı davranış biçimlerine sahip olanlara karşı önyargılı olması garipsenecek bir durumdur.
D) Ne yazık ki pek çok insan, kendisinkinden farklı olan davranış biçimlerine karşı önyargılıdır.
E) Ne yazık ki insanlarda kendi davranışlarından farklı davranış sergileyen pek çok insana karşı yaygın bir önyargı vardır.
 
18) Once a child starts school he finds himself in a much larger and far more complex social group.
 
A) Çocuk bir kez okula başlayınca, kendini hep daha kapsamlı ve karmaşık bir sosyal grubun içinde görmek ister.
B) Çocuk, ancak okula başladıktan sonra, geniş ve çok karmaşık bir sosyal grubun içine girer.
C) Çocuk oldukça geniş ve karmaşık bir sosyal grubun etkisini ancak okula başlayınca hisseder.
D) Çocuğun çok geniş ve olabildiğince karmaşık bir sosyal grubun etkisinde kalması, ancak okula başladıktan sonra gerçekleşir.
E) Çocuk okula başlayınca, kendisini çok daha geniş ve daha karmaşık bir sosyal grubun içinde bulur.
 
19) The suggestions that Prof Thomson made in his lectures were to form the basis of much of the research work the department has undertaken.
 
A) Profesör Thomson'un derslerinde yaptığı öneriler, bölümün üstlenmiş olduğu araştırmaların çoğunun temelini oluştur- muştur.
B) Bölümün yürüttüğü araştırmaların çoğunun temeli, Profesör Thomson'un derslerinde ileri sürdüğü görüşlere dayanıyordu.
C) Bölümün başlattığı araştırmaların çoğu, Profesör Thomson'un derslerinde ortaya koyduğu ilkeleri temel alıyordu.
D) Bölümün üstlendiği araştırmaların temeli, Profesör Thomson'un derslerinde ortaya attığı varsayımlardan oluşuyordu.
E) Profesör Thomson, derslerde ileri sürdüğü görüşleri ile , bölümün yürütmekte olduğu araştırmaların pek çoğunun temelini atmıştır.
 
20) The leading newspapers all gave conflicting accounts of the uncovering of a major espionage affair.
 
A) Önde gelen bazı gazetelerin böylesine ciddi bir casusluk olayının ortaya çıkarılmasına ilişkin olarak yaptığı yorumlar tutarlı değildi.
B) Önde gelen gazetelerin hepsi, büyük bir casusluk olayının ortaya çıkarılmasıyla ilgili olarak çelişkili haberler verdi.
C) Casusluk olayının ortaya çıkarılması üzerine, büyük gazetelerin hepsi farklı değerlendirmeler yaptılar.
D) Önde gelen pek çok gazete, verdikleri çeşitli haberlerle büyük casusluk olayının ortaya çıkmasını sağladı.
E) Bu kadar büyük bir casusluk olayının ortaya çıkması, bazı büyük gazetelerin çelişkili haber vermesi sonucu gerçekleşti.
 
21) One may argue that successful novels depend not so on their plots as they do on the characters they portray.
 
A) Başarılı romanların hem konularına hem de çizdikleri karakterlere önem verdiği ileri sürülebilir.
B) Denilebilir ki başarılı romanlarda konular kadar çizilen karakterler de önem taşır.
C) Başarılı romanların aslında sadece konularına değil aynı zamanda çizdikleri karakterlere de dayandığı düşünülebilir.
D) Başarılı romanların konularından çok çizdikleri karakterlere dayandığı ileri sürülebilir.
E) Başarılı romanların temelini hem konularının hem de çizdikleri karakterlerin oluşturduğu görüşü ileri sürülebilir.
 
22) The real significance of the peace plan still under negotiation lies in the fact that it will open up a new era of friendship.
 
A) Yeni bir dostluk döneminin başlaması amacıyla sürdürülen barış planının gerçek anlamı ortadadır.
B) Şu bir gerçektir ki görüşmeleri devam eden barış planı yepyeni bir dostluk döneminin başlangıcım oluşturacaktır.
C) Yeni bir dostluk döneminin başlaması , halen görüşülmekte olan barış planının gerçek anlamını ortaya koymaktadır.
D) Görüşülen barış planının gerçek anlamı, yepyeni bir dostluk döneminin başlaması ile ortaya çıkmaktadır.
E) Halen görüşülmekte olan barış planının asıl önemi, yeni bir dostluk dönemi başlatacağı gerçeğinde yatmaktadır.
 
