T H E M O R E ... T H E M O R E
We use the more ... the more to say that things change or improve together.
*** The more you eat, the fatter you get.
*** The more you study, the more successful you are.
SO ... THAT / SUCH ... THAT
so.....adj. that *** The weather was so hot that the ice melted.
so.....adv. that *** He spoke so quickly that I couldn’t understand him .
such adj. + noun that *** It was such hot weather that the ice melted.
such a/an adj. + noun that *** It is such a hard lesson that I cannot understand anything.
S O T H A T
We use so that to express purpose, but after so that we use a sentence.
*** He spoke louder so that I could hear better.
*** She is running so that she won't miss the bus .
O N T H E O T H E R H A N D / W H E T H E R O R N O T
ON THE OTHER HAND
We use on the other hand when we compare two things or when we make a contrast.
*** I like swimming, on the other hand my boyfriend likes skiing.
*** Most of our relatives live in a countryside, on the other hand we live in Izmir.
WHETHER OR NOT
We use whether or not to introduce alternative conditionals. We mean that neither this condition nor that one matters. The result will not change.
*** We will go on a picnic whether it's rainy or not
*** You have to obey the rules here whether or not you like.
*** I'll attend university whether my parents agree or not.
I N O R D E R T O
We use in order to to reveal what our purpose is. We use V, after in order to.
*** She looked up the dictionary in order to find the meaning of a -word.
*** In order to be a doctor, you must attend a medical faculty.
I N C A S E - I N C A S E O F
After in case we use the Simple Present Tense.
*** Take your raincoat in case it rains. (It may rain so take your raincoat.)
*** I'll take some food with me in case I'm hungry. (I may get hungry, so I'll take some food.)
IN CASE OF
After in case of, we use a noun, gerund or adjective + noun.
*** I’ll use my umbrella in case of rain. (If there is a rain.)
*** Use your gun in case of a robbery. (If there is a robbery, use your gun.)
I N A D D I T I O N T O - N O T O N L Y ... B U T A L S O
IN ADDITION TO
We can use in addition to instead of and.
In addition to + Ving / noun / adjective +noun
*** In addition to being rich, he is handsome, (he is rich and handsome)
NOT ONLY... BUT ALSO
We use not only ... but also to show two actions take place at the same time.
*** Jane not only washed the car, but also cleaned the room
BY THE TIME - BY
We use by / by the time to say that a situation will continue up to a certain moment. After by we use a point in time.
*** By Tuesday, we will have finished our homework.
*** By the 16th century, Turks had settled in Anatolia.
After by the time, we use a sentence.
*** By the time we got there, he had already left.
*** By the time the teacher comes, we will have taken our seats.
B E C A U S E - B E C A U S E O F - S I N C E
We use because, since and because of to give a reason why something has happened. But we use sentence after since & because. After because of, a gerund or a noun is used.
Because + Sentence
*** He had to leave the job because he had some problems with his boss.
Since + Sentence
*** He had to leave the job since he had some problems with his boss.
Because of + Ving / noun / noun +adj
*** Because of some problems with his boss, he had to leave the job.
A S S O O N A S / U N T I L
As soon as is used when we want to describe one event starting immediately after another.
As soon as + simple past + simple past
*** As soon as the police came, the murderer started to run away.
As soon as + simple present +simple present / will future
*** As soon as she enters the house, she turns on the lights.
Until is used to refer to the end of a period of time.
*** I’ll wait for you until two o'clock.
*** We travelled by car until the petrol ran out.
A S I F / A S T H O U G H / A S L O N G A S / A S W E L L A S
As ıf / as though
We use “as if / as though” to state an opinion about something or someone.
We often use these with verbs such as: be, look, seem, feel, etc.
*** I feel as if/as though I'm catching cold.
*** He looks as though he is unhappy.
AS LONG AS / AS WELL AS
As long as means only if
*** As long as you are careful, you can drive my car.
*** As long as you keep an eye on my baby, I’ll pay you .
We use as well as to link ideas within the same sentence.
*** He can play basketball as wel1 as soccer .
*** As well as being a good swimmer he is a good diver.
A S A R E S U L T - A S A R E S U L T O F
We use “as a result of / as a result” to introduce the result of something.
As a result + sentence
*** She had an accident and as a result, they took her to the hospital.
As a result of + gerund / noun / adjective + noun
*** As a result of an accident, they i^ok ner to the hospital.
A L T H O U G H - D E S P I T E - I N S P I T E O F
1. We can make contrasts by connecting two sentences with although.
2. Despite & in spite of have the same meaning but the usage is different.
Although + sentence + sentence *** Although it was raining heavily, we kept on playing football.
Despite + noun *** Despite heavy rain, we kept on playing football.
In spite of + gerund + sentence *** In spite of raining heavily, the rain was giving pleasure to me .
In spite of + adj. + noun *** In spite of heavy rain, we kept on playing football.