reading passages
The third of the Arab-Israeli wars was fought from June 5 to 10, 1967, and thus earned the name of the "Six Day War". Combatants in the war were Israel against Syria, Jordan and Egypt. When the war started in June 5, Israel was fighting on three fronts. Despite appearing cornered by its three neighbours, Israel nevertheless made short work of the Egyptian, Syrian and Jordanian air forces, destroying them on the ground. Israeli armoured forces then pushed deep into the Sinai and destroyed Egyptian resistance there by June 7. Because Syria had bombarded Israeli villages from the Golan Heights earlier, on June 9 the Israeli ground and air forces attacked the Golan Heights, capturing it the next day. Complete mastery of the air had proved decisive for Israel in winning the war in such a short time.
1-     It's stated in the passage that ....... .
A)    ground forces are the most important single element in modern warfare
B)     Israel was able to win so quickly because of the effective use of air power
C)    Egypt would have won the war if its air force had not been destroyed
D)    bombing civilian targets is important for winning modern wars
E)     Israel is one of the most populous nations in the Middle East
2-     We understand from the passage that the Golan Heights
A)    passed over to the Israelis at the end of the war
B)     is the best point from which Israel can be bombed
C)    had previously been captured from the Israelis
D)    was the main reason for which the war was started
E)     took the Israelis six days to capture
3-     The passage implies that at the beginning of the "Six Day War"
A)    the Arab forces had good reasons to declare war on Israel
B)     Israeli ground forces were heavily outnumbered
C)    the situation did not appear very hopeful for Israel
D)    Jordan was the most successful Arab country
E)     the resistance at the Golan Heights was the strongest
Two hidden faults off southern California, capable of unleashing a magnitude 7.6 earthquake, lie off the coast of heavily populated Los Angeles, Orange and San Diego counties, researchers reported on Sunday. Though there is potential for catastrophe, the chances are slim. In the worst-case scenarios detailed in the study, the biggest quakes occur once every 2,100 years on one of the faults, and every 8,800 years on the other. It is possible that the faults release their energy on smaller but more frequent spurts, but as yet the discovery is so new that it is impossible to say how likely a large quake would be. A 7.6 magnitude quake would likely cause widespread damage and casualties.
4-      According to the passage,
A)    this new discovery diminishes the chances that Southern California will have a serious earthquake
B)     southern California is now one of the most dangerous places in the world to live
C)    the researchers are highly pessimistic about the future of the area
D)    a lot of people live not far from where the new faults have been discovered
E)     there was an earthquake of magnitude 7.6 near Los Angeles on Sunday
5-      The passage tells us that
A)    there was a severe earthquake on one of the fault lines 2,100 years ago
B)     a 7.6 magnitude earthquake would not be serious in southern California
C)    scientists have proved that the new faults will not cause major loss of life
D)    there is no chance of an earthquake on the newly-discovered faults for another 8,800 years
E)     it is too soon to estimate at the magnitudes of the future quakes on the new faults
6-      One possibility, stated in the passage, about the new faults is that
A)    the quake may be smaller than magnitude 7.6 and only cause damage but no deaths
B)     their energy may be dissipated in a number of smaller quakes rather than in a big one
C)    because of the frequent quakes in the area, the faults may already have released most  of their energy
D)    the newly-discovered faults will probably cause a major earthquake in the near future
E)     because they are undersea faults, they may be less dangerous than underground faults
With the coming of the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century, apprenticeship began to decline as an institution. Factory mass-production techniques eroded the personal relationship between master and assistant that apprenticeship demands. Labour was plentiful and cheap, and experience was usually gained on the job. Nevertheless, certain crafts maintained the tradition of apprenticeship, and some professions, such as the legal profession in Britain, continued to rely on apprenticeship to provide practical training. Although the Industrial Revolution opened the doors to unskilled labour, there is still a place for the kind of skills that only a long period of practical training can provide.
7-      The passage states that after the Industrial Revolution, ....... .
A)    the biggest problem was unskilled labour
B)     people with special skills were on the demand
C)    there was less need for apprentices
D)    masters did not need assistants
E)     Europe became wealthy very quickly
8-      We learn from the passage that an 'apprentice" is ....... .