23) Some of the nominees for the Nobel Peace Prize have been turned down by the award committee on account of the harsh criticism made against them by the press.
 
A) Bazı Nobel Barış Ödülü adayları basında şiddetle eleştirilince, ödül kurulu onları değerlendirmeyi reddetti.
B) Basında yer alan sert eleştirilere rağmen ödül kurulu Nobel Barış Ödülüne aday gösterilen bazı kişileri değerlendirme dışı bıraktı.
C) Nobel Barış Ödülü adaylarından bazıları, haklarında basında yer alan sert eleştiriler nedeniyle, ödül kurulunca reddedildiler.
D) Nobel Barış Ödülü kurulu, basında yer alan şiddetli eleştirileri de göz önüne alarak, bazı adayları daha değerlendirmeye almadı,
E) Nobel Barış Ödülü için aday gösterilen bazıkişiler, ödül kurulunu basında sert bir dille eleştirince değerlendirme dışı bırakıldılar.
 
24) Despite massive Soviet pressure, Chink was eventually able to conclude a treaty of peace and friendship with Japan in 1978.
 
A) Yoğun Sovyet baskısını hiçe sayan Çin, nihayet 1978'de Japonya ile barış ve dostluk antlaşması yapmaya karar verdi.
B) 1978'de Japonya ile barış ve dostluk antlaşması imzalayan Çin, hemen büyük bir Sovyet baskısı aldına girdi.
C) Çin'in 1978'de Japonya ile bir barış ve dostluk antlaşması yapma olanağı bulması, yoğun bir Sovyet baskısına yol açtı.
D) Çin, yoğun Sovyet baskısına rağmen, nihayet 1978'de Japonya ile bir barış ve dostluk antlaşması yapma olanağı bulabildi.
E) Japonya ile 1978'de yaptığı barış ve dostluk antlaşması nedeni ile Çin, yoğun bir Sovyet baskısıyla karşılaştı.
 
25) The coach decided to resign since he had obviously lost the confidence of his team.
 
A) Koç, takımın güvenim kazanamadığı için istifa etmek zorunda kaldı.
B) Takımının güvenini kazanamaya koç, istifa etmeyi uygun buldu.
C) Koçun istifa etmeye karar vermesi, takımının güvenini kazanamamasındandır.
D) Koç takımının güvenini kaybedince istifa etmenin tek yol olduğuna karar verdi.
E) Koç, takımın güvenim açıkça kaybettiği için istifa etmeye karar verdi.
 
            Test 7
 
1) Penicillin is perhaps the best known antibiotic, whose discovery and later development is among mankind's greatest achievements.
 
A) Penisilin'in son zamanlardaki gelişimi onun en çok tanınan antibiyotik olmasını sağlamıştır.
B) Keşfedilmesi ve songelişmeleri insanlığın en büyük keşiflerinden olan penisilin belki de en çok tanınan antibiyotiktir.
C) Penisilinin keşfi belki de insanlığın  gelişimine ençok bilmen yararları sağlayacaktır.
D) Penisilinin en iyi antibiyotik olduğunu bilenler insanlığın gelişimi için başka antibiyotikler de kaşfetmeye çalışıyorlar.
E) Penisilini keşfedenler belki de insanlığın gelişimine en büyük katkıda bulunmuştur.
 
2) The objective of any advertisement is to convince people that it is in their best interests to take an action the advertiser is recommending.
A) Her reklamın amacı, insanları reklamcının tavsiye ettiğini yapmanın onların yararına olduğuna inandırmaktır.
B) İnsanların yararına olan şey reklamcıların tavsiyelerine kulak asmaktır.
C) Herhangi bir reklama karşı çıkmak reklamcının değil insanların zararına olacaktır.
D) Reklamcının öğütlerine uymayı amaç edinen insanlar sonunda çok yararlı bilgiler edinebilir.
E) İnsanlar, bir reklamcının amacımının onları en iyi ürünleri satın almaya ikna etmek olduğunu düşünürler.
 
3) Should a college graduate wish further education, a university offering a Ph. D. degree may be selected.
 
A) Üniversiteden mezun olan bir öğrenci doktora programı olan bir, üniversiteye girmelidir.
B) Her üniversite mezunu ille de doktora yapmalı mıdır?
C) Doktora yapmak isteyenler önce bir üniversiteden mezun olmalıdırlar.
D) Bir üniversite mezunu daha fazla öğrenim görmek isterse, doktora programı olan bir üniversite seçilebilir.
E) Bir üniversiteden mezun olup doktora yapmak isteyen öğrencinin üniversite tarafından seçilmesi gerekir.
 
4) Another forms of art, in music many radical changes have taken place in this century.
 
A) Bu yüzyıl içinde hem müzikte hem de sanatın diğer dallarında çok farklı değişiklikler meydana getirmiştir.
B) Bu yüzyıl, sanatın diğer dalları gibi müzikte de köklü değişikliklerin görüldüğü bir dönemdir.
C) Sanatın diğer dallarında olduğu gibi, müzikte de bu yüzyılda pek çok köklü değişiklik olmuştur.
D) Bu yüzyıl içinde meydana gelen değişiklikler, müzikte olduğu kadar sanatın diğer dallarında da etkili olmuştur.
E) Müzikte bu yüzyıl içinde meydan a gelen değişiklikler, sanatın diğer dallarındakiler kadar önemlidir.
 
5) Following the earthquake, lorry loads of medical supplies were immediately sent to the area.
 
A) Deprem nedeniyle, tıbbi malzeme yüklü kamyonlar derhal bölgeye ulaştırıldı.
B) Depremden sonra kamyonlar dolusu tıbbi malzeme derhal bölgeye gönderildi.
C) Depremle birlikte derhal kamyonlar yüklenerek bölgeye tıbbi malzeme gönderilmiştir.
D) Kamyonlar dolusu tıbbi malzeme derhal deprem bölgesine ulaştırılmıştır.
E) Tıbbi malzemenin depremden hemen sonra bölgeye ulaştırılması kamyonlarla gerçekleştirilmiştir.
 
6) The credit problem should have been settled before work began on the construction of the third bridge.
 
A) Üçüncü köprünün yapımı ile ilgili çalışmalar başlamadan önce kredi sorunu halledilmiş olmalıydı.
B) Kredi sorunu, üçüncü köprünün yapımı başlamadan önce halle- dilmiş olacak.
C) Üçüncü köprünün yapımına yönelik çalışmaların başlaması ile kredi sorunu çözümlendi.
D) Kredi sorunu, üçüncü köprünün yapım çalışmaları başlayınca çözümlenebilirdi.
E) Üçüncü köprünün yapımından önce kredi sorunu çözümlenmiş ve çalışmalar başlamıştır.
 
7) The first bank to provide support for the irrigation project were the private sector ones.
 
A) Özel sektöre ait ilk bankalar, öncelikle sulama projelerine destek sağlamıştır.
B) Özel sektöre ait bankaların birçoğu bu sulama projesini destekledi.
C) Özel sektör bankaları, sulama projesini en önce destekleyen bankalardı.
D) Sulama projesi için destek sağlayan ilk bankalar özel sektöre bankalarıydı.
E) Sulama projesine destek sağlayan bankalardan biri de bir özel sektör bankasıydı.
 
8) Many international organizations have been invited to contribute generously to the fund set up to the fight famine in Africa.
 
A) Afrika'da açlığa karşı savaşmak amacıyla kurulan fona birçok uluslar arası kuruluştan bol katkı sağlanmıştır.
B) Afrika'da açlıkla savaşabilmek, ancak birçok uluslar arası kuruluş ilgili fona cömertçe katkıda bulunursa mümkün olacaktır.
C) Uluslar arası kuruluşların çoğu, Afrika'daki açlığa karşı savaşmak amacıyla kurulmuş olan fona fazlasıyla katkıda bulunmuştur.
D) Pek çok uluslar arası kuruluş, Afrika'da açlığa karşı savaşmak için oluşturulan fona bol miktarda katkıda bulunmayı düşünmektedir.
E) Pek çok uluslararası kuruluş, Afrika'daki açlıkla savaşmak için oluşturulan fona bol miktarda katkıda bulunmaya çağrılmıştır.
 
9) I'm not sure that the new press councillor will be able to answer all the questions concerning the economic situation.
 
A) Ekonomik konularla ilgili yeni basın danışmanının tüm soruları cevaplıyabileceğini sanmıyorum.
B) Yeni basın danışmanının, ekonomik durumla ilgili tüm sorulara cevap verebileceğinden emin değilim.
C) Yeni basın danışmanının, ekonomik durumla ilgili tüm soruların cevaplanmasında yeterli olduğundan emin değilim.
D) Yeni danışmanın, basının ekonomi ile ilgili tüm sorularına cevap verebileceğiniden şüpheliyim.
E) Basını ilgilendiren tüm soruların yeni ekonomi danışmanı ta- rafından cevaplanabileceğini sanmıyorum.
 