A)    plentiful and cheap labour that was employed after the Industrial Revolution
B)     a kind of mass-production technique developed in the 18th century
C)    a way to provide workers for the legal profession in Britain
D)    someone who learns a trade through a long period of practical experience under a master
E)     one of the main ways which was used by the opposition to the Industrial Revolution
9-      From the passage, it is clear that ........ .
A)    in the 18th century, personal problems between masters and apprentices led to the Industrial Revolution
B)     apprenticeship as an institution has survived in spite of the impact of the Industrial Revolution
C)    the institution of apprenticeship completely disappeared after the Industrial Revolution
D)    on-the-job experience is no longer as important as it once was
E)     the Industrial Revolution was a response to the problems created by apprenticeship
Humans, because of the diversity of their genetic makeup, react to epidemic diseases in different ways. Some people have" acquired immunity for a different disease, others have partial immunity, and still others have no immunity. It is possible to have an immunity for one disease while being susceptible to others. Sometimes an immunity can he temporary, as in the case of influenza. Some diseases, such as measles, confer permanent immunity on those who have had them. A few diseases, including chicken pox and rheumatic fever, can infect an individual early in life and then lie dormant for many years before becoming active again in another way.
10- The topic of the passage is
A)    the reasons for the diversity of human genetic makeup
B)     the cause of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome
C)    ways of achieving permanent immunity to certain diseases
D)    the diverse types of immunities found in human beings
E)     the effects of chicken pox and rheumatic fever on people in later life
11- It is clear from the passage that
A)    immunisation techniques are constantly developing
B)     measles used to be a far more dangerous disease than it is today
C)    people may react to different diseases in different ways
D)    chicken pox has always been a dangerous disease
E)     anyone who has had measles will not get chicken pox
12- The author attempts to make it clear that
A)    the characteristics of our immune systems come from our genetic makeup
B)     with the medical advances, everyone is immune to measles today
C)    no one is immune to diseases that lie dormant in their bodies
D)    every person is immune to a certain type of disease
E)     influenza can be one of the world's most dangerous diseases
Also called the "intelligent home", an automated house is an appliance-controlled dwelling made possible by computers, microchips, television, voice synthesis and solid-state circuitry. All the appliances in such a home are interconnected. They respond to voice commands and they are able to communicate with one another. A dishwasher, for instance, could relay a message to a water heater to produce more hot water. The whole electrical system of the home is electrically controlled by a computer and activated by a telephone. A homeowner can relay commands from a distant computer or telephone to his or her house. Repairmen can be called automatically if some appliance breaks down. The chief obstacle to automated homes becoming widespread is not technological; it is the high cost of the equipment required to build them.
13- It is obvious from the passage that
A)    the "intelligent home" is a fantasy of the future
B)     the "intelligent home" is not within the reach of anyone today
C)    there is no sense in having an "intelligent home" with technology in its present state
D)    "intelligent homes" are already available to those who can afford them
E)     a large number of servants are needed to run an "intelligent home"
14- The owner of an automated house
A)    would need the addresses of a number of repairmen
B)     wouldn't need a baby-sitter because there are so many things to entertain children
C)    has to choose servants with a common language so that they can communicate
D)    could expect household chores to be done while he or she is not at home
E)     needs to hire someone to be present at home to supervise the machines
15- The writer implies that
A)    automated houses will become more common as the equipment becomes more affordable
B)     there is no reason for a single person to have an "intelligent home"
C)    the "intelligent home" has been developed in response to the demand for home entertainment
D)    everyone needs an "intelligent home"
E)     although automated houses are fine in theory, there are too many technological problems to make them practical
Calling Franklin Delano Roosevelt the "greatest president of this great American century", the Unites States President Bill Clinton presided over the opening of a Washington, D.C. memorial dedicated to the life and times of Roosevelt, the 32nd president of the United States. Roosevelt became the 4th president, along with George Washington, Abraham Lincoln and Thomas Jefferson, to have a monument constructed in the capital memorialising the accomplishments of his administration. A sculpture of President Roosevelt sitting in a chair with the family dog, Fala, at his foot, overlooks the memorial grounds. Many disabled Americans argued that since Roosevelt had suffered from polio as a child and lost the use of his legs, he should have been depicted in a wheelchair.