10) One other problem affecting the project is the shortage of skilled labour in the area.
 
A) Bölgede nitelikli işgücünün bulunmayışı, projeyi etkileyen bir diğer sorundur.
B) Nitelikli iş gücü yetersizliği, bölgeyle ilgili projeyi etkileyen diğer bir sorundur.
C) Bölgede nitelikli işgücünün bulunmayışı, projeyi olumsuz olarak etkileyen ayrı bir sorundur.
D) Bölgede projeyi olumsuz olarak etkileyen diğer sorunlardan biri, nitelikli işgücünün yokluğudur.
E) Projeyi etkileyen bir diğer sorun, bölgedeki nitelikli işgücü yetersizliğidir.
 
11) The solar system is composed of the sun and nine planets.
 
A) Güneş sisteminde güneş ve dokuz adet gezegen vardır.
B) Dokuz gezegen ve güneş, güneş sisteminin oluşmasına neden olur.
C) Güneş sistemi güneş ve 9 gezegenden oluşur.
D) Güneş ve 9 gezegenden oluşan sisteme güneş sistemi deriz.
E) Güneş ve 9 gezegen güneş sistemini oluşturur.
 
12) A new student feels alone at first.
 
A) Yeni öğrenciler ilk başta kendilerini yalnız hissederler.
B) Yalnızlık okula ilk defa gelen öğrencilerce hissedilir.
C) Yalnız bir öğrenci kendini mutsuz hisseder.
D) Yeni bir öğrenci başlangıçta kendini yalnız hisseder.
E) Kendini yalnız hissedenler yeni öğrencilerdir.
 
13) Nearly all metals conduct heat better than wood.
 
A) Çoğu metaller ısıyı tahtadan daha iyi geçirir.
B) Metallerin bir kısmı ısıyı tahtadan iyi geçirir.
C) Tahtalar metallerden daha iyi geçirgendir.
D) Çoğu metaller tahta kadar iyi iletkendir.
E) Tahtalar çoğu zaman metallerden daha iyi ısı geçirir.
 
14) Neil Armstrong stepped on the moon first.
 
A) Neil Armstrong ayda ilk yürüyen kişidir.
B) Neil Armstrong önce ayda yürüdü.
C) Neil Armstrong ayda önce yürüdü.
D) Önce ayda Neil Armstrong yürüdü.
E) Önce ayda yürüyen kişi Neil Armstrong'dur.
 
15) Ice melts in warm water.
 
A) Buz sıcak suda eriyor.
B) Buz sıcak suda erir.
C) Buz sıcakta erir.
D) Buz sıcakta erirmiş
E) Buz sıcak suda erirmiş.
 
16) The school is closing an hour later than normal tomorrow.
 
A) Okulu yarın bir saat geç tatil etmeyi düşünüyoruz.
B) Yarın okul kapanma saati bir saat ileriye alındı.
C) Yarın okul her zamankinden bir saat geç kapanacak.
D) Okul yarın bir saat geç kapanacak.
E) Yarından itibaren okul bir saat geç kapanacak,
 
17) Academic attainment was measured by the degree of achievement in the requisite tests and examinations of the students' own faculties.
 
A) Öğrencinin kendi yeteneklerinin ölçüldüğü zorunlu test ve sınavlar onun akademik başarısını belirlemeye yarar.
B) Akademik başarı, öğrencinin kendi yeteneklerinin ölçüldüğü zorunlu test ve sınavlardaki başarı derecesiyle ölçülürdü.
C) Akademik başarı için öğrencinin zorunlu test ve sınavları başarı ile vermesi gerekir.
D) Öğrenci kendi yeteneklerinin ölçüldüğü zorunlu test ve sınavlarda akademik başarısının yetenekleriyle uyumunu anlar.
E) Öğrencinin yeteneklerin ölçüldüğü zorunlu akademik test ve sınavlar öğrencinin başa derecesiyle ölçülür.
 
18) It is clear that English is essential for the majority of students for many purposes apart from reading textbooks.
 
A) İngilizce'nin öğrencilerin çoğu için ders kitapları okumanın dışında pek çok amaç için gerekli olduğu açıktır.
B) İngilizce ders kitapları okumanın pek çok amacı vardır.
C) Ders kitapları okumanın dışında da İngilizce'nin öğrenciler için gerekli olduğu açıktır.
D) Açık olan şudur ki, İngilizce, ders kitapları okumanın dışında da çok yararlıdır.
E) Yararlı olan İngilizcenin ders kitaplarının dışında da kullanılmasıdır.
 