16- We learn from the passage that
A)    Roosevelt's dog,Fala, used to be very popular with the American citizens
B)     Bill Clinton is the greatest US president of the 20th century
C)    Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the 4th US president
D)    Bill Clinton wants a monument dedicated to himself built in Washington
E)     Franklin Delano Roosevelt was one of the greatest of US presidents
17- We can infer from the passage that
A)    Roosevelt was a better president than Lincoln
B)     Roosevelt often used a wheelchair
C)    people who suffer from physical disabilities are usually great leaders
D)    most disabled Americans suffered from polio as children
E)     Roosevelt needed a dog because he was blind
18- After reading this passage, anyone who knows nothing about US history will
A)    realise that Abraham Lincoln was president during the Civil War
B)     understand why a monument was built to Franklin Delano Roosevelt
C)    know the names of five American presidents
D)    agree that Thomas Jefferson was an even greater president than Franklin Delano Roosevelt
E)     disagree that Roosevelt should be depicted in a wheelchair
One of the loveliest but most fragile of spring flowers in America is the bloodroot. In April and May, it pushes its delicate white blossom upward, wrapped in silver green leaves, in open woodlands from Canada to Florida and west to Nebraska and Arkansas. The first warm sunshine opens the flower. It has yellow stamens and from eight to twelve white petals; but the petals are soon washed or blown away by rain or wind. The plant is named for the red juice that oozes from broken stems and roots. In older days, it was taken, on a lump of sugar owing to its bitter taste, to cure coughs and colds. The dried roots contain an alkaloid that has medicinal value as a stimulant.
19- We learn from the passage that the bloodroot is
A)    harvested in April and May
B)     an ornamental plant found in gardens all over the United States
C)    in flower for only a short time
D)    one of the hardiest of wild flowers
E)     not particularly attractive but useful
20- It is stated in the passage that....... .
A)    the leaves are the most useful part of the bloodroot
B)     the bloodroot is a beautiful but useless plant
C)    this plant has a life expectancy of between eight and twelve months
D)    a useful red dye conies from this plant
E)     the plant gets its name because its juice resembles blood in appearance
21- From the information given in the passage, we learn that
A)    the juice of the bloodroot is very bitter
B)     dried roots of the plant taste better than its juice
C)    the bloodroot is commonly used as a cure for colds and coughs
D)    the bloodroot only grows in the United States
E)     the roots of the plant is among üıe best alkaloids used in medicine
Multiple personality is an extremely rare mental disorder in which two or more independent and distinct personalities develop in the same individual. Each personality may alternately inhabit the person's conscious awareness to the exclusion of the other personalities. Personalities usually vary remarkably from one another in outlook, temperament, handwriting and body gestures. Often each personality gives itself a different name. Only a few hundred true cases have been reported world-wide. The condition usually develops as a way of coping with painful and disturbing experiences faced early in life such as child abuse. Treatment is aimed at integrating personalities back into a single, unified personality by bringing trauma to conscious awareness and defusing it.
22- The passage gives us the information that multiple personality
A)    is more common than has usually been assumed
B)     involves two or more individuals related to each other
C)    has so far been rarely treated successfully
D)    is a mental illness which is encountered only infrequently
E)     has different names in different parts of the world
23- The author informs us that the most common cause of multiple personality
A)    remains a mystery
B)     is unhappy experiences in childhood
C)    is a desire to use different names
D)    is the ability to have different handwriting and body gestures
E)     may be the individual's fondness of acting as a child
24- It is clear from the description of multiple personality that
A)    those who suffer from multiple personality are in need of legal advice
B)     the patients' different personalities are often indistinguishable from one another
C)    not a single case of the disorder has been reported in the last a hundred years
D)    doctors disagree over how multiple personality should be treated
E)     in some cases a single person may have several distinct personalities
For centuries the vibrant colours, unusual perspectives and strangely contorted figures of El Greco's paintings were widely misunderstood. While some critics attributed these characteristics to a defect in the artist's eyesight, others saw them as an expression of El Greco's unique artistic vision. Not much is known of El Greco's early life, his family or his artistic training. By his own testimony, Domenikos Theotokopoulos was born about 1540 on the island of Crete. In 1570, the first documented date in his life, he arrived in Rome already an accomplished artist. According to Roman contemporaries, he had come from Venice. In Italy he was nicknamed "El Greco" or "the Greek", the name by which he is still known.
25- We learn from the passage that El Greco
A)    was the greatest painter of the 16th century
B)     was not actually a Greek
C)    received his artistic training in Rome
D)    was not the artist's real name
E)     spent most of his life in Venice
26- It is stated in the passage that
A)    the paintings of El Greco are notable for their realism
B)     El Greco's early life shaped his artistic outlook
C)    El Greco's paintings were incomprehensible to many people for a long time
D)    Domenikos Theotokopoulos spent his first 30 years on Crete
E)     El Greco had bad eyesight
27- From the figures given in the passage, we can conclude that El Greco
A)    was about 30 years old when he came to Rome
B)     knew very little about his early life
C)    attained fame through his contemporaries in Rome
D)    was not a particularly productive artist
E)    did not actually receive an artistic training
Sigmund Freud divided the structure of human personality into three components: id, ego and superego. The id is the instinctual part of the personality and contains all the basic drives and emotions that come from the animal nature in humans. At the other extreme is the superego. It encompasses cultural values, ideals and rules of conduct acquired from parents. The id is always in conflict with the superego. An example of how the superego controls the id is when a person may wish to overeat but does not do so because it is a socially unacceptable thing to do. To mediate between the id and the superego, people gradually build a third structure called the ego. The role of the ego is to see that the drives of the id are reasonably fulfilled without disturbing the superego.
28- We understand from the passage that ............ .
A)    there is constant discord between the id and the superego
B)     Sigmund Freud had a strong ego
C)    egotistical people are unpleasant to be with
D)    Sigmund Freud was the father of psychoanalysis
E)     the ego and the id are in conflict all the time
29- It can be inferred from the passage that
A)    mentally ill people often overeat
B)     the superego suppresses the wishes of the id
C)    childhood experiences are controlled by the ego
D)    people are born without an id
E)     many of Freud's theories have been proved wrong
30- The main purpose of the passage is
A)    to make Freud's most important theories invalid
B)     to give biographical details about Sigmund Freud
C)    to tell the reader why the superego is superior to the ego
D)    to explain in simple terms Freud's view of human personality
E)     to analyse the connection between the superego and cultural values
In his long career as a sculptor, Jacob Epstein drew storms of criticism. Each new carving in stone or marble was greeted with cries of "ugly" or "deformed". Gradually, many people would learn to appreciate the rugged strength of the new work, but the same argument began again when Epstein showed his next statue. Epstein also made many portrait busts of well-known people. These were modelled in clay, then cast in bronze. The busts have been accepted with less argument because Epstein worked to achieve realistic likenesses. Among his famous subjects were George Bernard Shaw, Albert Einstein and Winston Churchill. He also did many charming busts of children.
31- The passage tells us that ........
A)    all of Epstein's works were too ugly to be looked at without disgust
B)     Epstein's paintings were more readily appreciated than his sculptures
C)    each new sculpture Epstein produced was uglier than the previous one
D)    people developed a liking for a sculpture of Epstein's only after he produced another
E)     Epstein's sculptures were seldom, if ever, appreciated when they were first shown
32- When making his portrait busts, Epstein aimed
A)    to create a new debate in society
B)     to distort some characteristics of the subject matter
C)    to make them look like the actual persons
D)    to avoid receiving any criticism about them
E)     to choose only famous people as his subject matter
33- Having learnt from the passage that Epstein was capable of producing realistic busts, we can conclude that ........
A)    the distortion in his other sculptures was deliberate
B)     he attempted to apply Albert Einstein's theories to art
C)    in his later years, Epstein stopped being controversial
D)    he was not able to sculpt anything other than human beings
E)     the materials he used for busts, like bronze and clay, were also important
Since World War II, great strides have been made in the convenience of home washing. Earlier it was a laborious task at best, usually consuming an entire day of a housewife's week. The automatic washer and drier revolutionised the chore of home laundering. Heating water to fill the washer, using the washer and ringer and hanging linen and clothing to dry have become obsolete with the home laundering equipment now available. By merely loading clothes in a washing machine, adding detergent and allowing it to wash and rinse the clothes automatically, a person is freed to do other things while the wash is being done. Instead of hanging the clothes to dry, a person can now remove them from the washer and quickly dry them in a home dryer.