19) An observer shall not see a rainbow unless there are drops of water suspended in the air.
 
A) Gökkuşağı, havada kalmış su damlacıkları yoksa gözlemciler tarafından görülemez.
B) Havada asılı kalmış su damlacıkları gökkuşağının görülmesini sağlar.
C) Bir gözlemci, havadaki su damlacıkları sayesinde gökkuşağını görebilir.
D) Bir gözlemcinin gökkuşağını görmek için havadaki su damlacıklarının yardımına ihtiyacı vardır.
E) Bir gözlemci, havada asılı kalmış su damlaciklan yoksa gökkuşağı göremez.
 
20) One hundred and nine globes of the size of the earth would be needed to widen from one side of the sun to the other.
 
A) Yüzdokuz tane küre ile güneşin bir tarafından öbür tarafına ulaşılabilir.
B) Dünya büyüklüğündeki yüzdokuz küre ile güneşin bir tarafından öbür tarafına ulaşılabilir.
C) Güneşin bir tarafından öbür tarafına ulaşmak için yüzdokuz tane dünya küreye ihtiyaç vardır.
D) Dünya büyüklüğündeki yüzdokuz küre Güneşin bir tarafından öbür tarafına ulaşmamızı sağlar.
E) Güneşin bir tarafından öbür tarafına ulaşmak için dünya büyüklüğündeki kürelerden yüzdokuz tane gereklidir.
 
21) In August 1865, determined that her son would have piano lessons, Linda took to the fields to pick beans.
 
A) 1865 yılının Ağustosunda, Linda oğlunun piyano dersi vermesinde kararlı bir biçimde fasulye tarlaları satın aldı.
B) 1865 yılının Ağustosunda, Linda oğluna piyano almak için fasulyeleri tarlalara taşıdı.
C) 1865 yılının Ağustosunda, Linda oğluna piyano dersi aldırtmakta kararlı olarak fasulye toplamak üzere tarlaların yolunu tuttu.
D) Ağustos 1865'de Linda tarlalarda fasulye toplayarak para kazanmaya karar verip oğluna piyano dersi aldırmak istedi.
E) 1865 Ağustosunda Linda oğluna piyano dersleri aldırmaya karar vererek tarla satın aldı ve fasulye toplamaya başladı.
 
22) You may make analyses by making changes in the program.
 
A) Analizler yapmak istiyorsanız programda değişiklik yapmalısınız.
B) Programdaki değişiklikleri yapmak için analiz gereklidir.
C) Programdaki değişiklikler için analiz gerekli olabilir.
D) Programda değişiklik yaparak analizler yapabilirsiniz.
E) Programlarda değişiklik yaparak analiz yapabilirsiniz.
 
23) Microwave cooking of vegetables conserves nutritious materials such as vitamin C much better than boiling them in water.
 
A) Sebzelerin küçük dalgalarla pişirilmesindense suda haşlan- maları C vitaminini çok daha fazla arttırır.
B) Sebzelerin mikrodalga ile pişirilmesi C vitamini gibi besin maddelerini suda haşlanmaktan çok daha iyi korur.
C) Mikrodalga C vitaminli besleyici maddeleri, suda başlamaktan çok daha iyi pişirir.
D) Sebzelerden C vitamini ihtiyacım mikrodalga ile pişirerek karşılarız.
E) Suda .haşlayacak yerde C vitaminli sebzeleri mikrodalga ile pişirerek çok daha iyi koruruz.
 
24) The more he attempted to surmount his shyness, the more I overwhelmed he felt.
 
A) Utangaçlığı, kendisini yenmek için gösterdiği çabaların işe yaramadığını hissetmesine neden oldu.
B) Utangaçlığını yenmek için ne kadar çabaladıysa kendisini o kadar yenik hissetti.
C) Utangaçlığını yenmek için ne kadar çabaladıysa da beceremedi.
D) Utancını daha fazla yendikçe kendisini zafer kazanmış gibi düşündü.
E) Daha fazla utangaçlığın sonucu olarak kendisini daha da yenilmiş hissetti.
 
25) Every mother gazes in wonderment at the miracle that she has given birth to.
 
A) Her anne doğurduğu o harika şeye bakarak hayranlık duyar.
B) Her anne doğurduğu çocuğa bakmakla yükümlüdür.
C) Annelerin hepsine çocuk doğurdukları için hayranlıkla bakılır.
D) Her anne doğurduğu o harika şeyi hayran hayran seyreder.
E) Annelerin hepsine doğurdukları şey harika gelir.
 
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