34- According to the passage,
A)    it was World War II that led to the development of the washing machine
B)     doing laundry used to be difficult and time-consuming
C)    washing clothes was once the best task of the housewife's week
D)    home laundering equipment has now become obsolete
E)     there are self-loading washing machines
35- From the information given in the passage, it is clear that
A)    the automatic drier is even more important than the automatic washer
B)     today technology spares one even from the task of hanging the clothes to dry
C)    the washing machine was developed well after World War II
D)    women have had little housework to do since the development of the washing machine
E)     modern trend is towards developing a washing machine with the capability of loading itself
36- A logical conclusion that we can draw after reading the passage is that
A)    clothes are cleaner now than they were in the past
B)     women need to work outside the home in order to be able to afford a washing machine
C)    housewives have more free time now than they did in the past
D)    the automatic washer would be virtually useless without the automatic drier
E)     hot water is always necessary for washing clothes
Some computer users, called hackers, try to sabotage other people's computers, and thus create software that can manipulate or destroy another computer's programs or data. One such program, called a logic bomb, consists of a set of instructions entered into a computer's software. When activated, it takes control of the computer's programs. A virus attaches itself to a program, often in the computer's operating system, and then copies itself onto other programs with which it comes into contact. Viruses can spread from one computer to another by way of exchanged disks or programs sent through telephone lines.
37- According to the passage, a logic bomb is
A)    an explosive that destroys the computer itself
B)     a defensive weapon used against hackers
C)    a program used for detecting computer viruses
D)    the instructions that come with new software
E)     a destructive kind of software
38- The passage informs us that there are certain people
A)    who spend all of their time combating computer viruses
B)     who attempt to control or destroy other people's computer data
C)    to whom you should not send e-mails
D)    about whose secret activities little is known
E)     with whom you should not play computer games
39- The author suggests that
A)    it can be dangerous to exchange disks
B)     no one in the world of computers can be trusted
C)    there should be special computer virus police
D)    a logic bomb would be a useful weapon in a high-tech war
E)     once your data have been infected, there is no way you can save them
Early in the 19th century, most English painters believed that "a good picture, like a good violin, should be brown." John Constable, however, believed that nature should be shown in its own colours. He invented a technique to make this possible. Instead of using flat colours, he painted with thick smears and flecks of many shades. He is said to have used "a thousand greens" to create the natural beauty of his trees and meadows. To suggest the highlights of sunshine, he used a special technique known as "Constable's snow". Although England was slow to appreciate Constable, France acclaimed his innovations, and Constable's technique helped lead the way to the French Impressionist movement.
40- It is obvious from the passage that
A)    English painting was not attractive before the time of Constable
B)     there are important similarities between violins and paintings
C)    Constable's influence helped to change the course of painting
D)    the limited variety of paints available caused paintings before Constable's time to lack colour
E)     Constable's techniques led to the later invention of colour photography
41- The author tells us that Constable was especially famous for
A)    his realistic winter snow scenes
B)     the shades of brown he used to paint violins
C)    the success he achieved in his native country
D)    the technique he invented to paint realistic nature scenes
E)     inventing new ways to use flat colours
42- We understand from the passage that
A)    green was the colour Constable used best
B)     constable was the first of the French Impressionists
C)    Constable had a particular technique for showing sunshine in snow
D)    Constable's paintings were unrealistic because of the thick smears and flecks he used
E)     the French were more receptive to Constable's innovations than were the British
When he was 21 years old, Thomas Edison took out his first patent. It was for an electric vote counter to be used in the United States Congress. The machine worked perfectly, but the congressmen would not buy it. They did not want vote counting to be done quickly, and the old roll-call system was sometimes used for purposes of delay. This experience taught the young inventor a lesson. He decided to follow a simple rule: "First be sure a thing is wanted or needed, then go ahead." When he died at 84, Edison had patented 1,093 inventions, which included the motion picture projector, electric light bulb, and hundreds of others. Many were among the most useful and helpful inventions ever developed.
43- According to the passage, Thomas Edison's first invention
A)    was a failure because it did not work properly
B)     brought him the wealth to continue with his experiments
C)    was unsuccessful because there was no demand for it
D)    revolutionised the vote-counting system in the United States Congress
E)     made him famous because it speeded up Congressional voting
44- Asis stated in the passage, Thomas Edison
A)    learnt an important lesson from the failure of his first invention
B)     understood the voting system in the US Congress well enough to invent a successful vote counter
C)    was more proud of his electric vote counter than he was of his electric light bulb
D)    became bitter and disillusioned by the failure of his first invention
E)     had made sure that people wanted his electric vote counter
45- The rule Edison decided to follow after his first invention failed would be best described with the saying "......... ."
A)    Honesty is the best policy
B)     Necessity is the mother of invention
C)    Experience is the name we give to our mistakes
D)    Patience makes the world go round
E)     Time is money
The readers of his time found the startling inventions the French author Jules Verne described in his novels highly fantastic. However, today he is regarded as a prophet. His dreams of undersea and air travel have come true, and Verne's story, "Around the World in Eighty Days" now seems a record of a leisurely trip. Verne began to write poetry and plays at an early age, but he had little success until he published "Five Weeks in a Balloon". This fantastic tale delighted readers both young and old. Its success led Verne to continue writing exciting stories of adventure. He studied geography and science to get ideas for his tales. Verne's works include many short stories and more than fifty novels.
46- The writer of the passage explains
A)    the reasons for Jules Verne's initial failure as a writer
B)     how Jules Verne went on a leisurely trip around the world
C)    that Jules Verne described his own time in accurate detail
D)    that Jules Verne was remarkably accurate in his predictions for the future
E)     why Jules Verne is best remembered as a poet and playwright
47- It can be inferred from the passage that
A)    Jules Verne's story called "Around the World in Eighty Days" was based on his own experiences
B)     no one had travelled around the world before Jules Verne's famous book
C)    Jules Verne was also involved with the invention of the submarine
D)    there were no airplanes and submarines at the time Jules Verne was writing
E)     Jules Verne once spent five weeks in a balloon
48- The author underlines the fact that
A)    although Jules Verne wrote few books, they were highly successful
B)     Verne's stories were a combination of his imagination and solid research
C)    without Jules Verne, the airplane would not have been invented
D)    Jules Verne's fans were mostly children and young men
E)     after a career as a successful prophet, Jules Verne began to write late in life
The most severe outbreak of influenza ever took place immediately following World War I. It seems to have started among the multi-national armed forces in northern France late in the war. Sanitary conditions there were deplorable. The disease appeared late in 1918, spread around the world, and lasted into the next year. The world-wide death toll was estimated at 20 million, a greater number than died in the war. Fifty times that many people had the disease. The highest death rate was in India, where about 12.5 million people died. This proved to be the most severe epidemic of modern times and one of history's worst, with mortality rates comparable to the outbreaks of Bubonic Plague in the Middle Ages.
49- The passage tells us that when the influenza epidemic started,
A)    the death toll because of the war was already 12.5 million
B)     most of those who were affected were soldiers weakened by the war
C)    World War I came to an abrupt ending
D)    a multi-national armed force was gathered to help the sick
E)     the First World War had not yet quite finished
50- We understand from the passage that the influenza epidemic mentioned in the passage ....... .
A)    is a modern form of Bubonic Plague
B)     created unsanitary conditions among the soldiers in northern France
C)    affected every nation in the world
D)    claimed the lives of about 2% of the people who contracted the disease
E)     had been once experienced so severely in the Middle Ages
51- One can conclude from the passage that during the outbreaks of Bubonic Plague in the Middle Ages, ....... .
A)    the conditions in which the soldiers lived were almost the same
B)     India was the country with the greatest death toll
C)    about twenty million people lost their lives
D)    people suffered the same symptoms as those of influenza
E)     there was nowhere in the world which remained unaffected
The first play performed in Australia, -with a convict cast in 1789, was George Farquhar's "The Recruiting Officer". Six years after this performance, a convict named Robert Sidaway opened Australia's first licensed theatre. Like many others, he had been transported to the colony from England for stealing, but in 1794 he was granted an absolute pardon. In 1796 he built a playhouse in Bell Row, now Bligh Street, in the heart of Sydney's business district. After about two years, he was ordered to close it because Sydney's underclass routinely robbed the homes of the audience while they were in the theatre. A second attempt at operating a theatre was tried in 1800, but it soon met the same fate as the first.
52- The purpose of the passage is to
A)    describe the early history of the theatre in Australia
B)     show how actors were recruited in 18th-century Australia
C)    tell the story of Robert Sidaway's conviction and pardon
D)    give a brief account of talented Australian convicts
E)     give the reader an idea of what Sydney was like in the late 18th century
53- According to the passage, Robert Sidaway's theatre
A)    had to close because thieves broke into homes as the owners were at the theatre
B)     was built after George Farquhar's theatre became unpopular and had to close down
C)    was one of the most successful the country has ever had
D)    put on a play called "The Recruiting Officer"
E)     was attended largely by Sydney's underclass
54- We can infer from the passage that
A)    Australia is a nation of theatre lovers
B)     "The Recruiting Officer" is one of the most popular Australian plays
C)    Robert Sidaway was pardoned because he was such a good actor
D)    Robert Sidaway had once been in the transportation business
E)     at one time convicted criminals from Britain were sent to Australia
Camels and their relatives, such as the llama and the vicuna, were domesticated about 4000 to 6000 years ago. Ever since, they have provided meat, milk, wool and hides to various desert- and mountain-dwelling peoples of the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. Ancestors of the camel family lived in North America during a period that began about 54,000,000 years ago. Their remains show a steady development from tiny creatures no larger than rabbits to the large beasts of today. At some time before about 2.5 million years ago, one group migrated to Asia across a land bridge that once existed over the Bering Strait. These animals eventually developed into the camels proper. Another group migrated to South America. These developed into the llamas and vicuna of today. Later, camels died out in North America.
55- We learn from the passage that
A)    camels were first discovered around 6000 years ago
B)     the camel is distantly related to the rabbit
C)    about 4000 years ago it was learnt that the camel and the llama are related
D)    camels have been used by humans for about four to six millennia
E)     the camel is less rare than the vicuna
56- One can infer from the passage that
A)    camels are important to people all over the world
B)     Asia owes its camel population to a land bridge across the Bering Strait which no longer exists
C)    the llama and the vicuna come from the same ancestors as the camel but they are rabbit-sized
D)    the camel is a more useful animal than the vicuna
E)     camels were known to mankind as long as 2.5 million years ago
57- It's stated in the passage that the ancestors of the camel originated in North
....... .         
A)    in an area close to the Bering Strait
B)     but they are not used for milk and meat there
C)    but they are found in greater numbers in South America
D)    yet such creatures are extinct there now
E)     which means that camels have been on the Earth longer than human beings
On February 3rd, 1998, a United States Marine Corps pilot, flying well below minimum altitudes allowed by the Italian government for jet flight, caused an accident that resulted in the deaths of 20 people on a ski slope in the town of Cavalese, Italy. According to investigations conducted by the Italian and United States governments, the pilot, Lt. Col. Stephen Walters, was flying his EA-6B Prowler military jet at altitudes of under 122 metres when it clipped the cable supporting a ski gondola. The gondola fell to the ground, causing the deaths of 19 skiers and the operator of the cable car. Italian government officials blamed the crash on recklessness on the part of the pilot, a claim supported by the United States government. Italian laws prohibit flights at less than 610 metres.
58- According to the information given in the passage
A)    the Italian and US governments disagree on the cause of the accident
B)     the accident was caused by the ski gondola being higher than the law permits
C)    the American pilot was flying nearly 500 metres lower than, he should have been
D)    the pilot of the American jet has been convicted of murder
E)     it is not a crime for an American pilot to break Italian laws
59- As the investigations revealed,
A)    the American pilot's careless behaviour made him responsible for the deaths of 20 people
B)     the US government was not fair in the assessment of the cause of the accident
C)    the 20 people on the ski gondola should not have been in a military area
D)    the accident was the fault of the operator of the cable car
E)     Lt. Col. Stephen Waiters deliberately caused an accident
60- Though it is not directly stated in the passage, it is implied that ....... .
A)    the pilot will never be allowed to fly again
B)     the pilot faces punishment for his part in the crash
C)    the US and Italian governments are unable to cooperate
D)    mechanical failure played a part in the accident
E)     the Italian law on how low aircraft can fly is too strict
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